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E Alton Sartor, Patrick Y Wen
Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors occurring in children and young adults. They can be indolent or locally aggressive depending on location, histology, and extent of resection. Treatment involves maximal surgical resection and usually focal radiation therapy, depending on the presence of residual disease and tumor grade. Chemotherapy has been studied for both adults and children but do not have an established role in adjuvant therapy. In both age groups, treatment with mainly cisplatin based regimens can be considered in the setting of residual disease after surgery or for salvage therapy when surgery or further radiation is not indicated...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Ivan Valkadinov, Nikolay Conev, Dian Dzhenkov, Ivan Donev
Ameloblastoma is a rare low-grade odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined malignant ameloblastoma (MA) as a histologically benign-appearing ameloblastoma that has metastasized. Treatment of the primary ameloblastoma usually consists of radical excision of the tumor and adjuvant radiotherapy. Chemotherapy should be used to treat metastases due to its indolent clinical course. Presented here is the case of a 43-year-old woman who was admitted to a hospital in 2006 with a large mass involving the neck and left mandible...
August 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
R N Nair, J J Rosnow, T A Murphree, M E Bowden, S R Lindemann, A T Wright
De novo synthesis of alkynalted tryptophan moieties as chemical probes for protein profilling studies, via an unexpected synthesis of Michael acceptor 12 is reported. Friedel Craft's alkylation of 12 and alkyne substituted indoles gave alkynalated tryptophan moieties, which perform as chemical probe by incorporating into actively translating Escherichia coli cells, whereby the alkyne moiety enables multimodal analyses through click chemistry mediated attachment of reporting groups.
April 1, 2017: Organic Chemistry Frontiers: An International Journal of Organic Chemistry
Allen Y Hong, Christopher D Vanderwal
Driven by a new biogenetic hypothesis, the first total synthesis of alsmaphorazine B and several related indole alkaloids has been achieved. Numerous early approaches proved unsuccessful owing to unproductive side reactivity; nevertheless, they provided important clues that guided the evolution of our strategy. Critical to our success was a major improvement in our Zincke aldehyde cycloaddition strategy, which permitted the efficient gram-scale synthesis of akuammicine. The sequential chemoselective oxidations of akuammicine leading up to the key oxidative rearrangement also yielded several biogenetically related indole alkaloids en route to alsmaphorazine B...
July 20, 2017: Tetrahedron
Qiuji Ye, Shishir Chourey, Rui Wang, Nagendra Reddy Chintam, Sylvie Gravel, William S Powell, Joshua Rokach
5-Oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is formed from 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway under conditions associated with oxidative stress. 5-Oxo-ETE is an important pro-inflammatory mediator, which stimulates the migration of eosinophils via a selective G-protein coupled receptor, known as the OXE receptor (OXE-R). Previously, we designed and synthesized structural mimics of 5-oxo-ETE such as 1 using an indole scaffold. In the present work, we added various substituents at C-3 of this moiety to block potential β-oxidation of the 5-oxo-valerate side chain, and investigated the structure-activity relationships of the resulting novel β-oxidation-resistant antagonists...
August 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sankalp Misra, Vijay Kant Dixit, Mohammad Haneef Khan, Shashank Kumar Mishra, Gyanendra Dviwedi, Sumit Yadav, Alok Lehri, Puneet Singh Chauhan
A comprehensive survey for 09 agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India was conducted to isolate and characterize salt tolerant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase possessing plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria for salt stress amelioration in rice. Here, we have isolated 1125 bacteria having the ability to tolerate 1M NaCl and out of those, 560 were screened for utilizing ACC as sole nitrogen source. 560 isolates were subjected for bacteria coated seed germination assay under 100mM salt (NaCl) stress resulting to 77 isolates which were further evaluated for seed germination assay, PGP and abiotic stress tolerance ability in vitro...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Jinguang Liu, Xingxiang Wang, Taolin Zhang, Xiaogang Li
Phenolic acids can enhance the mycotoxin production and activities of hydrolytic enzymes related to pathogenicity of soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum. However, characteristics of phenolic acid-degrading bacteria have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize bacteria capable of growth on benzoic and vanillic acids as the sole carbon source in the peanut rhizosphere. Twenty-four bacteria were isolated, and the identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that pre-exposure to phenolic acids before sowing shifted the dominant culturable bacterial degraders from Arthrobacter to Burkholderia stabilis-like isolates...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Dhiraj Bhatkar, Ketaki Utpat, Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M Joshi
Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is an uncustomary variety of tuberculosis (TB) usually seen secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or associated with it. It is characterized by indolent and heterogeneous presentations. Diagnosis warrants clinical, radiological, and microbiological amalgamation. It is hence challenging and frequently delayed leading to disabling complications. Opportunate suspicion, timely diagnosis and appropriate antituberculosis therapy are the key to successful management. We report a unique case of bilateral TOM occurring in an immunocompetent adult...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Jasmin Krüll, Anja Hubert, Natascha Nebel, Olaf Prante, Markus Rolf Heinrich
Substituted indoles can be prepared from phenylazo-carboxylates through a rapid one-pot sequence featuring a microwave-assisted Fischer indole synthesis as key step. As the phenylazocarboxylates may beforehand be modified by mild nucleophilic aromatic substitution, including the introduction of [18F]fluoride, the overall strategy offers an attractive new access to 5-[18F]fluoroindoles.
September 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
David Yu-Kai Chen
Total synthesis of the flagship Strychnos indole alkaloid, strychnine, has been accomplished. The developed synthetic sequence featured a novel vinylogous 1,4-addition, a challenging iodinium salt mediated silyl enol ether arylation, a palladium-catalyzed Heck reaction, and a streamlined late-stage conversion to strychnine. Furthermore, an application of asymmetric counterion-directed catalysis (ACDC) in the context of target-oriented organic synthesis has been demonstrated to render access to optically active material...
September 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chunxiao Xu, Yuxia Zhang, Yang Yu, Yue Li, Shufeng Wei
We previously found that flowering of Arabidopsis was suppressed by near-null magnetic field, which was related to cryptochrome. Auxin plays an important role in Arabidopsis flowering. To test whether auxin is involved in the suppression of Arabidopsis flowering by near-null magnetic field, we detected auxin level and expressions of auxin transport and signaling genes in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and cryptochrome double mutant, cry1/cry2, grown in near-null magnetic field. We found that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in roots of wild-type plants in near-null magnetic field was significantly increased compared with the local geomagnetic field control, while IAA level in rosettes of 33-day-old wild-type plants in near-null magnetic field was significantly lower than the control...
September 20, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
Evelien Snauwaert, Wim Van Biesen, Ann Raes, Els Holvoet, Griet Glorieux, Koen Van Hoeck, Maria Van Dyck, Nathalie Godefroid, Raymond Vanholder, Sanne Roels, Johan Vande Walle, Sunny Eloot
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood is characterised by the accumulation of uraemic toxins resulting in a multisystem disorder that has a negative impact on quality of life. Childhood CKD is predominantly defined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, estimated (eGFR) by a single serum measurement of endogenous biomarkers, e.g. creatinine. The objective of this study was to evaluate how accurately eGFR predicts the concentration of uraemic toxins in a paediatric CKD cohort...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
John M Billingsley, Anthony B DeNicola, Joyann S Barber, Man-Cheng Tang, Joe Horecka, Angela Chu, Neil K Garg, Yi Tang
Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) represent a structurally diverse, medicinally essential class of plant derived natural products. The universal MIA building block strictosidine was recently produced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, setting the stage for optimization of microbial production. However, the irreversible reduction of pathway intermediates by yeast enzymes results in a non-recoverable loss of carbon, which has a strong negative impact on metabolic flux. In this study, we identified and engineered the determinants of biocatalytic selectivity which control flux towards the iridoid scaffold from which all MIAs are derived...
September 19, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Mariana Bisarro Dos Reis, Mateus Camargo Barros-Filho, Fábio Albuquerque Marchi, Caroline Moraes Beltrami, Hellen Kuasne, Clóvis Antônio Lopes Pinto, Srikant Ambatipudi, Zdenko Herceg, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Silvia Regina Rogatto
Context: Even though the majority of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is indolent, a number of cases display an aggressive behavior. Cumulative evidences have suggested that the deregulation of DNA methylation has the potential to point out molecular markers associated with worse prognosis. Objective: To identify a prognostic epigenetic signature in thyroid cancer. Design: Genome-wide DNA methylation assays (450k platform, Illumina) were performed in a cohort of 50 non-neoplastic thyroid tissues (NT), 17 benign thyroid lesions (BTL) and 74 thyroid carcinomas (60 papillary, 8 follicular, 2 Hürthle cell, 1 poorly differentiated and 3 anaplastic)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
X Q Li, Y Z Liu, W F Guo, M K Solanki, Z D Yang, Y Xiang, Z C Ma, Y G Wen
Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
Santosh J Gharpure, Yogesh G Shelke
A Lewis acid promoted cascade Friedel-Craft/alkyne indol-2-yl cation cyclization/vinyl cation trapping for an efficient and divergent synthesis of N-fused indoles is developed. The present study illustrates the first example of an alkyne as a nucleophile on the less explored indol-2-yl cation. The method efficiently affords pharmaceutically important pyrrolizino-quinolines and complex fused indole derivatives in high yields.
September 22, 2017: Organic Letters
Jianping Qu, Günter Helmchen
Metal catalyzed allylic substitution is a cornerstone of organometallic and synthetic chemistry. Enantioselective versions have been developed with catalysts derived from transition metals, most notably molybdenum, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, and copper. The palladium- and the iridium-catalyzed versions have turned out to be particularly versatile in organic synthesis because of the very broad scope of the nucleophile and great functional group compatibility. Assets of the iridium-catalyzed reaction are the formation of branched, chiral products from simple monosubstituted allylic substrates, high degrees of regio- and enantioselectivity, and use of modular, readily available chiral ligands...
September 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Michael A Corsello, Junyong Kim, Neil K Garg
Tubingensin B is an indole diterpenoid that bears a daunting chemical structure featuring a disubstituted carbazole unit, five stereogenic centres-three of which are quaternary-and a decorated [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle. We describe our synthetic design toward a concise and enantiospecific total synthesis of tubingensin B, which hinges on the strategic use of a transient aryne intermediate. Although initial studies led to unexpected reaction outcomes, we ultimately implemented a sequence of carbazolyne cyclization followed by Rh-catalysed fragmentation to install the seven-membered ring and vicinal quaternary stereocentres of the natural product...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
Collin K Chin, Connull Leslie, Carolyn S Grove, Chris Van Vliet, Chan Yoon Cheah
The application of molecular genomics and our understanding of its clinical implications in the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders has rapidly evolved over the past few years. Of particular importance are indolent B-cell malignancies where tumour cell survival and proliferation are commonly driven by mutations involving the B-cell receptor and downstream signalling pathways. In addition, the increasing number of novel therapies and targeted agents have provided clinicians with new therapeutic options with the aim of exploiting such mutations...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wenqiang Fu, Kai Yang, Jinglong Chen, Qiuling Song
An efficient method for the synthesis of 2-substituted indoles via a diboron/base promoted tandem reductive cyclization of o-alkynylnitroarene under Au catalysis conditions has been disclosed. This reaction is efficient and convenient, affording 2-substituted indoles with broad functional groups tolerance and excellent yields.
September 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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