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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334640/not-single-brain-areas-but-a-network-is-involved-in-language-applications-in-presurgical-planning
#1
Razieh Alemi, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Ebrahim Behzad, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Mohammad Ali Oghabian
OBJECTIVES: Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333688/infant-brain-responses-to-felt-and-observed-touch-of-hands-and-feet-an-meg-study
#2
Andrew N Meltzoff, Rey R Ramírez, Joni N Saby, Eric Larson, Samu Taulu, Peter J Marshall
There is growing interest concerning the ways in which the human body, both one's own and that of others, is represented in the developing human brain. In two experiments with 7-month-old infants, we employed advances in infant magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to address novel questions concerning body representations in early development. Experiment 1 evaluated the spatiotemporal organization of infants' brain responses to being touched. A punctate touch to infants' hands and feet produced significant activation in the hand and foot areas of contralateral primary somatosensory cortex as well as in other parietal and frontal areas...
January 14, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332984/white-matter-fiber-based-analysis-of-t1w-t2w-ratio-map
#3
Haiwei Chen, Francois Budin, Jean Noel, Juan Carlos Prieto, John Gilmore, Jerod Rasmussen, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Martin Styner
Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332069/the-history-of-movement-disorder-brain-surgery
#4
L Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan
The first surgical procedures for abnormal movement disorders began in the 1930s, when surgeons first proposed ablative techniques of the caudate nucleus or transection of motor (pyramidal) pathways to reduce involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's related tremor. During the 50-year interval between 1945 and 1995, the development of precise intracranial guiding devices, brain maps, and advanced imaging led to the refinement of appropriate deep brain targets affecting extrapyramidal pathways. Lesional surgery and subsequent neuroaugmentation using deep brain stimulation extended the role of deep brain surgery for a wider group of patients with tremor, rigidity, dyskinesia, and other involuntary movement disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329433/rage-mediates-a%C3%AE-accumulation-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulation-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-secretase-activity
#5
Fang Fang, Qing Yu, Ottavio Arancio, Doris Chen, Smruti S Gore, Shi Fang Yan, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has been implicated in amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced perturbation relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how RAGE regulates Aβ metabolism remains largely unknown. Aβ formation arises from aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. To investigate whether RAGE modulates β- and γ-secretase activity potentiating Aβ formation, we generated mAPP mice with genetic deletion of RAGE (mAPP/RO)...
January 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328539/early-detection-of-myocardial-involvement-by-t1-mapping-of-cardiac-mri-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy
#6
Liuyu Yu, Jianhong Sun, Jiayu Sun, Jiangbo Li, Yang Dong, Xiaoyue Zhou, Andreas Greiser, Yuchi Han, Qing Zhang, Qibing Xie, Yucheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are common types of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), wherein patients are prone to adverse cardiovascular events. PURPOSE: To explore the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting cardiac involvement in PM/DM patients using a T1 mapping technique. STUDY TYPE: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: In all, 25 PM/DM patients free of cardiovascular symptoms and preserved ventricular systolic function and 25 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex served as controls...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325780/longitudinal-atlas-for-normative-human-brain-development-and-aging-over-the-lifespan-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#7
Yuyao Zhang, Hongjiang Wei, Matthew J Cronin, Naying He, Fuhua Yan, Chunlei Liu
Longitudinal brain atlases play an important role in the study of human brain development and cognition. Existing atlases are mainly based on anatomical features derived from T1-and T2-weighted MRI. A 4D developmental quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) atlas may facilitate the estimation of age-related iron changes in deep gray matter nuclei and myelin changes in white matter. To this end, group-wise co-registered QSM templates were generated over various age intervals from age 1-83 years old. Registration was achieved by combining both T1-weighted and QSM images...
January 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324666/mapping-the-schizophrenia-genes-by-neuroimaging-the-opportunities-and-the-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Ayla Arslan
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heritable brain disease originating from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The genes underpinning the neurobiology of SZ are largely unknown but recent data suggest strong evidence for genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, making the brain vulnerable to the risk of SZ. Structural and functional brain mapping of these genetic variations are essential for the development of agents and tools for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SZ...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322586/functional-connectivity-predicts-gender-evidence-for-gender-differences-in-resting-brain-connectivity
#9
Chao Zhang, Chase C Dougherty, Stefi A Baum, Tonya White, Andrew M Michael
Prevalence of certain forms of psychopathology, such as autism and depression, differs between genders and understanding gender differences of the neurotypical brain may provide insights into risk and protective factors. In recent research, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) is widely used to map the inherent functional networks of the brain. Although previous studies have reported gender differences in rfMRI, the robustness of gender differences is not well characterized. In this study, we use a large data set to test whether rfMRI functional connectivity (FC) can be used to predict gender and identify FC features that are most predictive of gender...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322264/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-chronic-migraine-correlations-with-clinical-features
#10
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322238/development-of-inhibitory-synaptic-inputs-on-layer-2-3-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Mari A Virtanen, Claudia Marvine Lacoh, Hubert Fiumelli, Markus Kosel, Shiva Tyagarajan, Mathias de Roo, Laszlo Vutskits
Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322101/a-novel-individual-level-morphological-brain-networks-constructing-method-and-its-evaluation-in-pet-and-mr-images
#12
Jiehui Jiang, Hucheng Zhou, Huoqiang Duan, Xin Liu, Chuantao Zuo, Zhemin Huang, Zhihua Yu, Zhuangzhi Yan
Mapping the human brain is one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century. Brain network analysis is an effective technique based on graph theory that is widely used to investigate network patterns in the human brain. Currently, mapping an individual brain network using a single image has been a hotspot in the field of brain science; techniques, such as the Kullback-Leibler (KL) method, have applications in structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. However, maintaining an image's intensity, shape, texture and gradient information during feature extraction is very challenging...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320509/dynamics-of-co-authorship-and-productivity-across-different-fields-of-scientific-research
#13
Austin J Parish, Kevin W Boyack, John P A Ioannidis
We aimed to assess which factors correlate with collaborative behavior and whether such behavior associates with scientific impact (citations and becoming a principal investigator). We used the R index which is defined for each author as log(Np)/log(I1), where I1 is the number of co-authors who appear in at least I1 papers written by that author and Np are his/her total papers. Higher R means lower collaborative behavior, i.e. not working much with others, or not collaborating repeatedly with the same co-authors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319208/image-registration-to-compensate-for-epi-distortion-in-patients-with-brain-tumors-an-evaluation-of-tract-specific-effects
#14
Angela Albi, Antonio Meola, Fan Zhang, Pegah Kahali, Laura Rigolo, Chantal M W Tax, Pelin Aksit Ciris, Walid I Essayed, Prashin Unadkat, Isaiah Norton, Yogesh Rathi, Olutayo Olubiyi, Alexandra J Golby, Lauren J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides preoperative maps of neurosurgical patients' white matter tracts, but these maps suffer from echo-planar imaging (EPI) distortions caused by magnetic field inhomogeneities. In clinical neurosurgical planning, these distortions are generally not corrected and thus contribute to the uncertainty of fiber tracking. Multiple image processing pipelines have been proposed for image-registration-based EPI distortion correction in healthy subjects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318417/identifying-a-major-qtl-associated-with-salinity-tolerance-in-nile-tilapia-using-qtl-seq
#15
Xiao Hui Gu, Dan Li Jiang, Yan Huang, Bi Jun Li, Chao Hao Chen, Hao Ran Lin, Jun Hong Xia
Selection of new lines with high salinity tolerance allows for economically feasible production of tilapias in brackish water areas. Mapping QTLs and identifying the markers linked to salinity-tolerant traits are the first steps in the improvement of the tolerance in tilapia through marker-assisted selection techniques. By using QTL-seq strategy and linkage-based analysis, two significant QTL intervals (chrLG4 and chrLG18) on salinity-tolerant traits were firstly identified in the Nile tilapia. Fine mapping with microsatellite and SNP markers suggested a major QTL region that located at 23...
January 9, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317306/double-dissociation-of-structure-function-relationships-in-memory-and-fluid-intelligence-observed-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#16
Curtis L Johnson, Hillary Schwarb, Kevin M Horecka, Matthew D J McGarry, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Aron K Barbey
Brain tissue mechanical properties, measured in vivo with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity. Recently, our group has reported on the positive relationship between viscoelasticity of the hippocampus and performance on a relational memory task in healthy young adults, which highlighted the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function; however, structure-function relationships outside of the hippocampus have not yet been explored...
January 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317247/development-of-stereotaxic-recording-system-for-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#17
Masahiro Wakabayashi, Daisuke Koketsu, Hideki Kondo, Shigeki Sato, Kiichi Ohara, Zlata Polyakova, Satomi Chiken, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu
The common marmoset has been proposed as a potential alternative to macaque monkey as a primate model for neuroscience and medical research. Here, we have newly developed a stereotaxic neuronal recording system for awake marmosets under the head-fixed condition by modifying that for macaque monkeys. Using this system, we recorded neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex of awake marmosets and successfully identified the primary motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Neuronal activities of deep brain structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum, in awake marmosets were also successfully recorded referring to magnetic resonance images...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316969/proton-and-helium-ion-radiotherapy-for-meningioma-tumors-a-monte-carlo-based-treatment-planning-comparison
#18
Thomas Tessonnier, Andrea Mairani, Wenjing Chen, Paola Sala, Francesco Cerutti, Alfredo Ferrari, Thomas Haberer, Jürgen Debus, Katia Parodi
BACKGROUND: Due to their favorable physical and biological properties, helium ion beams are increasingly considered a promising alternative to proton beams for radiation therapy. Hence, this work aims at comparing in-silico the treatment of brain and ocular meningiomas with protons and helium ions, using for the first time a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment planning engine (MCTP) thoroughly validated both in terms of physical and biological models. METHODS: Starting from clinical treatment plans of four patients undergoing proton therapy with a fixed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1...
January 9, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316506/expansion-microscopy-development-and-neuroscience-applications
#19
REVIEW
Emmanouil D Karagiannis, Edward S Boyden
Many neuroscience questions center around understanding how the molecules and wiring in neural circuits mechanistically yield behavioral functions, or go awry in disease states. However, mapping the molecules and wiring of neurons across the large scales of neural circuits has posed a great challenge. We recently developed expansion microscopy (ExM), a process in which we physically magnify biological specimens such as brain circuits. We synthesize throughout preserved brain specimens a dense, even mesh of a swellable polymer such as sodium polyacrylate, anchoring key biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the polymer...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316081/alterations-of-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia-in-bipolar-disorder-mood-states-detected-by-quantitative-t1%C3%AF-mapping
#20
Casey P Johnson, Gary E Christensen, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Merry Mani, Joseph J Shaffer, Vincent A Magnotta, John A Wemmie
OBJECTIVES: Quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to pH and other cellular and microstructural factors, and is a potentially valuable tool for identifying brain alterations in bipolar disorder. Recently, this technique identified differences in the cerebellum and cerebral white matter of euthymic patients vs healthy controls that were consistent with reduced pH in these regions, suggesting an underlying metabolic abnormality...
January 7, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
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