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Brain Source Localization

Wen-Ju Pan, Seung Yup Lee, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Waqas Majeed, Erin Buckley, Shella Keilholz
Optical studies of ex vivo brain slices where blood is absent show that neural activity is accompanied by significant intrinsic optical signals (IOS) related to activity-dependent scattering changes in neural tissue. However, the neural scattering signals have been largely ignored in vivo in widely-used IOS methods where absorption contrast from hemoglobin was employed. Changes in scattering were observed on a time scale of seconds in previous brain slice IOS studies, similar to the time scale for the hemodynamic response...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Ning Mei, Michael D Grossberg, Kenneth Ng, Karen T Navarro, Timothy M Ellmore
There is growing interest in understanding how specific neural events that occur during sleep, including characteristic spindle oscillations between 10 and 16 Hz (Hz), are related to learning and memory. Neural events can be recorded during sleep using the well-known method of scalp electroencephalography (EEG). While publicly available sleep EEG datasets exist, most consist of only a few channels collected in specific patient groups being evaluated overnight for sleep disorders in clinical settings. The dataset described in this Data in Brief includes 22 participants who each participated in EEG recordings on two separate days...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Pankush Kalgotra, Ramesh Sharda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Because examining correlated (vs. individual) brain activity is a superior method for locating neural correlates of a stimulus, using a network approach for analyzing brain activity is gaining interest. In this study, we propose and illustrate the use of association rule mining (ARM) to analyze brain regions that are activated simultaneously. ARM is commonly used in marketing and other disciplines to help determine items that might be purchased together. We apply this technique toward identifying correlated brain regions that may respond simultaneously to specific stimuli...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Jing Zhu, Jianxiu Li, Xiaowei Li, Juan Rao, Yanrong Hao, Zhijie Ding, Gangping Wang
Objects: Effective psychological function requires that cognition is not affected by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli in emotional conflict. Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder. The object of this study is to reveal the behavioral and electrophysiological signature of emotional conflict processing in major depressive disorder (MDD) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analysis. Method: We used a face-word Stroop task involving emotional faces while recording EEG (electroencephalography) in 20 patients with MDD and 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sven Vanneste, Kathleen Joos, Jan Ost, Dirk De Ridder
Background: In this study we are using source localized neurofeedback to moderate tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity in the posterior cingulate cortex has a moderating effect on tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network and other functionally connected brain areas...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Harilal Parasuram, Bipin Nair, Giovanni Naldi, Egidio D'Angelo, Shyam Diwakar
Background: The cerebellar granular layer input stage of cerebellum receives information from tactile and sensory regions of the body. The somatosensory activity in the cerebellar granular layer corresponds to sensory and tactile input has been observed by recording Local Field Potential (LFP) from the Crus-IIa regions of cerebellum in brain slices and in anesthetized animals. Purpose: In this paper, a detailed biophysical model of Wistar rat cerebellum granular layer network model and LFP modelling schemas were used to simulate circuit's evoked response...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Grzegorz M Wojcik, Jolanta Masiak, Andrzej Kawiak, Piotr Schneider, Lukasz Kwasniewicz, Nikodem Polak, Anna Gajos-Balinska
The interview is still the main and most important tool in psychiatrist's work. The neuroimaging methods such as CT or MRI are widely used in other fields of medicine, for instance neurology. However, psychiatry lacks effective quantitative methods to support of diagnosis. A novel neuroinformatic approach to help clinical patients by means of electroencephalographic technology in order to build foundations for finding neurophysiological biomarkers of psychiatric disorders is proposed. A cohort of 30 right-handed patients (21 males, 9 females) with psychiatric disorders (mainly with panic and anxiety disorder, Asperger syndrome as well as with phobic anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, nonorganic hypersomnia, and moderate depressive episode) were examined using the dense array EEG amplifier in the P300 experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Valentina Ciullo, Daniela Vecchio, Tommaso Gili, Gianfranco Spalletta, Federica Piras
The ability to generate probabilistic expectancies regarding when and where sensory stimuli will occur, is critical to derive timely and accurate inferences about updating contexts. However, the existence of specialized neural networks for inferring predictive relationships between events is still debated. Using graph theoretical analysis applied to structural connectivity data, we tested the extent of brain connectivity properties associated with spatio-temporal predictive performance across 29 healthy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kasia Kozlowska, Chris J Spooner, Donna M Palmer, Anthony Harris, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Stephen Scher, Leanne M Williams
Objective: Children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) present with diverse neurological symptoms not explained by a disease process. Functional neurological symptoms have been conceptualized as somatoform dissociation, a disruption of the brain's intrinsic organization and reversion to a more primitive level of function. We used EEG to investigate neural function and functional brain organization in children/adolescents with FND. Method: EEG was recorded in the resting eyes-open condition in 57 patients (aged 8...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Magdalena Senderecka, Michał Ociepka, Magdalena Matyjek, Bartłomiej Kroczek
The present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to evaluate whether short-duration affective states induced by negative and positive words can lead to increased error-monitoring activity relative to a neutral task condition. Second, we intended to determine whether such an enhancement is limited to words of specific valence or is a general response to arousing material. Third, we wanted to assess whether post-error brain activity is associated with incidental memory for negative and/or positive words...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Abhay Deshmukh, Jared Leichner, Jihye Bae, Yinchen Song, Pedro A Valdés-Hernández, Wei-Chiang Lin, Jorge J Riera
Current clinical practice in focal epilepsy involves brain source imaging (BSI) to localize brain areas where from interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) emerge. These areas, named irritative zones , have been useful to define candidate seizures-onset zones during pre-surgical workup. Since human histological data are mostly available from final resected zones, systematic studies characterizing pathophysiological mechanisms and abnormal molecular/cellular substrates in irritative zones-independent of them being epileptogenic-are challenging...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Erica Varoli, Alberto Pisoni, Giulia C Mattavelli, Alessandra Vergallito, Alessia Gallucci, Lilia D Mauro, Mario Rosanova, Nadia Bolognini, Giuseppe Vallar, Leonor J Romero Lauro
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly used in both research and therapeutic settings, but its precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. At a neuronal level, tDCS modulates cortical excitability by shifting the resting membrane potential in a polarity-dependent way: anodal stimulation increases the spontaneous firing rate, while cathodal decreases it. However, the neurophysiological underpinnings of anodal/cathodal tDCS seem to be different, as well as their behavioral effect, in particular when high order areas are involved, compared to when motor or sensory brain areas are targeted...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brett M Tracy, Krista Miller, Ashley Thompson, Jo Cooke-Barber, Phillip Bloodworth, Eric Clayton, William Boswell
INTRODUCTION: Golf cart trauma in southeast Georgia represents a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. We believe these events are related to the introduction of new state legislation that allows local authorities to govern golf cart operation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review from 2010 to 2016 of children involved in golf cart traumas (n = 46). We recorded age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), location of event, and patient position during event...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
A Lingner, M Pecka, C Leibold, B Grothe
Traditionally, the auditory system is thought to serve reliable sound localization. Stimulus-history driven feedback circuits in the early binaural pathway, however, contradict this canonical concept and raise questions about their functional significance. Here we show that stimulus-history dependent changes in absolute space perception are poorly captured by the traditional labeled-line and hemispheric-difference models of auditory space coding. We therefore developed a new decoding model incorporating recent electrophysiological findings in which sound location is initially computed in both brain hemispheres independently and combined to yield a hemispherically balanced code...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alba Simats, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Laura Ramiro, Dolors Giralt, Natalia Gill, Anna Penalba, Alejandro Bustamante, Anna Rosell, Joan Montaner
The limited accessibility to the brain has turned the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into a valuable source that may contribute to the complete understanding of the stroke pathophysiology. Here we have described the CSF proteome in the hyper-acute phase of cerebral ischemia by performing an aptamer-based proteomic assay (SOMAscan) in CSF samples collected before and 30 min after male Wistar rats had undergone a 90 min Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) or sham-surgery. Proteomic results indicated that cerebral ischemia acutely increased the CSF levels of 716 proteins, mostly overrepresented in leukocyte chemotaxis and neuronal death processes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Liesa Ilg, Manousos Klados, Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Shu-Chen Li
The fetus is highly responsive to the level of glucocorticoids in the gestational environment. Perturbing glucocorticoids during fetal development could yield long-term consequences. Extending prior research about effects of prenatally exposed synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) on brain structural development during childhood, we investigated functional brain correlates of cognitive conflict monitoring in term-born adolescents, who were prenatally exposed to sGC. Relative to the comparison group, behavioral response consistency (indexed by lower reaction time variability) and a brain correlate of conflict monitoring (the N2 event-related potential) were reduced in the sGC exposed group...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huiquan Wang, Lina Ren, Zhe Zhao, Jinhai Wang, Hongli Chen
The position of the source-detector (S-D) relative to an anomaly has an important influence on the detection effect in non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy-based methods. In this study, a single-source multi-detector structure was designed in order to realize the rapid localization of anomalies within tissue. This method uses finite element analysis of the optical density distribution for different horizontal positions, depths and diameters of anomalies. The difference in optical density between the detectors was then calculated...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yi Pu, Douglas O Cheyne, Brian R Cornwell, Blake W Johnson
Hippocampal rhythms are believed to support crucial cognitive processes including memory, navigation, and language. Due to the location of the hippocampus deep in the brain, studying hippocampal rhythms using non-invasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has generally been assumed to be methodologically challenging. However, with the advent of whole-head MEG systems in the 1990s and development of advanced source localization techniques, simulation and empirical studies have provided evidence that human hippocampal signals can be sensed by MEG and reliably reconstructed by source localization algorithms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Elvira Khachatryan, Mansoureh Fahimi Hnazaee, Marc M Van Hulle
The processing of word associations in sentence context depends on several factors. EEG studies have shown that when the expectation of the upcoming word is high (high semantic constraint), the within-sentence word association plays a negligible role, whereas in the opposite case, when there is no expectation (as in pseudo-sentences), the role of word association becomes more pronounced. However, what happens when the expectations are not high (mild to moderate semantic constraint) is not yet clear. By adopting a cross-factorial design, crossing sentence congruity with within-sentence word association, our EEG recordings show that association comes into play during semantic processing of the word only when the sentence is meaningless...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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