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CAD and inflamation

Konstantinos Toutouzas, Georgios Benetos, Iosif Koutagiar, Nikolaos Barampoutis, Fotini Mitropoulou, Periklis Davlouros, Petros P Sfikakis, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Elias Siores, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited prospective data have been reported regarding the impact of carotid inflammation on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Microwave radiometry (MWR) is a noninvasive, simple method that has been used for evaluation of carotid artery temperature which, when increased, predicts 'inflamed' plaques with vulnerable characteristics. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that increased carotid artery temperature predicts future cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with CAD...
April 23, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Nathaniel Teng, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jihan Talib, Imran Rashid, Antony K Lau, Roland Stocker
Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque...
March 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Shibin Feng, Ying Hu, Song Peng, Songling Han, Hui Tao, Qixiong Zhang, Xiaoqiu Xu, Jianxiang Zhang, Houyuan Hu
Coronary arterial disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Percutaneous coronary interventions are frequently used nonsurgical techniques for treating CAD, which may unfortunately lead to arterial restenosis. Currently, there are no effective drugs that can thoroughly prevent restenosis. We hypothesize inflammation-triggerable nanomedicines may function as effective therapeutics for targeted therapy of restenosis, by preferentially releasing their payload at the diseased site. To demonstrate our hypothesis and develop targeted nanotherapies for restenosis, this study was designed to examine effectiveness of nanomedicines responsive to the inflammatory microenvironment with mild acidity and high reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 2016: Biomaterials
M Abe-Yutori, T Chikazawa, K Shibasaki, S Murakami
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The gingival epithelium is a first line of defense against bacterial challenge. E-cadherin (E-cad) plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion as a barrier in the epithelium. Recently, a decrease in the expression of E-cad has been observed in inflamed gingival tissue. The aims of this study were to clarify the changes in E-cad expression and barrier function in human gingival epithelial cells stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) and to evaluate the influence of these changes on the inflammatory reaction...
February 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
Ulrike Flierl, Johann Bauersachs, Andreas Schäfer
BACKGROUND: The chemokine fractalkine, CX3CL1, bears unique features within the chemokine family: it exists in a membrane bound form acting as an adhesion molecule and surface receptor; however, when cleaved by ADAM 10, it functions as a soluble chemokine. Fractalkine and its chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are known to have multiple roles in diverse human diseases, for example inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, renal diseases and atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is based on the material obtained via PubMed up to November 2014...
June 2015: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sophie Mavrogeni, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Genovefa Kolovou
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the nonradiating assessment of coronary arteries; to achieve better image quality cardiorespiratory artefacts should be corrected. Coronary MRA (CMRA) at the moment is indicated only for the detection of abnormal coronary origin, coronary artery ectasia and/or aneurysms (class I indication) and coronary bypass grafts (class II indication). CMRA utilisation for coronary artery disease is not yet part of clinical routine. However, the lack of radiation is of special value for the coronary artery evaluation in children and women...
October 26, 2014: World Journal of Cardiology
Katawut Namdee, Alex J Thompson, Alexander Golinski, Supriya Mocherla, Diane Bouis, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
OBJECTIVE: Vascular-targeting remains a promising strategy for improving the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) by providing localized delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents to atherosclerotic lesions. In this work we evaluate how size and shape affects the capacity for a vascular-targeted carrier system to bind inflamed endothelial cells over plaque using ApoE -/- mice with developed atherosclerosis. METHOD: We investigated the adhesion levels along mouse aortae of ellipsoidal and spherical particles targeted to the inflammatory molecules E-selectin and VCAM-1, as well as the biodistribution of targeted and untargeted particles in major organs following injection via tail-vein and a 30-min circulation time...
November 2014: Atherosclerosis
Vasvi Singh, Saurav Luthra, Ruth Kouides, Abdel K Gadir
A 50-year-old man presenting with chest pain had positive stress echocardiography; and angiogram showed single artery coronary stenosis, presumed to be atherosclerotic. He was started on optimal medical therapy with good compliance. Four months later, he had a myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac catheterisation surprisingly showed interval development of severe three-vessel stenosis. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), during which the cardiothoracic surgeon noticed severely inflamed coronary arteries, concerning for vasculitis...
2014: BMJ Case Reports
Thomas R Cimato, Beth A Palka
BACKGROUND: Fractalkine (CX3CL1) promotes migration and adhesion of lymphocytes and monocytes to inflamed tissues. Prior studies show a role for CX3CL1 in atherosclerosis. The relationship between inflammatory cytokines, cholesterol, and CX3CL1 levels in human subjects without known coronary artery disease is not well characterized. The goal of our study was to assess baseline CX3CL1 levels, and after modulation of cholesterol levels by statins to determine if CX3CL1 is linked to cholesterol levels or inflammatory stimuli...
2014: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Salvatore Brugaletta, Manel Sabaté
Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is today the leading cause of death worldwide and will continue to be the first in the world in 2030. Vulnerable coronary plaques are usually characterized by a high content of necrotic core, a thin inflamed fibrous cap (intense accumulation of macrophages) and scarce presence of smooth muscle cells. None of these characteristics can be estimated by coronary angiography, which on the contrary underestimates the magnitude of atherosclerotic burden, particularly in earlier stage disease when positive vascular remodeling may allow "normal" lumen caliber despite substantial vascular wall plaque...
2014: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Fumiyuki Otsuka, Michael Joner, Francesco Prati, Renu Virmani, Jagat Narula
In published post-mortem pathological studies, more than two-thirds of acute coronary events are associated with the rupture of lipid-rich, voluminous, and outwardly remodelled plaques covered by attenuated and inflamed fibrous caps in the proximal part of coronary arteries. Superficial erosion of the plaques is responsible for most of the remaining events; the eroded plaques usually do not demonstrate much lipid burden, do not have thin fibrous caps, are not positively remodelled, and are not critically occlusive...
July 2014: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Demosthenes Katritsis, Paolo Raggi
The current epidemic of obesity with the associated increasing incidence of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis affecting a large proportion of the North American and Western populations, has generated a strong interest in the potential role of visceral adipose tissue in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. The intra-abdominal and epicardial space are two compartments that contain visceral adipose tissue with a similar embryological origin. These visceral fats are highly inflamed in obese patients, patients with the metabolic syndrome and in those with established coronary artery disease; additionally they are capable of secreting large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids...
March 2014: Atherosclerosis
Kaili Ji, Wee Siang Lim, Sam Fong Yau Li, Kishore Bhakoo
Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that are capable of binding wide classes of targets with high affinity and specificity. Their unique three-dimensional structures present numerous possibilities for recognizing virtually any class of target molecules, making them a promising alternative to antibodies used as molecular probes in biomedical analysis and clinical diagnosis. In recent years, cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) has been used extensively to select aptamers for various cell targets...
August 2013: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Antonio Carlos Cordeiro, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Fernanda Cassullo Amparo, Antonio Tito-Paladino-Filho, Marcela Perini, Fernanda Silvestre Lourenço, Ibraim Masciarelli Francisco Pinto, Celso Amodeo, Juan Jesús Carrero
BACKGROUND: Abdominal fat is a metabolically active tissue which has been associated with cardiovascular events and death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We explore here the association between surrogates of abdominal fat and coronary artery calcium score (CACs). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 232 non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients Stages 3-5 (median age 60 [25th-75th percentile 52-67] years; 60% men). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and CACs were assessed by computed tomography...
November 2013: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Yingwei Liu, Nina Ghosh, Girish Dwivedi, Benjamin J Chow, Robert A deKemp, Jean DaSilva, Ann Guo, Linda Garrard, Rob S Beanlands, Terrence D Ruddy
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in identifying inflamed plaque in major arteries. This study evaluated the feasibility of inflamed plaque detection with routinely acquired cardiac FDG-PET viability studies in patients with severe coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Clinically indicated myocardial viability scans using FDG and PET combined with computed tomography from 103 patients were retrospectively analyzed for FDG uptake in the proximal, ascending, and descending thoracic aorta...
September 2013: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Dhavalkumar Patel, Damir Hamamdzic, Raul Llano, Daivesh Patel, Lan Cheng, Robert S Fenning, Khalid Bannan, Robert L Wilensky
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate whether the development of fibroatheromas exhibiting features of potential instability can be detected and predicted by serial invasive imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Multivessel intravascular ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were performed in diabetic/hypercholesterolemic pigs 3, 6, and 9 months after induction. Animals were euthanized at 9 months and histological/immunohistochemical evaluation of the arteries was performed (n=304 arterial segments)...
February 2013: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Charalampos I Liakos, Gregory P Vyssoulis, Andreas P Michaelides, Evangelos I Chatzistamatiou, George Theodosiades, Marina G Toutouza, Maria I Markou, Andreas G Synetos, Ioannis E Kallikazaros, Christodoulos I Stefanadis
Arterial hypertension is an established risk factor for acute coronary syndromes, and physical exertion may trigger the onset of such an event. The mechanisms involved include the rupture of a small, inflamed, coronary plaque and the activation of thrombogenic factors. Blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment has been associated with beneficial effects on subclinical inflammation and thrombosis at rest and during exercise. This prospective study sought to compare the effect of different antihypertensive drugs on the inflammatory and thrombotic response during exercise...
December 2012: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Cihan Simsek, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Michael Magro, Chrysafios Girasis, Nicolas van Mieghem, Mattie Lenzen, Sanneke de Boer, Evelyn Regar, Willem van der Giessen, Joel Raichlen, Henricus J Duckers, Felix Zijlstra, Ton van der Steen, Eric Boersma, Patrick W Serruys
AIMS: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are often caused by rupture of non-flow limiting "vulnerable" atherosclerotic plaque, characterised by a large necrotic core pool and a thin, inflamed fibrous cap that are unidentifiable with diagnostic coronary angiography. The implementation of novel invasive imaging modalities, such as intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology (IVUS-VH) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), could help identify high-risk patients who are in need of aggressive medical therapy...
June 20, 2012: EuroIntervention
Kamel Deramchia, Marie-Josée Jacobin-Valat, Amélie Vallet, Hervé Bazin, Xavier Santarelli, Stéphane Sanchez, Pierre Dos Santos, Jean-Michel Franconi, Stéphane Claverol, Stéphane Bonetto, Gisèle Clofent-Sanchez
In vivo phage display selection is a powerful strategy for directly identifying agents that target the vasculature of normal or diseased tissues in living animals. We describe here a new in vivo biopanning strategy in which a human phage single-chain antibody (scFv) library was injected into high-fat diet-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. Extracellular and internalized phage scFvs were selectively recovered from atherosclerotic vascular endothelium and subjacent tissues. After three successive biopanning rounds, a panel of six clones with distinct gene sequences was isolated...
June 2012: American Journal of Pathology
Masaaki Mori, Tomoyuki Imagawa, Ryoki Hara, Masako Kikuchi, Takuma Hara, Tomo Nozawa, Takako Miyamae, Shumpei Yokota
OBJECTIVE: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile disease in infants and young children. Five percent to 8% of cases will be complicated with coronary dilatation or aneurysm, although introduction of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy has provided remarkable results for reducing the frequency of cardiac involvement. We describe the results of an open-label trial of infliximab, an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody, for suppressing the progression of coronary artery lesions in cases of KD refractory to extensive IVIG therapy...
April 2012: Journal of Rheumatology
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