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Brain Source Localization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432784/contributions-of-imprecision-in-pet-mri-rigid-registration-to-imprecision-in-amyloid-pet-suvr-measurements
#1
Christopher G Schwarz, David T Jones, Jeffrey L Gunter, Val J Lowe, Prashanthi Vemuri, Matthew L Senjem, Ronald C Petersen, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack
Quantitative measurement of β-amyloid from amyloid PET scans typically relies on localizing target and reference regions by image registration to MRI. In this work, we present a series of simulations where 50 small random perturbations of starting location and orientation were applied to each subject's PET scan, and rigid registration using spm_coreg was performed between each perturbed PET scan and its corresponding MRI. We then measured variation in the output PET-MRI registrations and how this variation affected the resulting SUVR measurements...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428738/improved-localization-of-seizure-onset-zones-using-spatiotemporal-constraints-and-time-varying-source-connectivity
#2
Juan D Martinez-Vargas, Gregor Strobbe, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo, German Castellanos-Dominguez
Presurgical evaluation of brain neural activity is commonly carried out in refractory epilepsy patients to delineate as accurately as possible the seizure onset zone (SOZ) before epilepsy surgery. In practice, any subjective interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings is hindered mainly because of the highly stochastic behavior of the epileptic activity. We propose a new method for dynamic source connectivity analysis that aims to accurately localize the seizure onset zones by explicitly including temporal, spectral, and spatial information of the brain neural activity extracted from EEG recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427019/transplantation-of-inhibitory-precursor-cells-from-medial-ganglionic-eminence-produces-distinct-responses-in-two-different-models-of-acute-seizure-induction
#3
Daisyléa de Souza Paiva, Simone Amaro Alves Romariz, Maria Fernanda Valente, Luiz Bruno Moraes, Luciene Covolan, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto, Beatriz Monteiro Longo
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is one of the sources of inhibitory interneurons during development. Following transplantation in postnatal developing brain, MGE cells can increase local inhibition suggesting a possible protection to GABAergic dysfunction in brain disorders, such as epilepsy. Since it has been shown that MGE-derived cells harvested as neurospheres are able to suppress seizures, it might be important to investigate whether these protective effects would change in different seizure models. Here, we used pentylenetetrazole-(PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure models to test whether the transplantation of MGE cells would increase the threshold to trigger acute seizures...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389914/ms-ms-analysis-and-imaging-of-lipids-across-drosophila-brain-using-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#4
Nhu T N Phan, Marwa Munem, Andrew G Ewing, John S Fletcher
Lipids are abundant biomolecules performing central roles to maintain proper functioning of cells and biological bodies. Due to their highly complex composition, it is critical to obtain information of lipid structures in order to identify particular lipids which are relevant for a biological process or metabolic pathway under study. Among currently available molecular identification techniques, MS/MS in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging has been of high interest in the bioanalytical community as it allows visualization of intact molecules in biological samples as well as elucidation of their chemical structures...
April 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389382/high-density-speckle-contrast-optical-tomography-scot-for-three-dimensional-tomographic-imaging-of-the-small-animal-brain
#5
Tanja Dragojevi, Hari M Varma, Joseph L Hollmann, Claudia P Valdes, Joseph P Culver, Carles Justicia, Turgut Durduran
High-density speckle contrast optical tomography (SCOT) utilizing tens of thousands of source-detector pairs, was developed for in vivo imaging of blood flow in small animals. The reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to local ischemic stroke in a mouse brain was transcanially imaged and reconstructed in three dimensions. The reconstructed volume was then compared with corresponding magnetic resonance images demonstrating that the volume of reduced CBF agrees with the infarct zone at twenty-four hours.
April 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382759/development-of-infant-sustained-attention-and-its-relation-to-eeg-oscillations-an-eeg-and-cortical-source-analysis-study
#6
Wanze Xie, Brittany M Mallin, John E Richards
The current study examined the relation between infant sustained attention and infant EEG oscillations. Fifty-nine infants were tested at 6 (N = 15), 8 (N = 17), 10 (N = 14), and 12 (N = 13) months. Three attention phases, stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and attention termination, were defined based on infants' heart rate changes. Frequency analysis using simultaneously recorded EEG focused on infant theta (2-6 Hz), alpha (6-9 Hz), and beta (9-14 Hz) rhythms. Cortical source analysis of EEG oscillations was conducted with realistic infant MRI models...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367403/functional-connectivity-disruptions-correlate-with-cognitive-phenotypes-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
M Hassan, L Chaton, P Benquet, A Delval, C Leroy, L Plomhause, A J H Moonen, A A Duits, A F G Leentjens, V van Kranen-Mastenbroek, L Defebvre, P Derambure, F Wendling, K Dujardin
Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease are thought to be related to altered functional brain connectivity. To date, cognitive-related changes in Parkinson's disease have never been explored with dense-EEG with the aim of establishing a relationship between the degree of cognitive impairment, on the one hand, and alterations in the functional connectivity of brain networks, on the other hand. This study was aimed at identifying altered brain networks associated with cognitive phenotypes in Parkinson's disease using dense-EEG data recorded during rest with eyes closed...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367127/alterations-of-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-patterns-in-depression-and-bipolar-disorders-a-critical-assessment-of-magnetoencephalography-based-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Etienne Combrisson, Thomas Thiery, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Karim Jerbi
Despite being the object of a thriving field of clinical research, the investigation of intrinsic brain network alterations in psychiatric illnesses is still in its early days. Because the pathological alterations are predominantly probed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), many questions about the electrophysiological bases of resting-state alterations in psychiatric disorders, particularly among mood disorder patients, remain unanswered. Alongside important research using electroencephalography (EEG), the specific recent contributions and future promise of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in this field are not fully recognized and valued...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362583/back-projection-cortical-potential-imaging-theory-and-results
#9
Dror Haor, Reuven Shavit, Moshe Shapiro, Amir Geva
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the single brain monitoring technique that is non-invasive, portable, passive, exhibits high temporal resolution, and gives a direct measurement of the scalp electrical potential. A major disadvantage of the EEG is its low spatial resolution, which is the result of the lowconductive skull that "smears" the currents coming from within the brain. Recording brain activity with both high temporal and spatial resolution is crucial for the localization of confined brain activations and the study of brain mechanism functionality, which is then followed by diagnosis of brain-related diseases...
March 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360839/emerging-roles-for-glycogen-in-the-cns
#10
REVIEW
Alice E Waitt, Liam Reed, Bruce R Ransom, Angus M Brown
The ability of glycogen, the depot into which excess glucose is stored in mammals, to act as a source of rapidly available energy substrate, has been exploited by several organs for both general and local advantage. The liver, expressing the highest concentration of glycogen maintains systemic normoglycemia ensuring the brain receives a supply of glucose in excess of demand. However the brain also contains glycogen, although its role is more specialized. Brain glycogen is located exclusively in astrocytes in the adult, with the exception of pathological conditions, thus in order to benefit neurons, and energy conduit (lactate) is trafficked inter-cellularly...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351691/optical-flow-analysis-toolbox-for-characterization-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-mesoscale-optical-imaging-of-brain-activity
#11
Navvab Afrashteh, Samsoon Inayat, Mostafa Mohsenvand, Majid H Mohajerani
Wide-field optical imaging techniques constitute powerful tools to investigate mesoscale neuronal activity. The sampled data constitutes a sequence of image frames in which one can investigate the flow of brain activity starting and terminating at source and sink locations respectively. Approaches to the analyses of information flow include qualitative assessment to identify sources and sinks of activity as well as their trajectories, and quantitative measurements based on computing the temporal variation of the intensity of pixels...
March 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327613/robust-and-fast-characterization-of-oct-based-optical-attenuation-using-a-novel-frequency-domain-algorithm-for-brain-cancer-detection
#12
Wu Yuan, Carmen Kut, Wenxuan Liang, Xingde Li
Cancer is known to alter the local optical properties of tissues. The detection of OCT-based optical attenuation provides a quantitative method to efficiently differentiate cancer from non-cancer tissues. In particular, the intraoperative use of quantitative OCT is able to provide a direct visual guidance in real time for accurate identification of cancer tissues, especially these without any obvious structural layers, such as brain cancer. However, current methods are suboptimal in providing high-speed and accurate OCT attenuation mapping for intraoperative brain cancer detection...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326645/local-changes-in-the-wake-electroencephalogram-precedes-lane-departures
#13
Christer Ahlstrom, Sabina Jansson, Anna Anund
The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate if lane departures are associated with local sleep, measured via source-localized electroencephalography (EEG) theta power in the 5-9 Hz frequency range. Thirty participants drove in an advanced driving simulator, resulting in 135 lane departures at high levels of self-reported sleepiness. These lane departures were compared to matching non-departures at the same sleepiness level within the same individual. There was no correspondence between lane departures and global theta activity...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323161/seeg-dipole-source-localization-based-on-an-empirical-bayesian-approach-taking-into-account-forward-model-uncertainties
#14
S Le Cam, R Ranta, V Caune, G Korats, L Koessler, L Maillard, V Louis-Dorr
Electromagnetic brain source localization consists in the inversion of a forward model based on a limited number of potential measurements. A wide range of methods has been developed to regularize this severely ill-posed problem and to reduce the solution space, imposing spatial smoothness, anatomical constraint or sparsity of the activated source map. This last criteria, based on physiological assumptions stating that in some particular events (e.g., epileptic spikes, evoked potential) few focal area of the brain are simultaneously actives, has gained more and more interest...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322859/decoding-the-encoding-of-functional-brain-networks-an-fmri-classification-comparison-of-non-negative-matrix-factorization-nmf-independent-component-analysis-ica-and-sparse-coding-algorithms
#15
Jianwen Xie, Pamela K Douglas, Ying Nian Wu, Arthur L Brody, Ariana E Anderson
BACKGROUND: Brain networks in fMRI are typically identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yet other mathematical constraints provide alternate biologically-plausible frameworks for generating brain networks. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) would suppress negative BOLD signal by enforcing positivity. Spatial sparse coding algorithms (L1 Regularized Learning and K-SVD) would impose local specialization and a discouragement of multitasking, where the total observed activity in a single voxel originates from a restricted number of possible brain networks...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303098/ielectrodes-a-comprehensive-open-source-toolbox-for-depth-and-subdural-grid-electrode-localization
#16
Alejandro O Blenkmann, Holly N Phillips, Juan P Princich, James B Rowe, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Carlos H Muravchik, Silvia Kochen
The localization of intracranial electrodes is a fundamental step in the analysis of invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in research and clinical practice. The conclusions reached from the analysis of these recordings rely on the accuracy of electrode localization in relationship to brain anatomy. However, currently available techniques for localizing electrodes from magnetic resonance (MR) and/or computerized tomography (CT) images are time consuming and/or limited to particular electrode types or shapes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300640/consistency-of-eeg-source-localization-and-connectivity-estimates
#17
Keyvan Mahjoory, Vadim V Nikulin, Loïc Botrel, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Marco M Fato, Stefan Haufe
As the EEG inverse problem does not have a unique solution, the sources reconstructed from EEG and their connectivity properties depend on forward and inverse modeling parameters such as the choice of an anatomical template and electrical model, prior assumptions on the sources, and further implementational details. In order to use source connectivity analysis as a reliable research tool, there is a need for stability across a wider range of standard estimation routines. Using resting state EEG recordings of N=65 participants acquired within two studies, we present the first comprehensive assessment of the consistency of EEG source localization and functional/effective connectivity metrics across two anatomical templates (ICBM152 and Colin27), three electrical models (BEM, FEM and spherical harmonics expansions), three inverse methods (WMNE, eLORETA and LCMV), and three software implementations (Brainstorm, Fieldtrip and our own toolbox)...
March 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281494/role-of-magnetoencephalography-and-stereo-electroencephalography-in-the-presurgical-evaluation-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
V Jayabal, Ashok Pillai, S Sinha, N Mariyappa, P Satishchandra, S Gopinath, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
In selected patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies (DRFE), who otherwise are likely to be excluded from epilepsy surgery (ES) because of the absence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-demonstrable lesion or discordant anatomo-electro-clinical (AEC) data, magnetoencephalography (MEG) may help to generate an AEC hypothesis and stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) may help to verify the hypothesis and proceed with ES. The sensitivity of MEG is much better in localizing the spiking zone in relation to lateral temporal and extratemporal cortical regions compared to the mesial temporal structures...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279193/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-orthotopic-glioblastoma-xenografts
#19
Simone Pacioni, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Stefano Giannetti, Liliana Morgante, Valentina Coccè, Arianna Bonomi, Mariachiara Buccarelli, Luisa Pascucci, Giulio Alessandri, Augusto Pessina, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Maria Laura Falchetti, Roberto Pallini
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive tool for cell-based cancer therapy mainly because of their ability to migrate to tumors and to release bioactive molecules. However, the impact of MSCs on tumor growth has not been fully established. We previously demonstrated that murine MSCs show a strong tropism towards glioblastoma (GBM) brain xenografts and that these cells are able to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX), maintaining their tropism towards the tumor...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275720/hetereogeneity-in-neuronal-intrinsic-properties-a-possible-mechanism-for-hub-like-properties-of-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-network-activity
#20
Natalie E Adams, Jason S Sherfey, Nancy J Kopell, Miles A Whittington, Fiona E N LeBeau
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is vital for a range of brain functions requiring cognitive control and has highly divergent inputs and outputs, thus manifesting as a hub in connectomic analyses. Studies show diverse functional interactions within the ACC are associated with network oscillations in the β (20-30 Hz) and γ (30-80 Hz) frequency range. Oscillations permit dynamic routing of information within cortex, a function that depends on bandpass filter-like behavior to selectively respond to specific inputs...
January 2017: ENeuro
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