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Fumarate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106735/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-analyses-of-the-effects-of-dietary-platycodon-grandiflorum-on-liver-and-serum-of-obese-mice-under-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Hye Min Park, Kab-Tae Park, Edmond Changkyun Park, Seung Ii Kim, Myung Sook Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Choong Hwan Lee
We aimed to identify metabolites involved in the anti-obesity effects of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice using mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic techniques. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND)-fed mice, HFD-fed mice, HFD with 1% PG extract-fed mice (HPGL), and HFD with 5% PG extract-fed mice (HPGH). After 8 weeks, the HFD group gained more weight than the ND group, while dietary 5% PG extract attenuated this change. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showed a clear distinction between experimental groups in serum and liver markers...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105258/efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-australian-real-world-experience
#2
Grace C Lovett, Tin Nguyen, David M Iser, Jacinta A Holmes, Robert Chen, Barbara Demediuk, Gideon Shaw, Sally J Bell, Paul V Desmond, Alexander J Thompson
AIM: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes of tenofovir therapy in patients in a real world Australian tertiary care setting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes among treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients receiving a minimum 3 mo tenofovir therapy through St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. We included patients receiving tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)] monotherapy, as well as patients treated with TDF in combination with a second antiviral agent...
January 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104832/response-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-is-not-an-inhibitor-of-human-organic-cation-transporter-1
#3
Gerard Minuesa, Christopher Albert, Marçal Pastor-Anglada, Javier Martinez-Picado, Hermann Koepsell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104831/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-is-not-an-inhibitor-of-human-organic-cation-transporter-1
#4
Hong Shen, Wenying Li, W Griffith Humphreys, Yurong Lai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104508/exposure-to-high-levels-of-fumarate-and-succinate-leads-to-apoptotic-cytotoxicity-and-altered-global-dna-methylation-profiles-in-vitro
#5
Johannes F Wentzel, Angélique Lewies, Abel J Bronkhorst, Etresia van Dyk, Lissinda H du Plessis, Piet J Pretorius
In the Krebs cycle, succinate is oxidized to fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), followed by the conversion of fumarate to malate by fumarate hydratase (FH). In cells with defective SDH and FH, the Krebs cycle is congested, respiration impaired and fumarate and succinate accumulates. Several studies have indicated that the accumulation of these substrates are associated with cytotoxicity and oncogenesis. High levels of succinate and fumarate induce hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A) hydroxylases, leading to the activation of oncogenic HIF pathways...
January 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104252/novel-zebrafish-eae-model-a-quick-in-vivo-screen-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Pushkar Kulkarni, Swapna Yellanki, Raghavender Medishetti, Dharmarajan Sriram, Uday Saxena, Perumal Yogeeswari
INTRODUCTION: Pre-clinical drug discovery for multiple sclerosis (MS) is a labor intensive activity to perform in rodent models. This is owing to the long duration of disease induction and observation of treatment effects in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We propose a novel adult zebrafish based model which offers a quick and simple protocol that can used to screen candidates as a step between in vitro experiments and rodent studies. The experiments conducted for this manuscript were to standardize a suitable model of EAE in adult zebrafish and validate it using known modulators...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100914/tet-mediated-hydroxymethylcytosine-at-the-ppar%C3%AE-locus-is-required-for-initiation-of-adipogenic-differentiation
#7
Y Yoo, J H Park, C Weigel, D B Liesenfeld, D Weichenhan, C Plass, D-G Seo, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue is one of the main organs regulating energy homeostasis, via energy storage as well as endocrine function. The adipocyte cell number is largely determined by adipogenesis. While the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis has been extensively studied, its role in dynamic DNA methylation plasticity remains unclear. Recently, it has been shown that Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) are catalytically capable of oxidizing DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) towards a complete removal of the methylated cytosine...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099191/long-acting-combination-anti-hiv-drug-suspension-enhances-and-sustains-higher-drug-levels-in-lymph-node-cells-than-in-blood-cells-and-plasma
#8
John C Kraft, Lisa A McConnachie, Josefin Koehn, Loren Kinman, Carol Collins, Danny D Shen, Ann C Collier, Rodney J Y Ho
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a combination of anti-HIV drugs-tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV), and ritonavir (RTV)-in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. DESIGN: Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analyzed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098457/surface-forces-and-rheology-of-titanium-dioxide-in-the-presence-of-dicarboxylic-acids-from-molecular-interactions-to-yield-stress
#9
E-Jen Teh, Yee-Kwong Leong, Vincent S J Craig
The surface forces and yield stress of titanium dioxide were measured in the presence of dicarboxylic acids in order to understand the molecular basis for the observed rheological response. The yield stress was measured using the static vane technique whilst the surface forces were characterised using an Atomic Force Microscope. The trans and cis isomers of butenedioic acid (fumaric and maleic acids respectively) were chosen as the relative orientation of the carboxylic groups differs substantially. This enables us to test the hypothesis that an increase in adhesion leads to an increase in yield stress as a consequence of the dicarboxylic acids participating in highly directed bridging...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095628/sensitization-from-ketotifen-fumarate-in-eye-drops-presenting-as-chronic-conjunctivitis
#10
Kyra Smets, Justine Werbrouck, An Goossens, Liesbeth Gilissen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094329/fumarase-activity-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-biomarker-for-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Per Mose Nielsen, Abubakr Eldirdiri, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Hans Stødkilde Jørgensen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Christoffer Laustsen
Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and at present, there is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can diagnose AKI and measure early progression because the commonly used methods cannot evaluate single-kidney IRI. Hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093681/quantifying-the-benefits-of-dimethyl-fumarate-over-%C3%AE-interferon-and-glatiramer-acetate-therapies-on-work-productivity-outcomes-in-ms-patients
#12
Andrew Lee, James Pike, Michael R Edwards, Jennifer Petrillo, John Waller, Eddie Jones
INTRODUCTION: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a novel oral therapy used for the treatment of relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In two 2-year pivotal Phase 3 trials in patients with RRMS, DMF significantly reduced disease activity based on both clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. However, there is currently a lack of comparative data which explore the relationship between work productivity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in RRMS and how these differ among RRMS therapies, including DMF...
January 16, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092423/-1-h-qnmr-quantification-of-annonaceous-acetogenins-in-crude-extracts-of-annona-muricata-l-fruit-pulp
#13
Natacha Bonneau, Timothé Cynober, Jean-Christophe Jullian, Pierre Champy
INTRODUCTION: Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) constitute a group of environmental neurotoxins, possibly implicated in sporadic atypical Parkinsonism/dementia complexes. The recent evidencing of complex mixtures of AAGs in edible fruits and derived food products requires efficient and practical analytical tools for an estimation of human exposure. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple method for the direct quantitation of the majority of AAGs (sub-types 1a and 1b) within crude extracts, using commonly available (1) H-NMR spectrometers, for food control...
January 16, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092212/systemic-medications-used-in-treatment-of-common-dermatological-conditions-safety-profile-with-respect-to-pregnancy-breast-feeding-and-content-in-seminal-fluid
#14
S M Brown, K A Aljefri, R Waas, P J Hampton
: Prescribing for pregnant or lactating patients and male patients wishing to father children can be a difficult area for dermatologists. There is a lack of review articles of commonly used systemic medications in dermatology with respect to their effects on developing embryogenesis and their potential transfer across the placenta, in breast milk and in seminal fluid. This paper aims to provide an up to date summary of evidence to better equip dermatologists to inform patients about the effects of systemic medications commonly used in dermatology to treat conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne, on current and future embryogenesis and fertility...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091393/viral-blips-were-infrequent-in-treatment-naive-adults-treated-with-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-or-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-through-96-weeks
#15
Danielle P Porter, Rima Kulkarni, Will Garner, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of transient episodes of HIV viremia (viral blips) on virologic failure and resistance development is not fully understood. Here we investigated the blip frequency and virologic outcomes of HIV-1-infected subjects experiencing viral blips among treatment-naïve subjects initiating therapy on rilpivirine (RPV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF through 96 weeks of treatment. METHODS: Subjects treated with at least one dose of study drug and with at least one post-baseline HIV-1 RNA value were included in this analysis...
January 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088649/fumarate-reductase-superfamily-a-diverse-group-of-enzymes-whose-evolution-is-correlated-to-the-establishment-of-different-metabolic-pathways
#16
Douglas Jardim-Messeder, Caroline Cabreira-Cagliari, Rafael Rauber, Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet, Rogério Margis, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro
Fumarate and succinate are known to be present in prebiotic systems essential for the origin of life. The fumarate and succinate interconversion reactions have been conserved throughout evolution and are found in all living organisms. The fumarate and succinate interconversion is catalyzed by the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate reductase (FRD). In this work we show that SDH and FRD are part of a group of enzymes that we propose to designate "fumarate reductase superfamily". Our results demonstrate that these enzymes emerged from a common ancestor and were essential in the development of metabolic pathways involved in energy transduction...
January 11, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079150/sustained-kidney-biochemical-derangement-in-treated-experimental-diabetes-a-clue-to-metabolic-memory
#17
Antonio Anax F de Oliveira, Tiago F de Oliveira, Larissa L Bobadilla, Camila C M Garcia, Carolina Maria Berra, Nadja C de Souza-Pinto, Marisa H G Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Roberto Zatz, Ana Paula de M Loureiro
The occurrence of biochemical alterations that last for a long period of time in diabetic individuals even after adequate handling of glycemia is an intriguing phenomenon named metabolic memory. In this study, we show that a kidney pathway is gradually altered during the course of diabetes and remains persistently changed after late glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This pathway comprises an early decline of uric acid clearance and pAMPK expression followed by fumarate accumulation, increased TGF-β expression, reduced PGC-1α expression, and downregulation of methylation and hydroxymethylation of mitochondrial DNA...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076335/infrequent-development-of-drug-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-treatment-naive-subjects-after-96-weeks-of-treatment-with-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-or-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#18
Nicolas Margot, Stephanie Cox, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister, Michael D Miller, Christian Callebaut
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the nucleotide RT inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir (TFV) that loads lymphocytes with TFV-diphosphate more efficiently than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The single-tablet regimen (STR) composed of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF (E/C/F/TAF) has demonstrated non-inferiority to the STR of E/C/F/TDF in clinical studies, with high proportions of subjects achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48, and maintained through week 96...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075062/specific-arabidopsis-thaliana-malic-enzyme-isoforms-can-provide-anaplerotic-pyruvate-carboxylation-function-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Mariana Beatriz Badia, Robert Mans, Alicia V Lis, Marcos Ariel Tronconi, Cintia Lucía Arias, Verónica Graciela Maurino, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Antonius J A van Maris, Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler
NAD(P)-malic enzyme (NAD(P)-ME) catalyzes the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate, CO2 and NAD(P)H and is present as a multigene family in Arabidopsis. The carboxylation reaction catalyzed by purified recombinant A. thaliana NADP-ME proteins is faster than those reported for other animal or plant isoforms. In contrast, no carboxylation activity could be detected in vitro for the NAD-dependent counterparts. In order to further investigate their putative carboxylating role in vivo, Arabidopsis NAD(P)-ME isoforms, as well as the NADP-ME2del2 (with a decreased ability to carboxylate pyruvate) and NADP-ME2R115A (lacking fumarate activation) versions, were functionally expressed in the cytosol of pyruvate carboxylase negative (Pyc(-) ) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074362/the-determination-and-fate-of-disinfection-by-products-from-ozonation-chlorination-of-fulvic-acid
#20
Xin Zhong, Chongwei Cui, Shuili Yu
Ozonation of fulvic acid (FA) can result in diverse intermediate oxidation by-products, significantly affecting disinfection by-product (DBP) formation following chlorination. The objective of this study was to provide insight into ozone reaction intermediates and reveal the possible formation pathway of DBPs from ozonation of FA due to the formation of intermediate oxidation by-products. Aldehydes, aromatic acids, short-chain acids, chloroform, and dichloroacetic acid were detected at various ozone dosage additions...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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