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Brain Source Localization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216195/reduced-visual-attention-in-heterogeneous-textures-is-reflected-in-occipital-alpha-and-theta-band-activity
#1
Tobias Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Makoto Miyakoshi, Marco Alessandro Petilli, Anna Schubö, Scott Makeig
Increasing context heterogeneity has been found to reduce attention deployment towards an embedded target item. Heterogeneity in visual search tasks is typically induced by segmenting the background into several perceptual groups. In the present study, however, context heterogeneity was induced by varying whole-field heterogeneity, i.e., the degree of distractor variability within the entire context. This allowed us to (i) more gradually vary context heterogeneity, and (ii) investigate attention deployment on a whole-field scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214978/characterization-of-dynamic-changes-of-current-source-localization-based-on-spatiotemporal-fmri-constrained-eeg-source-imaging
#2
Thinh Nguyen, Thomas Potter, Robert Grossman, Yingchun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging has been employed as a promising approach to advance our understanding of brain networks in both basic and clinical neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) represent two neuroimaging modalities with complementary features; EEG has high temporal resolution and low spatial resolution while fMRI has high spatial resolution and low temporal resolution. Multimodal EEG inverse methods have attempted to capitalize on these properties but have been subjected to localization error...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209157/the-effect-of-head-model-simplification-on-beamformer-source-localization
#3
Frank Neugebauer, Gabriel Möddel, Stefan Rampp, Martin Burger, Carsten H Wolters
Beamformers are a widely-used tool in brain analysis with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). For the construction of the beamformer filters realistic head volume conductor modeling is necessary for accurately computing the EEG and MEG leadfields, i.e., for solving the EEG and MEG forward problem. In this work, we investigate the influence of including realistic head tissue compartments into a finite element method (FEM) model on the beamformer's localization ability. Specifically, we investigate the effect of including cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter distinction, as well as segmenting the skull bone into compacta and spongiosa, and modeling white matter anisotropy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202135/latest-local-adaptive-and-sequential-training-for-tissue-segmentation-of-isointense-infant-brain-mr-images
#4
Li Wang, Yaozong Gao, Gang Li, Feng Shi, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Accurate segmentation of isointense infant (~6 months of age) brain MRIs is of great importance, however, a very challenging task, due to extremely low tissue contrast caused by ongoing myelination processes. In this work, we propose a novel learning method based on Local AdapTivE and Sequential Training (LATEST) for segmentation. Specifically, random forest technique is employed to train a local classifier (a single decision tree) for each voxel in the common space based on the neighboring training samples from atlases...
2017: Medical Computer Vision and Bayesian and Graphical Models for Biomedical Imaging: MICCAI 2016 International Workshops, MCV and BAMBI, Athens, Greece, October 21, 2016, Revised Selected Papers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195479/level-weighted-averaging-in-elevation-to-synchronous-amplitude-modulated-sounds
#5
Guus C Van Bentum, A John Van Opstal, Chaline M M Van Aartrijk, Marc M Van Wanrooij
To program a goal-directed response in the presence of multiple sounds, the audiomotor system should separate the sound sources. The authors examined whether the brain can segregate synchronous broadband sounds in the midsagittal plane, using amplitude modulations as an acoustic discrimination cue. To succeed in this task, the brain has to use pinna-induced spectral-shape cues and temporal envelope information. The authors tested spatial segregation performance in the midsagittal plane in two paradigms in which human listeners were required to localize, or distinguish, a target amplitude-modulated broadband sound when a non-modulated broadband distractor was played simultaneously at another location...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191115/focal-neurons-another-source-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-tissues
#6
Pengchen Li, Longbo Zhang, Deshun Chen, Ming Zeng, Fenghua Chen
Background Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular entities characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining veins, and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells that comprise bAVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. The role of abnormal angiogenesis in the formation and progression of bAVMs is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neurons and glial cells in bAVMs to try to uncover the multiple cell origin of VEGF...
November 30, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190704/electrocortical-correlates-of-human-level-ground-slope-and-stair-walking
#7
Trieu Phat Luu, Justin A Brantley, Sho Nakagome, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
This study investigated electrocortical dynamics of human walking across different unconstrained walking conditions (i.e., level ground (LW), ramp ascent (RA), and stair ascent (SA)). Non-invasive active-electrode scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization combined with independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain during the walking tasks: Left and Right Occipital Lobe (LOL, ROL), Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC), and Central Sensorimotor Cortex (SMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190523/electromagnetic-source-imaging-using-simultaneous-scalp-eeg-and-intracranial-eeg-an-emerging-tool-for-interacting-with-pathological-brain-networks
#8
Seyed Amir Hossein Hosseini, Abbas Sohrabpour, Bin He
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to investigate the performance, merits and limitations of source imaging using intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings and to compare its accuracy to the results of EEG source imaging. Accuracy in this study, is measured both by determining the location and inter-nodal connectivity of underlying brain networks. METHODS: Systematic computer simulation studies are conducted to evaluate iEEG-based source imaging vs. EEG-based source imaging, and source imaging using both EEG and iEEG...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179993/dissociable-effects-of-reward-and-expectancy-during-evaluative-feedback-processing-revealed-by-topographic-erp-mapping-analysis
#9
Davide Gheza, Katharina Paul, Gilles Pourtois
Evaluative feedback provided during performance monitoring (PM) elicits either a positive or negative deflection ~250-300ms after its onset in the event-related potential (ERP) depending on whether the outcome is reward-related or not, as well as expected or not. However, it remains currently unclear whether these two deflections reflect a unitary process, or rather dissociable effects arising from non-overlapping brain networks. To address this question, we recorded 64-channel EEG in healthy adult participants performing a standard gambling task where valence and expectancy were manipulated in a factorial design...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177115/levels-of-detail-analysis-of-microwave-scattering-from-human-head-models-for-brain-stroke-detection
#10
Awais Munawar Qureshi, Zartasha Mustansar
In this paper, we have presented a microwave scattering analysis from multiple human head models. This study incorporates different levels of detail in the human head models and its effect on microwave scattering phenomenon. Two levels of detail are taken into account; (i) Simplified ellipse shaped head model (ii) Anatomically realistic head model, implemented using 2-D geometry. In addition, heterogenic and frequency-dispersive behavior of the brain tissues has also been incorporated in our head models. It is identified during this study that the microwave scattering phenomenon changes significantly once the complexity of head model is increased by incorporating more details using magnetic resonance imaging database...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163118/semi-automated-anatomical-labeling-and-inter-subject-warping-of-high-density-intracranial-recording-electrodes-in-electrocorticography
#11
Liberty S Hamilton, David L Chang, Morgan B Lee, Edward F Chang
In this article, we introduce img_pipe, our open source python package for preprocessing of imaging data for use in intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) and intracranial stereo-EEG analyses. The process of electrode localization, labeling, and warping for use in ECoG currently varies widely across laboratories, and it is usually performed with custom, lab-specific code. This python package aims to provide a standardized interface for these procedures, as well as code to plot and display results on 3D cortical surface meshes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163017/electrical-neuroimaging-of-music-processing-reveals-mid-latency-changes-with-level-of-musical-expertise
#12
Clara E James, Mathias S Oechslin, Christoph M Michel, Michael De Pretto
This original research focused on the effect of musical training intensity on cerebral and behavioral processing of complex music using high-density event-related potential (ERP) approaches. Recently we have been able to show progressive changes with training in gray and white matter, and higher order brain functioning using (f)MRI [(functional) Magnetic Resonance Imaging], as well as changes in musical and general cognitive functioning. The current study investigated the same population of non-musicians, amateur pianists and expert pianists using spatio-temporal ERP analysis, by means of microstate analysis, and ERP source imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143096/-neurofeedback-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-tinnitus-review-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
T Kleinjung, C Thüring, D Güntensperger, P Neff, M Meyer
Neurofeedback is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique employing real-time display of brain activity in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) signals to teach self-regulation of distinct patterns of brain activity or influence brain activity in a targeted manner. The benefit of this approach for control of symptoms in attention deficit disorders, hyperactivity, depression, and migraine has been proven. Studies in recent years have also repeatedly shown this treatment to improve tinnitus symptoms, although it has not become established as routine therapy...
November 15, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128542/truncated-rap-music-trap-music-for-meg-and-eeg-source-localization
#14
Niko Mäkelä, Matti Stenroos, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
Electrically active brain regions can be located applying MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) on magneto- or electroencephalographic (MEG; EEG) data. We introduce a new MUSIC method, called truncated recursively-applied-and-projected MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC). It corrects a hidden deficiency of the conventional RAP-MUSIC algorithm, which prevents estimation of the true number of brain-signal sources accurately. The correction is done by applying a sequential dimension reduction to the signal-subspace projection...
November 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122721/a-common-periodic-representation-of-interaural-time-differences-in-mammalian-cortex
#15
Nelli H Salminen, Simon J Jones, Gestur B Christianson, Torsten Marquardt, David McAlpine
Binaural hearing, the ability to detect small differences in the timing and level of sounds at the two ears, underpins the ability to localize sound sources along the horizontal plane, and is important for decoding complex spatial listening environments into separate objects - a critical factor in 'cocktail-party listening'. For human listeners, the most important spatial cue is the interaural time difference (ITD). Despite many decades of neurophysiological investigations of ITD sensitivity in small mammals, and computational models aimed at accounting for human perception, a lack of concordance between these studies has hampered our understanding of how the human brain represents and processes ITDs...
November 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111606/incubation-with-cu-ii-and-zn-ii-salts-enhances-maldi-tof-mass-spectra-of-amyloid-beta-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-toward-in-vivo-analysis
#16
Andrea R Kelley, Madeline E Colley, George Perry, Stephan B H Bach
Insoluble senile plaque aggregates are indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. A similar phenomenon occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) with the build-up of Lewy bodies. The analysis of senile plaques, and other brain samples, from AD and PD patients by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has advantages but also presents obstacles due to the nature of the processes utilized in isolation procedures and storage. Salts, buffers, and detergents necessary in isolation of biological species may cause adducts and ion suppression that convolute the spectra obtained...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108430/exploration-of-the-pathophysiology-of-chronic-pain-using-quantitative-eeg-source-localization
#17
Leslie S Prichep, Jaini Shah, Henry Merkin, Emile M Hiesiger
Chronic pain affects more than 35% of the US adult population representing a major public health imperative. Currently, there are no objective means for identifying the presence of pain, nor for quantifying pain severity. Through a better understanding of the pathophysiology of pain, objective indicators of pain might be forthcoming. Brain mechanisms mediating the painful state were imaged in this study, using source localization of the EEG. In a population of 77 chronic pain patients, significant overactivation of the "Pain Matrix" or pain network, was found in brain regions including, the anterior cingulate, anterior and posterior insula, parietal lobule, thalamus, S1, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), consistent with those reported with conventional functional imaging, and extended to include the mid and posterior cingulate, suggesting that the increased temporal resolution of electrophysiological measures may allow a more precise identification of the pain network...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095852/neuronal-correlates-of-ketamine-and-walking-induced-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#18
Katrina E Furth, Alex J McCoy, Caroline Dodge, Judith R Walters, Andres Buonanno, Claire Delaville
Alterations in the function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its major thalamic source of innervation, the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, have been hypothesized to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The NMDAR antagonist ketamine, used to model schizophrenia, elicits a brain state resembling early stage schizophrenia characterized by cognitive deficits and increases in cortical low gamma (40-70 Hz) power. Here we sought to determine how ketamine differentially affects spiking and gamma local field potential (LFP) activity in the rat mPFC and MD thalamus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091962/porcine-brain-extract-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-bone-consolidation-in-a-rat-distraction-osteogenesis-model
#19
Jia Xu, Yuxin Sun, Tianyi Wu, Bin Wang, Yang Liu, Jinfang Zhang, Wayne Yukwai Lee, Qinglin Kang, Yimin Chai, Gang Li
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is the gold standard to treat large bone defects, but long consolidation period is a major limitation. Innovative efforts to promote osteogenesis are needed. Porcine brain extract (PBE) was reported to enhance the proliferation and differentiation of multiple primary cells. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for collecting PBE and investigate its effects on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and bone consolidation in a rat DO model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081420/qeeg-based-neural-correlates-of-decision-making-in-a-well-trained-eight-year-old-chess-player
#20
Abolfazl Alipour, Sahar Seifzadeh, Hadi Aligholi, Mohammad Nami
The neurocognitive substrates of decision making (DM) in the context of chess has appealed to researchers' interest for decades. Expert and beginner chess players are hypothesized to employ different brain functional networks when involved in episodes of critical DM upon chess. Cognitive capacities including, but not restricted to pattern recognition, visuospatial search, reasoning, planning and DM are perhaps the key determinants of rewarding and judgmental decisions in chess. Meanwhile, the precise neural correlates of DM in this context has largely remained elusive...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
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