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Leg Length

Michael J Taunton, Robert T Trousdale, Rafael J Sierra, Ken Kaufman, Mark W Pagnano
BACKGROUND: The choice of surgical approach for THA remains controversial. Some studies suggest that the direct anterior approach (DAA) leads to less muscle damage than the miniposterior approach (MPA), but there is little high-quality evidence indicating whether this accelerates recovery, or whether this approach-which may be technically more demanding-is associated with component malposition or more complications. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the DAA result in faster return to activities of daily living than the MPA? (2) Does the DAA have superior patient-reported outcome measures than the MPA? (3) Does the DAA result in improved radiographic outcomes than the MPA? (4) Does the DAA have a higher risk of complications than the MPA? METHODS: Between March 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, 116 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA were randomized to either the DAA or MPA; 15 patients withdrew after randomization, and one died 6 months after surgery from a stroke unrelated to the procedure...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Bronwyn Louise Pearse, Claire M Rickard, Samantha Keogh, Yoke Lin Fung
BACKGROUND: Bleeding management in cardiac surgery is challenging. Many guidelines exist to support bleeding management; however, literature demonstrates wide variation in practice. In 2012, a quality initiative was undertaken at The Prince Charles Hospital, Australia to improve bleeding management for cardiac surgery patients. The implementation of the quality initiative resulted in significant reductions in the incidence of blood transfusion, re-exploration for bleeding; superficial leg and chest wound infections; length of hospital stay, and cost...
March 8, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Toshiki Tajima, Hiroshige Tateuchi, Yumiko Koyama, Tome Ikezoe, Noriaki Ichihashi
Reducing external joint moments during gait can lead to a reduction in dynamic joint load. There has yet to be a detailed investigation of gait strategies that can reduce external joint moments by decreasing the magnitude of ground reaction force (GRF) without reducing the walking speed. The objectives of this study were to verify whether it is possible to reduce external joint moments by decreasing the GRF magnitude without reducing the walking speed and to identify the alternative walking strategy involved in young healthy adults...
March 7, 2018: Human Movement Science
Emilio Wagner, Pablo Wagner, Cristian Ortiz, Ruben Radkievich, Felipe Palma, Rodrigo Guzmán-Venegas
BACKGROUND: No clear guideline or solid evidence exists for peroneal tendon tears to determine when to repair, resect, or perform a tenodesis on the damaged tendon. The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanical behavior of cadaveric peroneal tendons artificially damaged and tested in a cyclic and failure mode. The hypothesis was that no failure would be observed in the cyclic phase. METHODS: Eight cadaveric long leg specimens were tested on a specially designed frame...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Ziling Peng, Chunmei Xiong, Wei Wang, Fatang Tan, Xinyun Wang, Xueliang Qiao, Po Keung Wong
Usually, nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) cannot float on water because of high density and hydrophilic surface. Herein, alkyltrimethoxysilanes with different carbon chain lengths (C1, C8 and C16) were used as "water-repellent legs" to graft onto NZVI, enduing NZVI with hydrophobic and floatable characteristics like a water strider. The hydrophobic performance of as-modified NZVI materials was found to be better when NZVI was modified by alkyltrimethoxysilane with longer carbon chain, and a large contact angle of 151...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Gary Johnson, Joanne Smith, Jim Peddie, Linda Peddie, Joe DeMarco, Ellen Wiedner
This report describes the use of custom-made, glue-on shoes for the front feet of two female adult Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) with conformational abnormalities. Both elephants had unequal leg lengths. The first elephant also had bilateral fetlock varus causing recurrent nail infections of the fourth digits of the front feet. The second elephant displayed weight shifting. Over several years, multiple shoe prototypes were tested. The current version is made of two types of shoe rubber, glued together and attached to the pad of the shorter leg with a liquid adhesive...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Kristoffer Weisskirchner Barfod, Anja Falk Riecke, Anders Boesen, Philip Hansen, Jens Friedrich Maier, Simon Doessing, Anders Troelsen
INTRODUCTION: Valid length measurements of the different segments of the Achilles tendon are needed in order to investigate if differential elongation of the Achilles tendon takes place after rupture. The purpose of this paper was to present data concerning the accuracy and reliability of an ultrasound measurement of the free part of the Achilles tendon. METHODS: Both legs of 19 non-injured subjects were examined by magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) and ultrasound...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Mu Qiao, Jody A Feld, Jason R Franz
BACKGROUND: Older adults are more susceptible to balance perturbations during walking than young adults. However, we lack an individual joint-level understanding of how aging affects the neuromechanical strategies used to accommodate balance perturbations. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated gait phase-dependence in and aging effects on leg joint kinematic variability during walking with balance perturbations. We hypothesized that leg joint variability would: 1) vary across the gait cycle and 2) increase with balance perturbations...
February 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Marcelo Rosa de Rezende, Mateus Saito, Renata Gregorio Paulos, Samuel Ribak, Ana Katherina Abarca Herrera, Álvaro Baik Cho, Rames Mattar
The reverse sural flap has often been used for cutaneous coverage of the distal region of the leg and ankle. When the flap is performed in 2 stages, the vascular pedicle is exteriorized and later resected. Our goal was to assess the reverse sural flap performed in 2 stages regarding its viability and low morbidity along the flap-donor area. Eleven patients with cutaneous coverage loss found in the area between the distal third of the leg and ankle underwent cutaneous coverage surgery with a reverse-flow sural flap with an exteriorized pedicle, without violation of the skin between the base of the flap pedicle to the margin of the wound...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Craig J Della Valle, Tyler E Calkins, Joshua J Jacobs
There has been an increasing use of modularity at the head-neck junction in total hip arthroplasty to more closely mimic the native anatomy, allowing for optimal leg length and stability. Corrosion at this junction in metal-on-polyethylene bearings can lead to an adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR). This increasingly prevalent condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hip pain and difficulty ambulating. A recent symposium by the American Academy of Hip and Knee Surgeons described the diagnosis, etiology, management, and prevention of taper corrosion...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Robert G Willson, Regina O Kostyun, Matthew D Milewski, Carl W Nissen
Background: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the skeletally immature patient is frequently performed in hopes of preventing new or additional chondral damage and meniscal injuries. Patients within a few years of skeletal maturity are more at risk for ACL injuries than prepubescent patients, about whom several physeal-sparing techniques have been described. Reconstruction techniques in the former higher risk group need to be better understood. Purpose: To review a series of adolescent patients with ACL injuries surgically treated with the hybrid physeal-sparing technique...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Vincenzo Provitera, Christopher H Gibbons, Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb, Vincenzo Donadio, Dino F Vitale, Adam Loavenbruck, Annamaria Stancanelli, Giuseppe Caporaso, Rocco Liguori, Ningshan Wang, Lucio Santoro, William R Kennedy, Maria Nolano
BACKGROUND: We aimed to test the clinical utility of leg to thigh intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density ratio as a parameter to discriminate between length-dependent small fiber neuropathy (SFN) and small fiber sensory ganglionopathy (SFSG) in subjects with signs and symptoms of small fiber pathology. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated thigh and leg IENF density in 314 subjects with small fiber pathology (173 with distal symmetrical length-dependent SFN and 141 with non length-dependent SFSG)...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Leelavathy Budamakuntla, Eswari Loganathan, Sacchidananda A Sarvajnamurthy, H V Nataraj
Introduction and Objectives: The restoration of the epithelium after injury takes place by migration of epithelial cells adjoining a wound or by centrifugal migration from hair follicles. To evaluate the feasibility and potential healing capacity of scalp follicular unit grafts transplanted into the wound bed of chronic leg ulcers. Materials and Methods: Patients with chronic nonhealing ulcers of more than 6 weeks duration were selected for the study. Those with infected ulcers and uncontrolled diabetes were excluded from the study...
October 2017: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Megumi Ueno, Ikuo Nakanishi, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto
A digitization approach to the time course of radiation-induced mouse leg contracture was proposed for quantifying the radiation effect on an individual living mouse. The shortening of the mouse leg length can be easily measured with a caliper/ruler to offer a very simple digitalized index of the radiation effect. Left hind legs of mice were irradiated with single dose of 32 Gy of 290 MeV carbon-ion beam using 0, 50, or 117 mm binary filter (BF). The right legs were used as a control. The lengths of both hind legs of the mice were measured using a digital caliper before irradiation and every week after irradiation...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Lindsay V Slater, Melissa Vriner, Kristen Schuyten, Peter Zapalo, Joseph M Hart
Asymmetrical dynamic balance compared to normative populations have been associated with increased risk of injury in athletes, however it is unclear if the current data are similar to balance performance in figure skaters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare performance on the y-balance test between sexes and disciplines in elite figure skaters. Thirty-two senior level figure skaters from 3 different disciplines (singles, dance, pair) completed the y-balance test on the take-off and landing leg...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Tyagi Ramakrishnan, Christina-Anne Lahiff, Kyle B Reed
Physical changes such as leg length discrepancy, the addition of a mass at the distal end of the leg, the use of a prosthetic, and stroke frequently result in an asymmetric gait. This paper presents a metric that can potentially serve as a benchmark to categorize and differentiate between multiple asymmetric bipedal gaits. The combined gait asymmetry metric (CGAM) is based on modified Mahalanobis distances, and it utilizes the asymmetries of gait parameters obtained from motion capture and force data recorded during human walking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Tomer Urca, Gal Ribak
The distance a small insect moves through air during a jump is limited by the launch velocity at take-off and by air resistance. The launch velocity is limited by the length of the jumping legs and the maximum power that the jump apparatus can provide for pushing against the ground. The effect of air resistance is determined by the insect mass-to-area ratio. Both limitations are highly dependent on the body size, making high jumps a challenge for smaller insects. We studied both effects in the tiny Encyrtid wasp Anagyrus pseudococci...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Peiling Wei, Wunan Che, Jinda Wang, Da Xiao, Ran Wang, Chen Luo
The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species complex comprises very destructive insect pests of agricultural crops worldwide and has been found to be resistant to various insecticides in China. Abamectin is one of the most widely used insecticides for insect pest control and the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) in insects was presumed to be the main target site of abamectin. In this study, a 1353bp full-length cDNA encoding GluCl (named BtGluCl, GenBank ID: MF673854) was cloned and characterized from B...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jorik Nonnekes, Nathalie Benda, Hanneke van Duijnhoven, Frits Lem, Noël Keijsers, Jan Willem K Louwerens, Allan Pieterse, Bertjo Renzenbrink, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Jaap Buurke, Alexander C H Geurts
Importance: Gait impairments are common in patients with chronic supratentorial upper motor neuron lesions and are a source of disability. Clinical management aimed at improving the gait pattern in these patients is generally perceived as a challenging task because many possible abnormalities may interact. Moreover, a multitude of treatment options exist, ranging from assistive devices and muscle stretching to pharmacologic and surgical interventions, but evidence is inconclusive for most approaches and clear treatment guidelines are lacking...
February 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Andrea Fusco, Giuseppe Francesco Giancotti, Philip X Fuchs, Herbert Wagner, Carlo Varalda, Laura Capranica, Cristina Cortis
Computerized Wobble Boards (WB) are inexpensive, transportable and user-friendly devices to objectively quantify the dynamic balance performances out of laboratory settings, although it has not been established if they are reliable and valid tools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a computerized WB. Thirty-nine (18 female, 21 male) young adults (age: 23.3±2.1years; body mass: 65.9±1.8kg; height: 168.2±8.8cm; leg length: 78.8±5.7cm; BMI: 23.2±2.1kg·m) participated in the study...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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