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Brain Source Localization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522569/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-airway-fibrosis-in-asthma
#1
Michelle R Freeman, Venkatachalem Sathish, Logan J Manlove, Shengyu Wang, Rodney D Britt, Michael A Thompson, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Airway remodeling in asthma driven by inflammation involves proliferation of epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle (ASM), as well as enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) generation and deposition, i.e. fibrosis. Accordingly, understanding pro-fibrotic mechanisms is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies in asthma. Recent studies, including our own, have suggested a role for locally-produced growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating and modulating inflammation effects...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503250/localizing-sources-of-brain-disease-progression-with-network-diffusion-model
#3
Chenhui Hu, Xue Hua, Jun Ying, Paul M Thompson, Georges E Fakhri, Quanzheng Li
Pinpointing the sources of dementia is crucial to the effective treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we propose a diffusion model with impulsive sources over the brain connectivity network to model the progression of brain atrophy. To reliably estimate the atrophy sources, we impose sparse regularization on the source distribution and solve the inverse problem with an efficient gradient descent method. We localize the possible origins of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on a large set of repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database...
October 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501669/an-update-on-bacterial-brain-abscess-in-immunocompetent-patients
#4
REVIEW
R Sonneville, R Ruimy, N Benzonana, L Riffaud, A Carsin, J-M Tadié, C Piau, M Revest, P Tattevin
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess is a focal infection of the brain, that begins as a localized area of cerebritis. In immunocompetent patients, bacteria are responsible for >95% of brain abscess, and enter the brain either through contiguous spread following otitis, sinusitis, neurosurgery, or cranial trauma, or through hematogenous dissemination. AIMS: To identify recent advents in the field. Sources We searched Medline and Embase for articles published during years 2012-2016, with the keywords 'brain', and 'abscess'...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491494/the-relationship-between-morphological-lesion-magnetic-source-imaging-and-intracranial-stereo-electroencephalography-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#5
Romain Bouet, François Mauguière, Sébastien Daligault, Jean Isnard, Marc Guenot, Olivier Bertrand, Julien Jung
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a useful non-invasive technique for presurgical evaluation of focal cortical dysplasia patients. We aimed at clarifying the precise spatial relationship between the spiking volume determined with MEG, the seizure onset zone and the lesional volume in patients with focal cortical dysplasia. We studied the spatial relationships between the MEG spiking volume determined with a recent analysis pipeline, the seizure-onset zone location determined with a quantitative index calculated from intracranial EEG signals ('Epileptogenicity Index') and the lesional volume delineated on brain MRI in 11 patients with Focal Cortical Dysplasia explored with Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490451/evidence-for-intraventricular-secretion-of-angiotensinogen-and-angiotensin-by-the-subfornical-organ-using-transgenic-mice
#6
Khristofor Agassandian, Justin L Grobe, Xuebo Liu, Marianna Agassandian, Anthony P Thompson, Curt D Sigmund, Martin D Cassell
Direct intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II causes increases in blood pressure, salt and water intake, presumably mimicking an effect mediated by an endogenous mechanism. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a potential source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) angiotensin-I (Ang-I) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II), and thus we hypothesized that the SFO has a secretory function. Endogenous levels of angiotensinogen (AGT) and renin are very low in the brain. We therefore examined the immunohistochemical localization of angiotensin peptides and AGT in the SFO, and AGT in the CSF in two transgenic models over-expressing either human AGT (A+ mice), or both human AGT and human renin (SRA mice) in the brain...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467520/transdiagnostic-associations-between-functional-brain-network-integrity-and-cognition
#7
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Carol A Tamminga, Godfrey D Pearlson, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz, Dov B Lerman-Sinkoff, S Kristian Hill, Deanna M Barch
Importance: Cognitive impairment occurs across the psychosis spectrum and is associated with functional outcome. However, it is unknown whether these shared manifestations of cognitive dysfunction across diagnostic categories also reflect shared neurobiological mechanisms or whether the source of impairment differs. Objective: To examine whether the general cognitive deficit observed across psychotic disorders is similarly associated with functional integrity of 2 brain networks widely implicated in supporting many cognitive domains...
May 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466359/dysfunctions-in-striatal-microstructure-can-enhance-perceptual-decision-making-through-deficits-in-predictive-coding
#8
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
An important brain function is to predict upcoming events on the basis of extracted regularities of previous inputs. These predictive coding processes can disturb performance in concurrent perceptual decision-making and are known to depend on fronto-striatal circuits. However, it is unknown whether, and if so, to what extent striatal microstructural properties modulate these processes. We addressed this question in a human disease model of striosomal dysfunction, i.e. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), using high-density EEG recordings and source localization...
May 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461101/brain-source-localization-of-mmn-and-p300-erps-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-high-density-eeg-approach
#9
Anthoula C Tsolaki, Vasiliki Kosmidou, Ioannis Yiannis Kompatsiaris, Chrysa Papadaniil, Leontios Hadjileontiadis, Aikaterini Adam, Magda Tsolaki
Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease of Western societies, suggesting the need for early diagnosis, even in preclinical stages. In this vein, the localization of neuronal generators of event-related potential (ERP) components, that is, the mismatch negativity and the P300, based on high-density electroencephalogram data, was explored as a means to enhance their sensitivity as markers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). A 2-tone oddball experiment was conducted, involving 21 healthy elderly, 21 mild cognitive impairment, and 21 mild AD patients, while high-density electroencephalogram data were recorded...
March 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456227/development-of-a-bio-magnetic-measurement-system-and-sensor-configuration-analysis-for-rats
#10
Ji-Eun Kim, In-Seon Kim, Kiwoong Kim, Sanghyun Lim, Hyukchan Kwon, Chan Seok Kang, San Ahn, Kwon Kyu Yu, Yong-Ho Lee
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) based on superconducting quantum interference devices enables the measurement of very weak magnetic fields (10-1000 fT) generated from the human or animal brain. In this article, we introduce a small MEG system that we developed specifically for use with rats. Our system has the following characteristics: (1) variable distance between the pick-up coil and outer Dewar bottom (∼5 mm), (2) small pick-up coil (4 mm) for high spatial resolution, (3) good field sensitivity (45∼ 80fT/cm/Hz), (4) the sensor interval satisfies the Nyquist spatial sampling theorem, and (5) small source localization error for the region to be investigated...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456160/how-structure-sculpts-function-unveiling-the-contribution-of-anatomical-connectivity-to-the-brain-s-spontaneous-correlation-structure
#11
R G Bettinardi, G Deco, V M Karlaftis, T J Van Hartevelt, H M Fernandes, Z Kourtzi, M L Kringelbach, G Zamora-López
Intrinsic brain activity is characterized by highly organized co-activations between different regions, forming clustered spatial patterns referred to as resting-state networks. The observed co-activation patterns are sustained by the intricate fabric of millions of interconnected neurons constituting the brain's wiring diagram. However, as for other real networks, the relationship between the connectional structure and the emergent collective dynamics still evades complete understanding. Here, we show that it is possible to estimate the expected pair-wise correlations that a network tends to generate thanks to the underlying path structure...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432784/contributions-of-imprecision-in-pet-mri-rigid-registration-to-imprecision-in-amyloid-pet-suvr-measurements
#12
Christopher G Schwarz, David T Jones, Jeffrey L Gunter, Val J Lowe, Prashanthi Vemuri, Matthew L Senjem, Ronald C Petersen, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack
Quantitative measurement of β-amyloid from amyloid PET scans typically relies on localizing target and reference regions by image registration to MRI. In this work, we present a series of simulations where 50 small random perturbations of starting location and orientation were applied to each subject's PET scan, and rigid registration using spm_coreg was performed between each perturbed PET scan and its corresponding MRI. We then measured variation in the output PET-MRI registrations and how this variation affected the resulting SUVR measurements...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428738/improved-localization-of-seizure-onset-zones-using-spatiotemporal-constraints-and-time-varying-source-connectivity
#13
Juan D Martinez-Vargas, Gregor Strobbe, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo, German Castellanos-Dominguez
Presurgical evaluation of brain neural activity is commonly carried out in refractory epilepsy patients to delineate as accurately as possible the seizure onset zone (SOZ) before epilepsy surgery. In practice, any subjective interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings is hindered mainly because of the highly stochastic behavior of the epileptic activity. We propose a new method for dynamic source connectivity analysis that aims to accurately localize the seizure onset zones by explicitly including temporal, spectral, and spatial information of the brain neural activity extracted from EEG recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427019/transplantation-of-inhibitory-precursor-cells-from-medial-ganglionic-eminence-produces-distinct-responses-in-two-different-models-of-acute-seizure-induction
#14
Daisyléa de Souza Paiva, Simone Amaro Alves Romariz, Maria Fernanda Valente, Luiz Bruno Moraes, Luciene Covolan, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto, Beatriz Monteiro Longo
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is one of the sources of inhibitory interneurons during development. Following transplantation in postnatal developing brain, MGE cells can increase local inhibition suggesting a possible protection to GABAergic dysfunction in brain disorders, such as epilepsy. Since it has been shown that MGE-derived cells harvested as neurospheres are able to suppress seizures, it might be important to investigate whether these protective effects would change in different seizure models. Here, we used pentylenetetrazole-(PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure models to test whether the transplantation of MGE cells would increase the threshold to trigger acute seizures...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389914/ms-ms-analysis-and-imaging-of-lipids-across-drosophila-brain-using-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#15
Nhu T N Phan, Marwa Munem, Andrew G Ewing, John S Fletcher
Lipids are abundant biomolecules performing central roles to maintain proper functioning of cells and biological bodies. Due to their highly complex composition, it is critical to obtain information of lipid structures in order to identify particular lipids which are relevant for a biological process or metabolic pathway under study. Among currently available molecular identification techniques, MS/MS in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging has been of high interest in the bioanalytical community as it allows visualization of intact molecules in biological samples as well as elucidation of their chemical structures...
April 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389382/high-density-speckle-contrast-optical-tomography-scot-for-three-dimensional-tomographic-imaging-of-the-small-animal-brain
#16
Tanja Dragojevi, Hari M Varma, Joseph L Hollmann, Claudia P Valdes, Joseph P Culver, Carles Justicia, Turgut Durduran
High-density speckle contrast optical tomography (SCOT) utilizing tens of thousands of source-detector pairs, was developed for in vivo imaging of blood flow in small animals. The reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to local ischemic stroke in a mouse brain was transcanially imaged and reconstructed in three dimensions. The reconstructed volume was then compared with corresponding magnetic resonance images demonstrating that the volume of reduced CBF agrees with the infarct zone at twenty-four hours.
April 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382759/development-of-infant-sustained-attention-and-its-relation-to-eeg-oscillations-an-eeg-and-cortical-source-analysis-study
#17
Wanze Xie, Brittany M Mallin, John E Richards
The current study examined the relation between infant sustained attention and infant EEG oscillations. Fifty-nine infants were tested at 6 (N = 15), 8 (N = 17), 10 (N = 14), and 12 (N = 13) months. Three attention phases, stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and attention termination, were defined based on infants' heart rate changes. Frequency analysis using simultaneously recorded EEG focused on infant theta (2-6 Hz), alpha (6-9 Hz), and beta (9-14 Hz) rhythms. Cortical source analysis of EEG oscillations was conducted with realistic infant MRI models...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367403/functional-connectivity-disruptions-correlate-with-cognitive-phenotypes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
M Hassan, L Chaton, P Benquet, A Delval, C Leroy, L Plomhause, A J H Moonen, A A Duits, A F G Leentjens, V van Kranen-Mastenbroek, L Defebvre, P Derambure, F Wendling, K Dujardin
Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease are thought to be related to altered functional brain connectivity. To date, cognitive-related changes in Parkinson's disease have never been explored with dense-EEG with the aim of establishing a relationship between the degree of cognitive impairment, on the one hand, and alterations in the functional connectivity of brain networks, on the other hand. This study was aimed at identifying altered brain networks associated with cognitive phenotypes in Parkinson's disease using dense-EEG data recorded during rest with eyes closed...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367127/alterations-of-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-patterns-in-depression-and-bipolar-disorders-a-critical-assessment-of-magnetoencephalography-based-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Etienne Combrisson, Thomas Thiery, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Karim Jerbi
Despite being the object of a thriving field of clinical research, the investigation of intrinsic brain network alterations in psychiatric illnesses is still in its early days. Because the pathological alterations are predominantly probed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), many questions about the electrophysiological bases of resting-state alterations in psychiatric disorders, particularly among mood disorder patients, remain unanswered. Alongside important research using electroencephalography (EEG), the specific recent contributions and future promise of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in this field are not fully recognized and valued...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362583/back-projection-cortical-potential-imaging-theory-and-results
#20
Dror Haor, Reuven Shavit, Moshe Shapiro, Amir Geva
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the single brain monitoring technique that is non-invasive, portable, passive, exhibits high temporal resolution, and gives a direct measurement of the scalp electrical potential. A major disadvantage of the EEG is its low spatial resolution, which is the result of the lowconductive skull that "smears" the currents coming from within the brain. Recording brain activity with both high temporal and spatial resolution is crucial for the localization of confined brain activations and the study of brain mechanism functionality, which is then followed by diagnosis of brain-related diseases...
March 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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