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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731947/early-stage-cancer-in-older-adults-prostate-avoiding-overtreatment-and-undertreatment
#1
Vikram Narayan, Song Jiang, Christopher A Warlick
The diagnosis of prostate cancer in elderly men is likely to increase over the next several decades, owing to changing demographics and a rising population of men older than 65 years. Given the heterogeneity and well-documented challenges in screening, diagnosing, and managing indolent versus aggressive prostate cancer, the geriatric patient population is particularly vulnerable to prostate cancer treatment nuances. Clinicians must become familiar with geriatric assessment tools to better answer life-expectancy questions prior to counseling patients on treatment options...
July 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731084/selective-synthesis-of-pyrrolo-1-2-a-azepines-or-4-6-dicarbonyl-indoles-via-tandem-reactions-of-alkynones-with-pyrrole-derivatives
#2
Yulei Zhao, Yang Yuan, Murong Xu, Zhong Zheng, Runhua Zhang, Yanzhong Li
Novel methodologies for the selective synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepines or 4,6-dicarbonyl indoles starting from pyrrole derivatives and alkynones are described. When reactions were carried out with 1,2,4-trisubstituted N-propargyl pyrroles using a ZnI2 catalyst, pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepines were obtained. Whereas 4,6-dicarbonyl indoles were produced selectively with 1,2-disubstituted pyrroles in the presence of silica gel. The reaction outcomes depend on the substituent pattern of the substrates and the nature of the catalysts chosen...
July 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730809/ruthenium-catalyzed-1-6-aromatic-enamide-silylalkyne-cycloisomerization-approach-to-2-3-disubstituted-indoles
#3
Kohei Takamoto, Shohei Ohno, Norimichi Hyogo, Hiromichi Fujioka, Mitsuhiro Arisawa
Cycloisomerization is an atom economic procedure that converts dienes and enynes into cyclic molecules. To date, cycloisomerization between enamides and silylalkynes has not been explored. We found that N-acyl-N-vinyl-2-silylalkynylaniline derivatives undergo a cycloisomerization in the presence of a well-defined ruthenium hydride to give a 2,3-disubstitued indole. The vinyl and silylmethyl substituents on the 2- and 3-positions of the indole can be easily converted to other functional groups.
July 21, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728042/pharmacological-relationships-and-ligand-discovery-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-revealed-by-simultaneous-ligand-and-receptor-clustering
#4
Cheng Zhang, Yi-Ming Shao, Xiaohua Ma, Siew Lee Cheong, Chu Qin, Lin Tao, Peng Zhang, Shangying Chen, Xian Zeng, Hongxia Liu, Giorgia Pastorin, Yuyang Jiang, Yu Zong Chen
Conventional ligand and receptor similarity methods have been extensively used for exposing pharmacological relationships and drug lead discovery. They may in some cases neglect minor relationships useful for target hopping particularly against the remote family members. To complement the conventional methods for capturing these minor relationships, we developed a new method that uses a SLARC (Simultaneous Ligand And Receptor Clustering) 2D map to simultaneously characterize the ligand structural and receptor binding-site sequence relationships of a receptor family...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727989/oral-papillomatosis-in-immunocompromised-patients-a-case-series-of-kidney-transplant-recipients-and-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#5
Eun-Jung Kwak, Yun Hee Choi, Wonse Park, Eunae Sandra Cho
Solitary papilloma is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced benign indolent epithelial tumor with limited growth, whereas papillomatosis is an entirely different entity. Papillomatosis requires attention because of its aggressive and recurrent clinical progress with risks of dysplastic and malignant transformation. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) has a high prevalence of dysplasia and reports of transformation to carcinoma-ex-papillomatosis, especially when associated with low-risk HPV type 11. Although papillomatosis seldom occurs in the oral cavity, this report describes 3 cases of oral papillomatosis in immunocompromised patients, with 1 case identified as having HPV type 11...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727422/correction-to-identification-of-indole-diterpenes-in-ipomoea-asarifolia-and-ipomoea-muelleri-plants-tremorgenic-to-livestock
#6
Stephen T Lee, Dale R Gardner, Daniel Cook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727177/total-synthesis-of-the-marine-natural-product-hemiasterlin-via-organocatalyzed-%C3%AE-hydrazination
#7
Thomas Lindel, Jan Hendrik Lang, Peter G Jones
An efficient synthesis of the potently cytotoxic marine peptide hemiasterlin is presented. The tetramethyltryptophan moiety is assembled via tert.-prenylation of indole, followed by the high-yielding, organocatalyzed α-hydrazination of a sterically congested aldehyde with excellent enantioselectivity. BEP-mediated peptide coupling completes the synthesis, being the first approach that does not employ chiral auxiliaries. A novel phenonium-type rearrangement of the indole system occurred when subjecting dihydroxylated 3-tert...
July 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726732/characterization-of-the-dioscorin-gene-family-in-dioscorea-alata-reveals-a-role-in-tuber-development-and-environmental-response
#8
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A (Da-dio1, -3 and -4) and two class B (Da-dio2 and -5) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726422/bf3-promoted-divergent-reactions-between-tryptophols-and-propargylic-alcohols
#9
Kai Huang, Guorong Sheng, Ping Lu, Yanguang Wang
Trifluoroboron-promoted cascade reactions between tryptophols and propagylic alcohols furnished three types of skeletons, including carbazoles, cyclopenta[b]furo[2,3-b]indoles, and allenyl furo[2,3-b]indoles, with excellent selectivity based on the substrate structure. Tryptophols without a substituent on the 2-position of the indole ring reacted with 1,1,3-triphenylprop-2-yn-1-ol and 9-(phenylethynyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ol to give carbazoles and cyclopenta[b]furo[2,3-b]indoles, respectively, while the reaction of 2-substituted tryptophols afforded allenylfuro[2,3-b]indoles...
July 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726401/amidoalkylindoles-as-potent-and-selective-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-agonists-with-in-vivo-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Ying Shi, Yan-Hui Duan, Yue-Yang Ji, Zhi-Long Wang, Yan-Ran Wu, Hendra Gunosewoyo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jian-Zhong Chen, Fan Yang, Jing Li, Jie Tang, Xin Xie, Li-Fang Yu
Selective CB2 agonists represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a variety of diseases without psychiatric side effects mediated by the CB1 receptor. We carried out a rational optimization of a black market designer drug SDB-001 that led to the identification of potent and selective CB2 agonists. A 7-methoxy or 7-methylthio substitution at the 3-amidoalkylindoles resulted in potent CB2 antagonists (27 or 28, IC50 = 16-28 nM). Replacement of the amidoalkyls from 3-position to the 2-position of the indole ring dramatically increased the agonist selectivity on the CB2 over CB1 receptor...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726374/impact-of-thermal-annealing-on-organic-photovoltaic-cells-using-regioisomeric-donor-acceptor-acceptor-molecules
#11
Tao Zhang, Han Han, Yunlong Zou, Ying-Chi Lee, Hiroya Oshima, Ken-Tsung Wong, Russell J Holmes
We report a promising set of donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) electron-donor materials based on coplanar thieno[3,2-b]/[2,3-b]indole, benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole, and dicyanovinylene, which are found to show broadband absorption with high extinction coefficients. The role of the regioisomeric electron-donating thienoindole moiety on the physical and structural properties is examined. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on the thieno[2,3-b]indole-based electron donor NTU-2, using C70 as an electron acceptor, show a champion power conversion efficiency of 5...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725969/mastocytosis-from-a-molecular-point-of-view
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Todd Rambasek, Stefan Wöhrl
Mast cells (MCs) are physiologically activated by binding of stem cell factor (SCF) to the extracellular domains of the Kit receptor. This binding increases the proliferation and prolongs the survival of normal mature MCs, as well as intensifies the release of mediators. In mastocytosis, somatic mutations of the coding Kit gene cause autocrine dysregulation and lead to constitutive KIT activation even in the absence of its ligand SCF. Clinical symptoms are caused by MC-mediator release and/or infiltration of MCs into tissues...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725590/mri-fusion-biopsy-the-contemporary-experience
#13
REVIEW
Marc A Bjurlin, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Samir S Taneja
Advancements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-ultrasound (US)-fusion targeted biopsy have resulted in a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of prostate cancer by overcoming the limitations of systematic biopsy. Prebiopsy MRI and MRI-US-fusion biopsy results in an increased detection of clinically significant disease, reduction in the detection of indolent disease, and allows for tumor localization during targeted biopsy. With these advantages, we have adopted a prebiopsy MRI and MRI-US-fusion biopsy diagnostic care pathway for all men at risk for prostate cancer and have performed more than 1900 biopsies to date...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725589/multi-parametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-a-management-decision-tool
#14
REVIEW
David C Johnson, Robert E Reiter
The ability to image the prostate accurately and better characterize cancerous lesions makes multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) an invaluable tool to improve management of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Improved risk stratification is warranted given the evidence of significant overtreatment of indolent PCa. mpMRI can more accurately rule out clinically significant PCa in men deciding between surveillance and definitive treatment to reduce overtreatment. mpMRI improves detection of clinically significant PCa, which helps minimize sampling error, a major limitation of the traditional diagnostic paradigm...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725586/role-of-prostate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-active-surveillance
#15
REVIEW
Xiaosong Meng, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Samir S Taneja
Active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a beneficial strategy for management of low risk prostate cancer (PCa) and prevention of overtreatment of indolent disease. However, selection of patients for AS using traditional 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy is prone to sampling error and presents a challenge for accurate risk stratification. In fact, around a third of men are upgraded on repeat biopsy which disqualifies them as appropriate AS candidates. This uncertainty affects adoption of AS among patients and physicians, leading to current AS protocols involving repetitive prostate biopsies and unclear triggers for progression to definitive treatment...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725579/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-prostate-a-basic-tutorial
#16
REVIEW
Miguel C Cabarrus, Antonio C Westphalen
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the United States and the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men. In general, prostate cancer is slow growing, though there is a broad spectrum of disease that may be indolent, or aggressive and rapidly progressive. Screening for prostate is controversial and complicated by lack of specificity and over diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer. Imaging has played a role in diagnosis of prostate cancer, primarily through systemic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725577/standards-for-mri-reporting-the-evolution-to-pi-rads-v-2-0
#17
REVIEW
Michael Spektor, Mahan Mathur, Jeffrey C Weinreb
Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of death in the United States, but the vast majority of men diagnosed with PCa will die from other causes. While historically the capability of assessing the risk of life-threatening versus indolent PCa has relied heavily on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has emerged as the leading tool for detection and characterization of clinically significant PCa. However, wide variations and lack of standardization of mpMRI data acquisition, interpretation, and reporting have hampered its progress...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724304/synchronous-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-and-a-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-more-than-a-coincidence
#18
Juliana M Costa, Sofia Carvalho, João B Soares
Although the association between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) has been increasingly reported, whether this association is real or coincidence remains unclear. We report a case of synchronous IPMN and a PNET which were diagnosed preoperatively and discuss the tumorigenesis, clinicopathological features and management of these rare tumors based on the published literature. A 56-year-old male was incidentally diagnosed with a 14 mm branch duct IPMN and a 3...
July 14, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724262/phytohormones-and-induction-of-plant-stress-tolerance-and-defense-genes-by-seed-and-foliar-inoculation-with-azospirillum-brasilense-cells-and-metabolites-promote-maize-growth
#19
Josiane Fukami, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724188/bisindole-oxadiazole-hybrids-t3p-%C3%A2-mediated-synthesis-and-appraisal-of-their-apoptotic-antimetastatic-and-computational-bcl-2-binding-potential
#20
Pooja R Kamath, Manu M Joseph, Abdul Ajees Abdul Salam, Sreelekha T Therakathinal, Dhanya Sunil, Subhankar Biswas, Karkala Sreedhara Ranganath Pai
In the pursuit of novel anticancer leads, new bisindole-oxadiazoles were synthesized using propyl phosphonic anhydride as a mild and efficient reagent. The molecule, 3-[5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-1H-indole (3a) exhibited selective cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells with a cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. The mechanism of cytotoxicity of 3a involved caspase-2-dependent apoptotic pathway with characteristic apoptotic morphological alterations as observed in acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Hoechst staining...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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