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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352900/evaluation-of-nisin-loaded-chitosan-monomethyl-fumaric-acid-nanoparticles-as-a-direct-food-additive
#1
Imran Khan, Charles Nkufi Tango, Sumaira Miskeen, Deog-Hwan Oh
Nisin-loaded chitosan-monomethyl fumaric acid (CM-N) nanoparticles were evaluated as a novel, direct food additive. Chitosan (CS) was modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). CS-loaded nisin (CS-N) and CM-N nanoparticles were produced through ionic interactions between the positive amino group of CS and CS-MFA and negative tripolyphosphate ions. The resultant materials were characterized by TNBS assay, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and zeta potential analysis...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348404/crystal-structure-of-an-assembly-intermediate-of-respiratory-complex-ii
#2
Pankaj Sharma, Elena Maklashina, Gary Cecchini, T M Iverson
Flavin is covalently attached to the protein scaffold in ~10% of flavoenzymes. However, the mechanism of covalent modification is unclear, due in part to challenges in stabilizing assembly intermediates. Here, we capture the structure of an assembly intermediate of the Escherichia coli Complex II (quinol:fumarate reductase (FrdABCD)). The structure contains the E. coli FrdA subunit bound to covalent FAD and crosslinked with its assembly factor, SdhE. The structure contains two global conformational changes as compared to prior structures of the mature protein: the rotation of a domain within the FrdA subunit, and the destabilization of two large loops of the FrdA subunit, which may create a tunnel to the active site...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343778/fumarate-based-metal-organic-frameworks-as-a-new-platform-for-highly-selective-removal-of-fluoride-from-brick-tea
#3
Fei Ke, Chuanyi Peng, Tian Zhang, Mengran Zhang, Chengyan Zhou, Huimei Cai, Junfa Zhu, Xiaochun Wan
Adsorption and removal of fluoride from brick tea is very important but challenging. In this work, two fumarate-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized for the selective removal of fluoride from brick tea infusion. MOFs were examined for adsorption time, effect of dose, and uptake capacity at different initial concentrations and temperatures. Remarkably, over 80% fluoride removal was achieved by MOF-801 within 5 min at room temperature, while no significant adsorption occurred for the catechins and caffeine in the brick tea infusion...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339836/the-role-of-metabolic-enzymes-in-mesenchymal-tumors-and-tumor-syndromes-genetics-pathology-and-molecular-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Jason L Hornick, Judith V M G Bovée
The discovery of mutations in genes encoding the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and fumarate hydratase (FH) has expanded our understanding not only of altered metabolic pathways but also epigenetic dysregulation in cancer. IDH1/2 mutations occur in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas in patients with the non-hereditary enchondromatosis syndromes Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome and in sporadic tumors. IDH1/2 mutations result in excess production of the oncometabolite (D)-2-hydroxyglutarate...
January 16, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338458/tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-treatment-of-hbv-what-are-the-unanswered-questions
#5
Mauro Viganò, Alessandro Loglio, Glenda Grossi, Pietro Lampertico
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is one of the recommended drugs for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, reduced kidney function and loss of bone mineral density have been reported in some CHB patients treated with TDF. Consequent to these safety issues, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) [Vemlidy®], a phosphonate prodrug of TFV, was developed for the treatment of CHB patients. Areas covered: The favourable pharmacological profile of TAF allows a marked reduction in dosage (25 mg/day) thus reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir and improving the bone and renal safety, keeping however the same virological efficacy, compared to TDF 300 mg/day...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337444/-fumarates-far-more-than-a-dietary-supplement
#6
Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Nicolo Costantino Brembilla
Fumaric acid has an important role in the citric acid cycle. Its esters were first used by a German chemist to treat his own psoriasis, hypothesizing that the disease may be related to disturbances in this very cycle. Meanwhile, the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory efficacy are much better understood. A monosubstance derived from the mix of esters used originally is now being authorized for treating multiple sclerosis, and in 2017 dimethylfumaric acid ester became a globally available option to treat psoriasis...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337165/establishment-of-intracellular-tenofovir-diphosphate-as-the-key-determinant-for-in-vitro-in-vivo-translation-of-antiviral-efficacy
#7
Bennett Ma, Aline Barth, Carolyn M McHale, Ming-Tain Lai
In vitro evaluation of tenofovir disproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) revealed comparable antiviral effects with respect to the tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) level in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), despite the EC50 values determined based on prodrug concentrations were nearly two orders of magnitude apart. In vivo EC50 obtained from meta-analyses were in good agreement with the in vitro results, indicating intracellular TFV-DP can be employed for in vitro-in vivo translation of viral inhibition for tenofovir prodrugs...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336841/economic-impact-of-the-new-oral-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis
#8
L Álvarez Ayuso, B Rodríguez Marrodán, M R Blasco Quílez, J A García-Merino, A Sánchez Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease affecting the central nervous system and is characterised by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, and axonal damage. The introduction of dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide has led to an increase in the number of alternative first-line therapies for MS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of the incorporation of new oral therapies at the reference unit (CSUR) at Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda...
January 11, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334883/renal-outcomes-in-patients-initiated-on-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-antiretroviral-therapy-at-a-community-health-centre-in-malawi
#9
Bongani Chikwapulo, Bagrey Ngwira, Jean Baptiste Sagno, Rhys Evans
Tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (TDF ART) is the first-line regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa. However, contemporary data on nephrotoxicity are lacking. We determined the renal outcomes of patients commenced on TDF ART in Malawi. ART-naïve patients initiated on TDF ART at a community health centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 December 2015 were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, Cockcroft-Gault) was recorded at the initiation of therapy and over 18 months thereafter...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334548/plasma-and-intracellular-pharmacokinetics-of-tenofovir-in-patients-switched-from-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-to-tenofovir-alafenamide
#10
Anthony T Podany, Sara H Bares, Joshua Havens, Ravi Dyavar Shetty, Jennifer O'neill, Sarah Lee, Courtney V Fletcher, Susan Swindells, Kimberly K Scarsi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the intra-individual plasma and intracellular peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir (TFV) and its intracellular metabolite, tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in patients switched from a fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/ elvitegravir (EVG)/ cobicistat (COBI) to a FDC containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC/EVG/COBI. DESIGN: A single arm, prospective, non-randomized, cross-over, PK study in patients receiving a TDF-containing regimen (TDF 300 mg/ FTC 200 mg/ EVG 150 mg/ COBI 150 mg) switched to a TAF-containing FDC regimen (TAF 10 mg/ FTC 200 mg/ EVG 150 mg/ COBI 150 mg)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332133/fumarate-hydratase-fh-deficiency-in-uterine-leiomyomas-recognition-by-histological-features-versus-blind-immunoscreening
#11
Lisa Siegler, Ramona Erber, Stefanie Burghaus, Tobias Brodkorb, David Wachter, Nafisa Wilkinson, James Bolton, Helen Stringfellow, Florian Haller, Matthias W Beckmann, Arndt Hartmann, Abbas Agaimy
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Affected individuals develop cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and aggressive RCC. To date, only few publications described the frequency and morphology of FH-deficient uterine leiomyomas. We reviewed 22 cases collected over 8 years from routine and consultation files based on distinctive histological features. In addition, we screened 580 consecutive uterine leiomyomas from 484 patients, 23 extra-uterine and 8 uterine leiomyosarcomas, and 6 leiomyomas with bizarre nuclei for FH loss using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMAs)...
January 13, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329305/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-switching-from-lamivudine-plus-adefovir-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-in-lamivudine-resistant-stable-hepatitis-b-patients
#12
Heon Ju Lee, Sang Jin Kim, Young Oh Kweon, Soo Young Park, Jeong Heo, Hyun Young Woo, Jae Seok Hwang, Woo Jin Chung, Chang Hyeong Lee, Byung Seok Kim, Jeong Ill Suh, Won Young Tak, Byoung Kuk Jang
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy from lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy (stable switching) in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is not clear. METHODS: In this non-inferiority trial, patients with LAM-resistant CHB and undetectable serum HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) for >6 months after initiating LAM+ADV combination therapy were randomized (1:2) either to continue the combination therapy (LAM+ADV group, n = 58) or switched to TDF monotherapy (TDF group, n = 111)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327182/changes-in-iron-absorption-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#13
Wendy Schijns, Marjolein A P Ligthart, Frits J Berends, Ignace M C Janssen, Cees J H M van Laarhoven, Edo O Aarts, Hans de Boer
INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency is one of the most common deficiencies that may occur after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Little is known about the optimal treatment of post-RYGB iron deficiency. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in iron absorption characteristics after RYGB for two oral iron formulations, one presented in tablet form and one as in the form of a solution. METHOD: Iron absorption in 24 obese women was studied before and 1 month after RYGB...
January 11, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326286/correction-dimethyl-fumarate-for-psoriasis
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317954/a-multiple-treatment-comparison-of-eleven-disease-modifying-drugs-used-for-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Vida Hamidi, Elisabeth Couto, Tove Ringerike, Marianne Klemp
Background: Several disease-modifying drug therapies are available for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To ensure the most appropriate MS management, we assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the disease-modifying medicines used for MS. Methods: We conducted a systematic review including 11 disease-modifying drugs used for treatment of adult patients diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. We performed a network meta-analysis using both direct and indirect evidence...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317679/primed-primary-metabolism-in-systemic-leaves-a-functional-systems-analysis
#16
Jens Schwachtje, Axel Fischer, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka
Plants evolved mechanisms to counteract bacterial infection by preparing yet uninfected systemic tissues for an enhanced defense response, so-called systemic acquired resistance or priming responses. Primed leaves express a wide range of genes that enhance the defense response once an infection takes place. While hormone-driven defense signalling and defensive metabolites have been well studied, less focus has been set on the reorganization of primary metabolism in systemic leaves. Since primary metabolism plays an essential role during defense to provide energy and chemical building blocks, we investigated changes in primary metabolism at RNA and metabolite levels in systemic leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that were locally infected with Pseudomonas syringae...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316069/entecavir-and-tenofovir-reduce-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-more-effectively-than-other-antivirals
#17
Hyeki Cho, Hongkeun Ahn, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Yong Jin Jung, Young Chang, Joon Yeul Nam, Young Youn Cho, Dong Ho Lee, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Jeong Min Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon
Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) have been shown to decrease the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. This study evaluated whether high-potency NAs (entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [TDF]) reduce the risk of tumor recurrence more potently than low-potency NAs after curative treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. This study included 607 consecutive HBV-related HCC patients treated with surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation. The patients were categorized into three groups according to antiviral treatment: group A (no antiviral; n=261), group B (low-potency NA; n=90), and group C (high-potency NA; n=256)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316038/effect-of-dimethyl-fumarate-on-gray-and-white-matter-pathology-in-subjects-with-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Robert Zivadinov, Jesper Hagemeier, Niels Bergsland, Eleonora Tavazzi, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) pathology is still not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effect of DMF on normal appearing WM (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. METHODS: In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month MRI study, 75 RRMS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex- matched healthy individuals (HIs) were enrolled...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315908/sub-minute-kinetics-of-human-red-cell-fumarase-1-h-spin-echo-nmr-spectroscopy-and-13-c-rapid-dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarization
#19
Dmitry Shishmarev, Alan J Wright, Tiago B Rodrigues, Giuseppe Pileio, Gabriele Stevanato, Kevin M Brindle, Philip W Kuchel
Fumarate is an important probe of metabolism in hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. It is used to detect the release of fumarase in cancer tissues, which is associated with necrosis and drug treatment. Nevertheless, there are limited reports describing the detailed kinetic studies of this enzyme in various cells and tissues. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the sub-minute kinetics of human red blood cell fumarase using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and to provide a quantitative description of the enzyme that is relevant to the use of fumarate as a probe of cell rupture...
January 8, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315239/mangiferin-accelerates-glycolysis-and-enhances-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#20
Zhongbo Liu, Pasha Apontes, Ekaterina V Fomenko, Nan Chi, Victor L Schuster, Irwin J Kurland, Jeffrey E Pessin, Yuling Chi
One of the main causes of hyperglycemia is inefficient or impaired glucose utilization by skeletal muscle, which can be exacerbated by chronic high caloric intake. Previously, we identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF) that improved glucose utilization in high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistant mice. To further identify the molecular mechanisms of MGF action on glucose metabolism, we conducted targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics studies of glycolyic and mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways in skeletal muscle...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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