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Brain Map

Ignacio Rebollo, Anne-Dominique Devauchelle, Benoît Béranger, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
Resting-state networks offer a unique window into the brain's functional architecture, but their characterization remains limited to instantaneous connectivity thus far. Here, we describe a novel resting-state network based on the delayed connectivity between the brain and the slow electrical rhythm (0.05 Hz) generated in the stomach. The gastric network cuts across classical resting-state networks with partial overlap with autonomic regulation areas. This network is composed of regions with convergent functional properties involved in mapping bodily space through touch, action or vision, as well as mapping external space in bodily coordinates...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Athena E Theyers, Benjamin I Goldstein, Arron Ws Metcalfe, Andrew D Robertson, Bradley J MacIntosh
Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
David T Chau, Phoebe Fogelman, Pia Nordanskog, Wayne C Drevets, J Paul Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates of treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). Low sample size and methodological heterogeneity, however, undermine the generalizability of findings from individual studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify reliable neural changes resulting from different modes of treatment for MDD and compared them with each other and with reliable neural functional abnormalities observed in depressed versus control samples...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sing-Han Huang, Yu-Shu Lo, Yong-Chun Luo, Yu-Yao Tseng, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: One of the crucial steps toward understanding the associations among molecular interactions, pathways, and diseases in a cell is to investigate detailed atomic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the structural interactome. Despite the availability of large-scale methods for analyzing PPI networks, these methods often focused on PPI networks using genome-scale data and/or known experimental PPIs. However, these methods are unable to provide structurally resolved interaction residues and their conservations in PPI networks...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Andrea E Toth, Piotr Siupka, Thomas J P Augustine, Susanne T Venø, Louiza B Thomsen, Torben Moos, Hannes T Lohi, Peder Madsen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Morten S Nielsen
Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaoxiao Lin, Christy A Itoga, Sharif Taha, Ming H Li, Ryan Chen, Kirolos Sami, Fulvia Berton, Walter Francesconi, Xiangmin Xu
Real-world stressors are complex and multimodal, involving physical, psychological, and social dimensions. However, the brain networks that mediate stress responses to these stimuli need to be further studied. We used c-Fos mapping in mice to characterize brain circuits activated by exposure to a single episode of multimodal stress (MMS), and compared these to circuits activated by electric foot shocks (EFS). We focused on characterizing c-Fos activity in stress-relevant brain regions including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Hang Joon Jo, Kevin W McCairn, William S Gibson, Paola Testini, Cong Zhi Zhao, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Kirk M Welker, Charles D Blaha, Bryan T Klassen, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H Lee
Background and objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods: Five participants diagnosed with severe medically refractory TS underwent bilateral thalamic DBS stereotactic surgery. Intraoperative fMRI characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by thalamic DBS and determined whether the therapeutic effectiveness of thalamic DBS, as assessed using the Modified Rush Video Rating Scale test, would correlate with evoked BOLD responses in motor and limbic cortical and subcortical regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jan Kassubek, Hans-Peter Müller, Kelly Del Tredici, Michael Hornberger, Matthias L Schroeter, Karsten Müller, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Ingo Uttner, Murray Grossman, Heiko Braak, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph
Objective: Recently, the characteristic longitudinal distribution pattern of the underlying phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) pathology in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) excluding Pick's disease (PiD) across specific brain regions was described. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo investigations of bvFTD patients by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were consistent with these proposed patterns of progression. Methods: Sixty-two bvFTD patients and 47 controls underwent DTI in a multicenter study design...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jenna M Reinen, Oliver Y Chén, R Matthew Hutchison, B T Thomas Yeo, Kevin M Anderson, Mert R Sabuncu, Dost Öngür, Joshua L Roffman, Jordan W Smoller, Justin T Baker, Avram J Holmes
Higher-order cognition emerges through the flexible interactions of large-scale brain networks, an aspect of temporal coordination that may be impaired in psychosis. Here, we map the dynamic functional architecture of the cerebral cortex in healthy young adults, leveraging this atlas of transient network configurations (states), to identify state- and network-specific disruptions in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. We demonstrate that dynamic connectivity profiles are reliable within participants, and can act as a fingerprint, identifying specific individuals within a larger group...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Richard J Holden, Preethi Srinivas, Noll L Campbell, Daniel O Clark, Kunal S Bodke, Youngbok Hong, Malaz A Boustani, Denisha Ferguson, Christopher M Callahan
BACKGROUND: Older adults purchase and use over-the-counter (OTC) medications with potentially significant adverse effects. Some OTC medications, such as those with anticholinergic effects, are relatively contraindicated for use by older adults due to evidence of impaired cognition and other adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To inform the design of future OTC medication safety interventions for older adults, this study investigated consumers' decision making and behavior related to OTC medication purchasing and use, with a focus on OTC anticholinergic medications...
March 6, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Yun-Ting Su, Meng-Yang Gu, Xi Chu, Xiang Feng, Yan-Qin Yu
The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qingxia Yao, Karl P Fischer, D Lorne Tyrrell, Klaus S Gutfreund
Programmed death-1 (PD-1), upon engagement by its ligands, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2), provides signals that attenuate adaptive immune responses. Here we describe the identification of the Pekin duck PD-L2 (duPD-L2) and its gene structure. The duPD-L2 cDNA encodes a 321 amino acid protein that has an amino acid identity of 76% and 35% with chicken and human PD-L2, respectively. Mapping of the duPD-L2 cDNA with duck genomic sequences revealed an exonic structure similar to that of the human P dcd1lg2 gene...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Adrienn Máté, Dávid Kis, Andrea Czigner, Tamás Fischer, László Halász, Pál Barzó
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive tool increasingly used for the investigation of brain connectivity in vivo. In this paper we propose a method that allows segmentation of the brainstem to four subregions (frontopontine, motor, sensory, and reticular) based on connections to supratentorial structures, thereby eliminating the need for using anatomical landmarks within the brainstem for the identification of these subregions. The feasibility of connectivity-based brainstem segmentation was investigated in a group of healthy subjects (n =20)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Kristoffer H Madsen, Laerke G Krohne, Xin-Lu Cai, Yi Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While these methods bear great potential for early diagnosis and better understanding of disease processes, there are wide ranges of processing choices and pitfalls that may severely hamper interpretation and generalization performance unless carefully considered...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Xiaosong He, Danielle S Bassett, Ganne Chaitanya, Michael R Sperling, Lauren Kozlowski, Joseph I Tracy
Temporal lobe epilepsy tends to reshape the language system causing maladaptive reorganization that can be characterized by task-based functional MRI, and eventually can contribute to surgical decision making processes. However, the dynamic interacting nature of the brain as a complex system is often neglected, with many studies treating the language system as a static monolithic structure. Here, we demonstrate that as a specialized and integrated system, the language network is inherently dynamic, characterized by rich patterns of regional interactions, whose transient dynamics are disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Himar Fabelo, Samuel Ortega, Daniele Ravi, B Ravi Kiran, Coralia Sosa, Diederik Bulters, Gustavo M Callicó, Harry Bulstrode, Adam Szolna, Juan F Piñeiro, Silvester Kabwama, Daniel Madroñal, Raquel Lazcano, Aruma J-O'Shanahan, Sara Bisshopp, María Hernández, Abelardo Báez, Guang-Zhong Yang, Bogdan Stanciulescu, Rubén Salvador, Eduardo Juárez, Roberto Sarmiento
Surgery for brain cancer is a major problem in neurosurgery. The diffuse infiltration into the surrounding normal brain by these tumors makes their accurate identification by the naked eye difficult. Since surgery is the common treatment for brain cancer, an accurate radical resection of the tumor leads to improved survival rates for patients. However, the identification of the tumor boundaries during surgery is challenging. Hyperspectral imaging is a non-contact, non-ionizing and non-invasive technique suitable for medical diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
Renee Wei-Yan Chow, Paola Lamperti, Emily Steed, Francesco Boselli, Julien Vermot
During embryogenesis, cells undergo dynamic changes in cell behavior, and deciphering the cellular logic behind these changes is a fundamental goal in the field of developmental biology. The discovery and development of photoconvertible proteins have greatly aided our understanding of these dynamic changes by providing a method to optically highlight cells and tissues. However, while photoconversion, time-lapse microscopy, and subsequent image analysis have proven to be very successful in uncovering cellular dynamics in organs such as the brain or the eye, this approach is generally not used in the developing heart due to challenges posed by the rapid movement of the heart during the cardiac cycle...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Imad M Najm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Shuai Zhou, Wei Wang, Zizhen Wang, Gang Hu, Jianghong He, Xinhuai Wu
Purpose: Diagnostic error is common among patients with vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). The purpose of this article is to use three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) to compare cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns in patients in MCS with those in VS. Methods: Patients meeting MCS and VS criteria were identified. Two post-labeling delay (PLD) time pcASL on 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner system were performed with patients in the resting awake state...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Quanying Liu, Marco Ganzetti, Nicole Wenderoth, Dante Mantini
Resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain were recently detected using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG). This was done by using an advanced analysis workflow to estimate neural signals in the cortex and to assess functional connectivity (FC) between distant cortical regions. FC analyses were conducted either using temporal (tICA) or spatial independent component analysis (sICA). Notably, EEG-RSNs obtained with sICA were very similar to RSNs retrieved with sICA from functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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