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Brain Source Localization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650974/resting-state-electrical-brain-activity-and-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia
#1
Sven Vanneste, Jan Ost, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder
The exact mechanism underlying fibromyalgia is unknown, but increased facilitatory modulation and/or dysfunctional descending inhibitory pathway activity are posited as possible mechanisms contributing to sensitization of the central nervous system. The primary goal of this study is to identify a fibromyalgia neural circuit that can account for these abnormalities in central pain. The second goal is to gain a better understanding of the functional connectivity between the default and the executive attention network (salience network plus dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) in fibromyalgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649970/cyberarc-a-non-coplanar-arc-optimization-algorithm-for-cyberknife
#2
Vasant Kearney, Joey P Cheung, Christopher McGuinness, Timothy D Solberg
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel non-coplanar-arc optimization algorithm (CyberArc). This method aims to reduce the delivery time of conventional CyberKnife treatments by allowing for continuous beam delivery. CyberArc uses a 4 step optimization strategy, in which nodes, beams, and collimator sizes are determined, source trajectories are calculated, intermediate radiation models are generated, and final monitor units are calculated, for the continuous radiation source model...
June 26, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649314/hierarchical-cortical-transcriptome-disorganization-in-autism
#3
Michael V Lombardo, Eric Courchesne, Nathan E Lewis, Tiziano Pramparo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are etiologically heterogeneous and complex. Functional genomics work has begun to identify a diverse array of dysregulated transcriptomic programs (e.g., synaptic, immune, cell cycle, DNA damage, WNT signaling, cortical patterning and differentiation) potentially involved in ASD brain abnormalities during childhood and adulthood. However, it remains unclear whether such diverse dysregulated pathways are independent of each other or instead reflect coordinated hierarchical systems-level pathology...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648913/the-effects-of-analgesics-on-central-processing-of-tonic-pain-a-cross-over-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Dina Lelic, Tine M Hansen, Esben B Mark, Anne E Olesen, Asbjørn M Drewes
INTRODUCTION: Opioids and antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) are recognized as analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain, but the central mechanisms underlying their analgesia remain unclear. This study investigated how brain activity at rest and exposed to tonic pain is modified by oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (SNRI). METHODS: Twenty healthy males were included in this randomized, cross-over, double-blinded study. 61-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded before and after five days of treatment with placebo, oxycodone (10 mg extended release b...
June 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645842/opennft-an-open-source-python-matlab-framework-for-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-training-based-on-activity-connectivity-and-multivariate-pattern-analysis
#5
Yury Koush, John Ashburner, Evgeny Prilepin, Ronald Sladky, Peter Zeidman, Sergei Bibikov, Frank Scharnowski, Artem Nikonorov, Dimitri Van De Ville
Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) is a novel and rapidly developing research field. It allows for training of voluntary control over localized brain activity and connectivity and has demonstrated promising clinical applications. Because of the rapid technical developments of MRI techniques and the availability of high-performance computing, new methodological advances in rt-fMRI neurofeedback become possible. Here we outline the core components of a novel open-source neurofeedback framework, termed Open NeuroFeedback Training (OpenNFT), which efficiently integrates these new developments...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643879/inter-subject-alignment-of-meg-datasets-in-a-common-representational-space
#6
Qiong Zhang, Jelmer P Borst, Robert E Kass, John R Anderson
Pooling neural imaging data across subjects requires aligning recordings from different subjects. In magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings, sensors across subjects are poorly correlated both because of differences in the exact location of the sensors, and structural and functional differences in the brains. It is possible to achieve alignment by assuming that the same regions of different brains correspond across subjects. However, this relies on both the assumption that brain anatomy and function are well correlated, and the strong assumptions that go into solving the under-determined inverse problem given the high-dimensional source space...
June 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631281/detecting-large-scale-networks-in-the-human-brain-using-high-density-electroencephalography
#7
Quanying Liu, Seyedehrezvan Farahibozorg, Camillo Porcaro, Nicole Wenderoth, Dante Mantini
High-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) is an emerging brain imaging technique that can be used to investigate fast dynamics of electrical activity in the healthy and the diseased human brain. Its applications are however currently limited by a number of methodological issues, among which the difficulty in obtaining accurate source localizations. In particular, these issues have so far prevented EEG studies from reporting brain networks similar to those previously detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617796/egocentric-and-allocentric-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#8
Stephen M Town, W Owen Brimijoin, Jennifer K Bizley
A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611613/simultaneous-processing-of-noun-cue-and-to-be-produced-verb-in-verb-generation-task-electromagnetic-evidence
#9
Anna V Butorina, Anna A Pavlova, Anastasia Y Nikolaeva, Andrey O Prokofyev, Denis P Bondarev, Tatiana A Stroganova
A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words' semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600639/double-dissociation-between-the-neural-correlates-of-the-general-and-specific-factors-of-the-life-orientation-test-revised
#10
Guido Alessandri, Vilfredo De Pascalis
In this article, we explore the neural correlates of the general and specific factors assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised. These factors have been shown to assess general optimism (GO) and a form of self-enhancement akin to unrealistic optimism (SP). Toward our aim, we used a standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), which provides electroencephalographic (EEG) localization measures that are independent of recording reference. Resting-EEG and self-report measures of GO and SP were collected from 51 female undergraduates...
June 9, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596834/acute-cocaine-exposure-elicits-rises-in-calcium-in-arousal-related-laterodorsal-tegmental-neurons
#11
Mads Ødum Lambert, Theis Højland Ipsen, Kristi Anne Kohlmeier
Cocaine has strong reinforcing properties, which underlie its high addiction potential. Reinforcement of use of addictive drugs is associated with rises in dopamine (DA) in mesoaccumbal circuitry. Excitatory afferent input to mesoaccumbal circuitry sources from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). Chronic, systemic cocaine exposure has been shown to have cellular effects on LDT cells, but acute actions of local application have never been demonstrated. Using calcium imaging, we show that acute application of cocaine to mouse brain slices induces calcium spiking in cells of the LDT...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595120/background-field-removal-using-a-region-adaptive-kernel-for-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-of-human-brain
#12
Jinsheng Fang, Lijun Bao, Xu Li, Peter C M van Zijl, Zhong Chen
Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592685/robotic-navigation-to-sub-cortical-neural-tissue-for-intracellular-electrophysiology-in-vivo
#13
William Andrew Stoy, Ilya Kolb, Gregory Holst, Yi J Liew, Aurelie Pala, Bo Yang, Edward S Boyden, Garrett B Stanley, Craig R Forest
In vivo studies of neurophysiology using the whole-cell patch clamp technique enable exquisite access to both intracellular dynamics and cytosol of cells in the living brain but are underrepresented in deep subcortical nuclei due to fouling of the sensitive electrode tip. We have developed an autonomous method to navigate electrodes around obstacles such as blood vessels, after identifying them as a source of contamination during regional pipette localization (RPL) in vivo. In mice, robotic navigation prevented fouling of the electrode tip, increasing RPL success probability 3 mm below the pial surface to 82% (n=72/88) over traditional, linear localization (25%, n=24/95) and resulted in high quality thalamic whole-cell recordings with average access resistance (32...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587767/frontal-alpha-asymmetry-predicts-inhibitory-processing-in-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Alissa J Ellis, Chantelle Kinzel, Giulia C Salgari, Sandra K Loo
INTRODUCTION: Atypical asymmetry in brain activity has been implicated in the behavioral and attentional dysregulation observed in ADHD. Specifically, asymmetry in neural activity in the right versus left frontal regions has been linked to ADHD, as well as to symptoms often associated with ADHD such as heightened approach behaviors, impulsivity and difficulties with inhibition. Clarifying the role of frontal asymmetry in ADHD-like traits, such as disinhibition, may provide information on the neurophysiological processes underlying these behaviors...
June 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582479/restless-rest-intrinsic-sensory-hyperactivity-and-disinhibition-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Kevin Clancy, Mingzhou Ding, Edward Bernat, Norman B Schmidt, Wen Li
Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated threat response, and theoretical accounts to date have focused on impaired threat processing and dysregulated prefrontal-cortex-amygdala circuitry. Nevertheless, evidence is accruing for broad, threat-neutral sensory hyperactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. As low-level, sensory processing impacts higher-order operations, such sensory anomalies can contribute to widespread dysfunctions, presenting an additional aetiological mechanism for post-traumatic stress disorder...
June 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578130/optimal-use-of-eeg-recordings-to-target-active-brain-areas-with-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#16
Jacek P Dmochowski, Laurent Koessler, Anthony M Norcia, Marom Bikson, Lucas C Parra
To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i...
May 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576731/quantify-neuromagnetic-network-changes-from-pre-ictal-to-ictal-activities-in-absence-seizures
#17
Caiyun Wu, Jing Xiang, Jintao Sun, Shuyang Huang, Lu Tang, Ailiang Miao, Yuchen Zhou, Qiqi Chen, Zheng Hu, Xiaoshan Wang
OBJECTIVE: The cortico-thalamo-cortical network plays a key role in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). However, the exact interaction between the cortex and the thalamus remains incompletely understood. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes of frequency-dependent neural networks during the initialization of absence seizures. METHODS: Magnetoencephalography data from 14 patients with CAE were recorded during and between seizures at a sampling rate of 6000Hz and analyzed in seven frequency bands...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571910/alzheimer-s-disease-disrupts-alpha-and-beta-band-resting-state-oscillatory-network-connectivity
#18
Loes Koelewijn, Aline Bompas, Andrea Tales, Matthew J Brookes, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy, Antony Bayer, Krish D Singh
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) yield conflicting results due to selective investigation. We conducted a comprehensive magnetoencephalography study of connectivity changes in AD and healthy ageing in the resting-state. METHODS: We performed a whole-brain, source-space assessment of oscillatory neural signalling in multiple frequencies comparing AD patients, elderly and young controls. We compared eyes-open and closed group oscillatory envelope activity in networks obtained through temporal independent component analysis, and calculated whole-brain node-based amplitude and phase connectivity...
May 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570661/breakdown-of-local-information-processing-may-underlie-isoflurane-anesthesia-effects
#19
Patricia Wollstadt, Kristin K Sellers, Lucas Rudelt, Viola Priesemann, Axel Hutt, Flavio Fröhlich, Michael Wibral
The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source-such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we reconsidered past interpretations of reduced information transfer as a sign of decoupling, and asked whether impaired local information processing leads to a loss of information transfer...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566997/eeg-based-quantification-of-cortical-current-density-and-dynamic-causal-connectivity-generalized-across-subjects-performing-bci-monitored-cognitive-tasks
#20
Hristos Courellis, Tim Mullen, Howard Poizner, Gert Cauwenberghs, John R Iversen
Quantification of dynamic causal interactions among brain regions constitutes an important component of conducting research and developing applications in experimental and translational neuroscience. Furthermore, cortical networks with dynamic causal connectivity in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications offer a more comprehensive view of brain states implicated in behavior than do individual brain regions. However, models of cortical network dynamics are difficult to generalize across subjects because current electroencephalography (EEG) signal analysis techniques are limited in their ability to reliably localize sources across subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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