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Cholestasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441661/defective-platelet-activation-and-bleeding-complications-upon-cholestasis-in-mice
#1
Nina Sarah Gowert, Meike Klier, Maria Reich, Friedrich Reusswig, Lili Donner, Verena Keitel, Dieter Häussinger, Margitta Elvers
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Platelets are essential mediators of hemostasis to avoid excessive blood loss. Cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases are characterized by alterations in hemostasis. Alterations in the secondary hemostasis have been well studied, while defects in primary hemostasis, especially the consequences of cholestatic liver disease on platelet function are not well defined. METHODS: After bile duct ligation (BDL) platelet activation and thrombus formation were analyzed in mice...
April 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438781/transporter-mediated-disposition-clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-cholestatic-potential-of-glyburide-and-its-primary-active-metabolites
#2
Rui Li, Yi-An Bi, Anna Vildhede, Renato J Scialis, Sumathy Mathialagan, Xin Yang, Lisa D Marroquin, Jian Lin, Manthena V S Varma
Glyburide is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the mechanisms involved in the disposition of glyburide and its pharmacologically active hydroxy metabolites, M1 and M2b; and evaluated their clinical pharmacokinetics and the potential role in glyburide-induced cholestasis employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Transport studies of parent and metabolites in human hepatocytes and transfected cell systems imply hepatic uptake mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptides...
April 24, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437442/relationship-between-early-onset-severe-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-and-higher-risk-of-meconium-stained-fluid
#3
Maria C Estiú, Maria A Frailuna, Carla Otero, Marcela Dericco, Catherine Williamson, Jose J G Marin, Rocio I R Macias
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the commonest gestational liver disease. The risk of adverse fetal outcome has been associated with the severity of maternal hypercholanemia after diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity and timing of onset of hypercholanemia and the risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and adverse neonatal events. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 382 pregnancies complicated by ICP managed at a referral hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina) between June 2009 and December 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437326/favorable-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-with-parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-treated-with-intravenous-fish-oil-based-lipid-emulsion
#4
Michael Sorrell, Alvaro Moreira, Kay Green, Rachel Jacob, Robin Tragus, Laura Keller, Amy Quinn, Donald McCurnin, Alice Gong, Abeer El Sakka, Naveen Mittal, Cynthia Blanco
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the acute and long-term outcomes of preterm infants treated with an intravenous fish oil-based lipid emulsion (FishLE) for parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). METHODS: Preterm infants 14 days to 24 months of age with anatomic short gut or severe intestinal dysmotility, serum direct bilirubin ≥4 mg/dL, and requiring >60% calories from parenteral nutrition were eligible. Enrolled infants received 1 g · kg · day of FishLE until resolution of direct hyperbilirubinemia or return of enteral nutrition...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434905/using-quantitative-intravital-multiphoton-microscopy-to-dissect-hepatic-transport-in-rats
#5
Kenneth W Dunn, Jennifer C Ryan
Hepatic solute transport is a complex process whose disruption is associated with liver disease and drug-induced liver injury. Intravital multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy provides the spatial and temporal resolution necessary to characterize hepatic transport at the level of individual hepatocytes in vivo and thus to identify the mechanisms and cellular consequences of cholestasis. Here we present an overview of the use of fluorescence microscopy for studies of hepatic transport in living animals, and describe how we have combined methods of intravital microscopy and digital image analysis to dissect the effects of drugs and pathological conditions on the function of hepatic transporters in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434083/predictors-of-a-successful-outcome-for-infants-with-short-bowel-syndrome-a-30-year-single-institution-experience
#6
Tatsuru Kaji, Kazuhiko Nakame, Seiro Machigashira, Takafumi Kawano, Ryuta Masuya, Waka Yamada, Koji Yamada, Shun Onishi, Tomoe Moriguchi, Koshiro Sugita, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Short-bowel syndrome (SBS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We conducted this study to establish the predictors of survival and weaning off parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 16 SBS infants treated at our institution within a 30-year period. SBS was defined as a residual small-bowel length (RSBL) of <75 cm. Loss of the ileocecal valve (ICV), cholestasis (D-Bil >2.0 mg/dl), enterostomy, and RSBL were all evaluated...
April 22, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433972/paraneoplastic-jaundice-and-prostate-cancer
#7
Ana Claudia Vieira, Maria Joana Alvarenga, Jose Carlos Santos, Alberto Mello Silva
Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation.
April 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428635/sepsis-bile-acids-promote-inflammation-in-cholestasis-associated-sepsis
#8
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#9
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
RATIONALE: Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplant in 30% of adults, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in non-transplanted children. However, post-transplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric liver transplant recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. RESULTS: In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n=318), 31% of those with any post-transplant biopsy (n=271) had ≥1 biopsy with steatosis...
April 20, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425419/a-rare-bsep-mutation-associated-with-a-mild-form-of-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-2
#10
Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Lea F Surrey, Anna E Schwartz, Pierre A Russo, Jessica Wen
Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is a rare cholestatic disorder diagnosed in infancy or childhood that can lead to severe hepatic fibrosis and liver failure. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene result in a deficiency of the bile salt export protein (BSEP) and accumulation of bile inside the hepatocytes. Hepatocellular carcinoma is another condition associated with severe forms of deletion mutations in the ABCB11 gene. Treatment options including ursodeoxycholic acid biliary diversion have mixed outcomes and some patients require liver transplantation...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425250/retrospective-analysis-of-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomesof-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-at-gazi-university
#11
Berrin Günaydin, Merih Bayram, Melis Altuğ, Semra Cevher, Nuray Bozkurt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes in parturients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) have been retrospectively documented. We aimed to present pregnancy outcomes of parturients with ICP who underwent delivery. The study was conducted during a 1-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After ethics committee approval, data from 1 January to 31 December 2015 were collected to identify parturients with ICP. RESULTS: Ten out of 37 patients underwent normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (NSVD), and the remaining 27 parturients underwent cesarean section (CS)...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420095/parenteral-nutrition-and-lipids
#12
REVIEW
Maitreyi Raman, Abdulelah Almutairdi, Leanne Mulesa, Cathy Alberda, Colleen Beattie, Leah Gramlich
Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420030/role-of-endoscopy-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-and-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-easl-clinical-guideline
#13
Lars Aabakken, Tom H Karlsen, Jörg Albert, Marianna Arvanitakis, Olivier Chazouilleres, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Martti Färkkilä, Peter Fickert, Gideon M Hirschfield, Andrea Laghi, Marco Marzioni, Michael Fernandez, Stephen P Pereira, Jürgen Pohl, Jan-Werner Poley, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Christoph Schramm, Fredrik Swahn, Andrea Tringali, Cesare Hassan
1 ESGE/EASL recommend that, as the primary diagnostic modality for PSC, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) should be preferred over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation. 2 ESGE/EASL suggest that ERCP can be considered if MRC plus liver biopsy is equivocal or contraindicated in patients with persisting clinical suspicion of PSC. The risks of ERCP have to be weighed against the potential benefit with regard to surveillance and treatment recommendations...
April 18, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417463/pharmacological-interventions-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Francesca Saffioti, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Neil Hawkins, Clare D Toon, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Brian R Davidson, Douglas Thorburn
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that is associated with both hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies, which can result in liver cirrhosis and its complications. The optimal pharmacological treatment for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis by performing a network meta-analysis, and to generate rankings of available pharmacological interventions according to their safety and efficacy...
March 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416441/glechoma-hederacea-extracts-attenuate-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-a-bile-duct-ligated-rat-model
#15
Ya-Yu Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Wen-Ying Chen, Su-Lan Liao, Chih-Cheng Wu, Pin-Ho Pan, Su-Tze Chou, Chun-Jung Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicine, Glechoma hederacea is frequently prescribed to patients with cholelithiasis, dropsy, abscess, diabetes, inflammation, and jaundice. Polyphenolic compounds are main bioactive components of Glechoma hederacea. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of hot water extract of Glechoma hederacea against cholestatic liver injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cholestatic liver injury was produced by ligating common bile ducts in Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416007/disseminated-alveolar-echinococcosis-resembling-metastatic-malignancy-a-case-report
#16
Laura Caire Nail, Ezequiel Rodríguez Reimundes, Christelle Weibel Galluzzo, Dan Lebowitz, Yasmine Lucile Ibrahim, Johannes Alexander Lobrinus, François Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis caused by larval forms of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Humans are aberrant intermediate hosts who become infected by ingestion of egg-contaminated food or water or via physical contact with domestic or wild animals that carry the parasite in their small intestine. In humans, the disease usually affects the liver and can spread to other organs causing metastatic infiltration. In this report, we describe an advanced presentation of human alveolar echinococcosis mimicking metastatic malignancy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415133/zo-2-a-tight-junction-protein-involved-in-gene-expression-proliferation-apoptosis-and-cell-size-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Jael Miranda, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Francisco Cuellar-Perez
ZO-2 is a peripheral tight junction protein that belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family. Here, we explain the modular and supramodular organization of ZO-2 that allows it to interact with a wide variety of molecules, including cell-cell adhesion proteins, cytoskeletal components, and nuclear factors. We also describe how ZO proteins evolved through metazoan evolution and analyze the intracellular traffic of ZO-2, as well as the roles played by ZO-2 at the plasma membrane and nucleus that translate into the regulation of proliferation, cell size, and apoptosis...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411380/metabolic-profile-of-obeticholic-acid-and-endogenous-bile-acids-in-rats-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Aldo Roda, Rita Aldini, Cecilia Camborata, Silvia Spinozzi, Placido Franco, Massimiliano Cont, Antonia D'Errico, Francesco Vasuri, Alessio Degiovanni, Lorenzo Maroni, Luciano Adorini
Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a semisynthetic bile acid (BA) analogue and potent farnesoid X receptor agonist approved to treat cholestasis. We evaluated the biodistribution and metabolism of OCA administered to CCl4 -induced cirrhotic rats. This was to ascertain if plasma and hepatic concentrations of OCA are potentially more harmful than those of endogenous BA. After administration of OCA (30 mg/kg), we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure OCA, its metabolites, and BA at different time-points in various organs and fluids...
April 14, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409756/standardized-slow-enteral-feeding-protocol-reduces-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-micropremies
#19
S Viswanathan, R Merheb, Xintong Wen, M Collin, S Groh-Wargo
BACKGROUND: Compared to early enteral feeds, delayed introduction and slow enteral feeding advancement to reduce necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is not well studied in micropremies (<750g birth weight). METHODS: Pre-post case control study. Micropremies who followed a standardized slow enteral feeding (SSEF) protocol (September 2009 to March 2015) were compared with a similar group of historical controls (PreSSEF, January 2003 to July 2009). Enteral feeding withheld for first 10-14 days and advanced at <10 ml/kg/day in the SSEF group...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401057/intestinal-hypoganglionosis-leading-to-intestinal-failure-and-the-compassionate-use-of-omegaven%C3%A2
#20
Racha Khalaf, Sara Karjoo, Paul Danielson, Michael Wilsey, Fauzia Shakeel
Intestinal hypoganglionosis is a rare innervation disorder that provides numerous nutritional, medical and surgical challenges. In this case report, we present a case of a newborn with intestinal hypoganglionosis leading to intestinal failure and intestinal failure-associated liver disease who responded to Omegaven™, a fat emulsion comprised of omega-3 fatty acids. Omegaven™ has been shown to be beneficial in the management of cholestatic liver injury. Clinical success with Omegaven™ was seen in this patient with a clear decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and complete resolution of cholestasis with a direct bilirubin of zero within two weeks of initiation of Omegaven™...
March 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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