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Brain Map

Andreas Fehlner, Sebastian Hirsch, Martin Weygandt, Thomas Christophel, Eric Barnhill, Mykola Kadobianskyi, Jürgen Braun, Johannes Bernarding, Ralf Lützkendorf, Ingolf Sack, Stefan Hetzer
PURPOSE: To improve the resolution of elasticity maps by adapting motion and distortion correction methods for phase-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique for measuring mechanical tissue properties in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRE data of the brain were acquired with echo-planar imaging (EPI) at 3T (n = 14) and 7T (n = 18). Motion and distortion correction parameters were estimated using the magnitude images...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Yasuo Amano, Fumi Yanagisawa, Masaki Tachi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Shogo Imai, Shinichiro Kumita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of T2 mapping for detecting myocardial injuries in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: Twenty-one HCM patients and 7 healthy volunteers were examined. The T2 values were measured at hyperintense areas (high-T2 areas) identified with T2 mapping, at late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) areas, and in nullified myocardium of the HCM patients. The associations between T2 values and laboratory data or LGE areas were assessed...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Daniel Stäb, Steffen Bollmann, Christian Langkammer, Kristian Bredies, Markus Barth
With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields...
October 20, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Laura Whitton, Donna Cosgrove, Christopher Clarkson, Denise Harold, Kimberley Kendall, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James Walters, Annette Hartmann, Betina Konte, Dan Rujescu, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Stephen Rea, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris
Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Pagani, Gianna C Riccitelli, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12)...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Krisztián A Kovács, Joseph O'Neill, Philipp Schoenenberger, Markku Penttonen, Damaris K Ranguel Guerrero, Jozsef Csicsvari
During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR) events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level...
2016: PloS One
Hyejung Won, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Neelroop N Parikshak, Jerry Huang, Carli K Opland, Michael J Gandal, Gavin J Sutton, Farhad Hormozdiari, Daning Lu, Changhoon Lee, Eleazar Eskin, Irina Voineagu, Jason Ernst, Daniel H Geschwind
Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Tilman Schubert, Yijing Wu, Kevin M Johnson, Oliver Wieben, Jane Maksimovic, Charles Mistretta, Patrick Turski
OBJECTIVES: Time-of-arrival (TOA) maps can be derived from high-resolution 4-dimensional (4D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets to provide a quantitative description of contrast material arrival time in each voxel. This information can further be processed to create a compressed time evolution curve that virtually shortens the contrast bolus (virtual bolus [VB]). The purpose of this project was to determine whether TOA-enhanced 4D MRA and/or VB imaging improve the display of contrast kinetics in patients with vascular disease...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
S Payabvash, S Taleb, J C Benson, A M McKinney
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute stroke presentation and outcome depend on both ischemic infarct volume and location. We aimed to determine the association between acute ischemic infarct topology and lesion volume and stroke severity at presentation and discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent MR imaging within 24 hours of symptom onset or last seen well were included. Infarcts were segmented and coregistered on the Montreal Neurological Institute-152 brain map...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Robin de Flores, Julie Gonneaud, Miranka Wirth, Valentin Ourry, William Callewaert, Brigitte Landeau, Stéphanie Egret, Florence Mézenge, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Engagement in cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) during the lifespan may counteract brain atrophy later in life. Here, we investigated engagement in CA and PA during late adulthood in association with gray matter volume (GM) in normal older adults, with special focus on the hippocampus. Forty-five cognitively normal older individuals (mean age: 72) underwent T1-weighted MRI and self-reported CA and PA assessment. Whole brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were carried out to assess the relationships between CA, PA and GM volume adjusted by age and sex...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ryan Stables, Graeme Clemens, Holly J Butler, Katherine M Ashton, Andrew Brodbelt, Timothy P Dawson, Leanne M Fullwood, Michael D Jenkinson, Matthew J Baker
Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic probes are of particular interest as they allow for in vivo spectroscopic diagnostics, for tasks such as the identification of tumour margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate a feature-driven approach to the classification of metastatic brain cancer, glioblastoma (GB) and non-cancer from tissue samples, and we provide a real-time feedback method for endoscopic diagnostics using sound...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Edouard Mazerand, Marc Le Renard, Sophie Hue, Jean-Michel Lemee, Evelyne Klinger, Philippe Menei
BACKGROUND: Brain mapping during awake craniotomy is a well-known technique to preserve neurological functions, especially the language. It is still challenging to map the optic radiations due to the difficulty to test the visual field intraoperatively. OBJECTIVE: To assess the visual field during awake craniotomy, we developed the Functions' Explorer based on a Virtual Reality Headset (FEX-VRH). METHODS: The impaired visual field of ten patients was tested with the gold standard exam (an automated perimetry), and the FEX-VRH...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Qiang Yu, David Reutens, Kieran O'Brien, Viktor Vegh
OBJECTIVES: Tissue microstructure features, namely axon radius and volume fraction, provide important information on the function of white matter pathways. These parameters vary on the scale much smaller than imaging voxels (microscale) yet influence the magnetic resonance imaging diffusion signal at the image voxel scale (macroscale) in an anomalous manner. Researchers have already mapped anomalous diffusion parameters from magnetic resonance imaging data, but macroscopic variations have not been related to microscale influences...
October 18, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Y-Q Li, Zw-C Cheng, Sk-W Liu, I Aubert, C S Wong
Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in neurocognitive dysfunction after cranial irradiation for brain tumors. How irradiation results in impaired neuronal development remains poorly understood. The Trp53 (p53) gene is known to regulate cellular DNA damage response after irradiation. Whether it has a role in disruption of late neuronal development remains unknown. Here we characterized the effects of p53 on neuronal development in adult mouse hippocampus after irradiation. Different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms and a transplantation study were used for cell fate mapping...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Jonathan D Power, Mark Plitt, Timothy O Laumann, Alex Martin
Whole-brain fMRI signals are a subject of intense interest: variance in the global fMRI signal (the spatial mean of all signals in the brain) indexes subject arousal, and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism have been characterized by differences in the global fMRI signal. Further, vigorous debates exist on whether global signals ought to be removed from fMRI data. However, surprisingly little research has focused on the empirical properties of whole-brain fMRI signals. Here we map the spatial and temporal properties of the global signal, individually, in 1000+ fMRI scans...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Erika Yeh, Lauren A Weiss
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been long known to have substantial genetic etiology. Much research has attempted to identify specific genes contributing to ASD risk with the goal of tying gene function to a molecular pathological explanation for ASD. A unifying molecular pathology would potentially increase understanding of what is going wrong during development, and could lead to diagnostic biomarkers or targeted preventative or therapeutic directions. We review past and current genetic mapping approaches and discuss major results, leading to the hypothesis that global dysregulation of gene or protein expression may be implicated in ASD rather than disturbance of brain-specific functions...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Abigail Livny, Anat Biegon, Tammar Kushnir, Sagi Harnof, Chen Hoffmann, Eyal Fruchter, Mark Weiser
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to have a substantial, though highly variable, impact on cognitive abilities. Due to the wide range of cognitive abilities among healthy individuals, an objective assessment of TBI-related cognitive loss requires an accurate measurement of premorbid cognitive performance. To address this problem, we recruited 50 adults who sustained a TBI and had performed a cognitive baseline assessment in adolescence as part of the aptitude tests mandated by the Israeli Defense Forces...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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