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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432784/contributions-of-imprecision-in-pet-mri-rigid-registration-to-imprecision-in-amyloid-pet-suvr-measurements
#1
Christopher G Schwarz, David T Jones, Jeffrey L Gunter, Val J Lowe, Prashanthi Vemuri, Matthew L Senjem, Ronald C Petersen, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack
Quantitative measurement of β-amyloid from amyloid PET scans typically relies on localizing target and reference regions by image registration to MRI. In this work, we present a series of simulations where 50 small random perturbations of starting location and orientation were applied to each subject's PET scan, and rigid registration using spm_coreg was performed between each perturbed PET scan and its corresponding MRI. We then measured variation in the output PET-MRI registrations and how this variation affected the resulting SUVR measurements...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431987/patterns-of-brain-and-cardiovascular-activation-while-solving-rule-discovery-and-rule-application-numeric-tasks
#2
Tytus Sosnowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Małgorzata Wordecha, Anna Kępkowicz, Adrianna Majewska, Aleksandra Pstrągowska, Tomasz Oleksy, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka
It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431825/single-subcortical-infarct-pathomechanism-assessed-by-thin-section-computed-tomography-perfusion
#3
Dong Hoon Shin, Ernst Klotz, Eung Yeop Kim
INTRODUCTION: The pathomechanism of a single subcortical infarct (SSI) may be better determined by assessing the perfusion status between parent artery and ischemic lesion. We aimed to compare the classifications into branch atheromatous disease (BAD) versus non-BAD based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) or computed tomography perfusion (CTP), and to test whether a CTP-based classification improves the predicting power for progression in SSI (PSSI) compared to that by DWI. METHODS: We enrolled 109 consecutive patients with SSI examined by whole-supratentorial brain CTP and follow-up DWI...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#4
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430885/lesion-mapping-of-stroke-related-erectile-dysfunction
#5
Klemens Winder, Frank Seifert, Martin Köhrmann, Carl Crodel, Stephan Kloska, Arnd Dörfler, Katharina M Hösl, Stefan Schwab, Max J Hilz
Acute ischaemic stroke in brain areas contributing to male sexual function may impair erectile function depending on the lesion site. This study intended to determine associations between stroke-related erectile dysfunction and cerebral ischaemic lesion sites using voxel-based lesion mapping. In 52 males (mean age 60.5 ± 10.5 years) with first-ever ischaemic strokes, we assessed erectile function after and retrospectively 3 months prior to the stroke using scores of the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430035/noninvasive-neuromodulation-and-thalamic-mapping-with-low-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#6
Robert F Dallapiazza, Kelsie F Timbie, Stephen Holmberg, Jeremy Gatesman, M Beatriz Lopes, Richard J Price, G Wilson Miller, W Jeffrey Elias
OBJECTIVE Ultrasound can be precisely focused through the intact human skull to target deep regions of the brain for stereotactic ablations. Acoustic energy at much lower intensities is capable of both exciting and inhibiting neural tissues without causing tissue heating or damage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for neuromodulation and selective mapping in the thalamus of a large-brain animal. METHODS Ten Yorkshire swine ( Sus scrofa domesticus) were used in this study...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429383/altered-eigenvector-centrality-is-related-to-local-resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-longstanding-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Eelco van Duinkerken, Menno M Schoonheim, Richard G IJzerman, Annette C Moll, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Martin Klein, Michaela Diamant, Frank J Snoek, Frederik Barkhof, Alle-Meije Wink
INTRODUCTION: Longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with microangiopathy and poorer cognition. In the brain, T1DM is related to increased functional resting-state network (RSN) connectivity in patients without, which was decreased in patients with clinically evident microangiopathy. Subcortical structure seems affected in both patient groups. How these localized alterations affect the hierarchy of the functional network in T1DM is unknown. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) and degree centrality are graph theoretical methods that allow determining the relative importance (ECM) and connectedness (degree centrality) of regions within the whole-brain network hierarchy...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428825/comprehensive-evaluation-of-genome-wide-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-profiling-approaches-in-human-dna
#8
Ksenia Skvortsova, Elena Zotenko, Phuc-Loi Luu, Cathryn M Gould, Shalima S Nair, Susan J Clark, Clare Stirzaker
BACKGROUND: The discovery that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) can be oxidized to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins has prompted wide interest in the potential role of 5hmC in reshaping the mammalian DNA methylation landscape. The gold-standard bisulphite conversion technologies to study DNA methylation do not distinguish between 5mC and 5hmC. However, new approaches to mapping 5hmC genome-wide have advanced rapidly, although it is unclear how the different methods compare in accurately calling 5hmC...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427203/regional-structural-impairments-outside-lesions-are-associated-with-verbal-short-term-memory-deficits-in-chronic-subcortical-stroke
#9
Qingqing Diao, Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Jingliang Cheng, Tong Han, Xuejun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the neural mechanisms of verbal short-term memory (VSTM) impairment in subcortical stroke by evaluating the contributions of lesion and remote grey matter volume (GMV) reduction. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between lesions and VSTM. In stroke patients with left lesions, GMV reductions in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with VSTM impairment...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426969/chemogenetic-interrogation-of-a-brain-wide-fear-memory-network-in-mice
#10
Gisella Vetere, Justin W Kenney, Lina M Tran, Frances Xia, Patrick E Steadman, John Parkinson, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Behavior depends on coordinated activity across multiple brain regions. Within such networks, highly connected hub regions are assumed to disproportionately influence behavioral output, although this hypothesis has not been systematically evaluated. Previously, by mapping brain-wide expression of the activity-regulated gene c-fos, we identified a network of brain regions co-activated by fear memory. To test the hypothesis that hub regions are more important for network function, here, we simulated node deletion in silico in this behaviorally defined functional network...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425742/comparing-and-validating-methods-of-reading-instruction-using-behavioural-and-neural-findings-in-an-artificial-orthography
#11
J S H Taylor, Matthew H Davis, Kathleen Rastle
There is strong scientific consensus that emphasizing print-to-sound relationships is critical when learning to read alphabetic languages. Nevertheless, reading instruction varies across English-speaking countries, from intensive phonic training to multicuing environments that teach sound- and meaning-based strategies. We sought to understand the behavioral and neural consequences of these differences in relative emphasis. We taught 24 English-speaking adults to read 2 sets of 24 novel words (e.g., /buv/, /sig/), written in 2 different unfamiliar orthographies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#12
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#13
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424610/characterizing-brain-iron-deposition-in-patients-with-subcortical-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-a-potential-biomarker
#14
Yawen Sun, Xin Ge, Xu Han, Wenwei Cao, Yao Wang, Weina Ding, Mengqiu Cao, Yong Zhang, Qun Xu, Yan Zhou, Jianrong Xu
The presence and pattern of iron accumulation in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and their effects on cognition have rarely been investigated. We aimed to examine brain iron deposition in svMCI subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Moreover, we aimed to investigate the correlation between brain iron deposition and the severity of cognitive impairment as indicated by z-scores. We recruited 20 subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) patients who fulfilled the criteria for svMCI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424606/bifurcation-analysis-on-phase-amplitude-cross-frequency-coupling-in-neural-networks-with-dynamic-synapses
#15
Takumi Sase, Yuichi Katori, Motomasa Komuro, Kazuyuki Aihara
We investigate a discrete-time network model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and dynamic synapses with the aim at revealing dynamical properties behind oscillatory phenomena possibly related to brain functions. We use a stochastic neural network model to derive the corresponding macroscopic mean field dynamics, and subsequently analyze the dynamical properties of the network. In addition to slow and fast oscillations arising from excitatory and inhibitory networks, respectively, we show that the interaction between these two networks generates phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC), in which multiple different frequency components coexist and the amplitude of the fast oscillation is modulated by the phase of the slow oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424604/mapping-critical-language-sites-in-children-performing-verb-generation-whole-brain-connectivity-and-graph-theoretical-analysis-in-meg
#16
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Brady J Williamson, Darren S Kadis
A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424572/functional-sensitivity-of-2d-simultaneous-multi-slice-echo-planar-imaging-effects-of-acceleration-on-g-factor-and-physiological-noise
#17
Nick Todd, Oliver Josephs, Peter Zeidman, Guillaume Flandin, Steen Moeller, Nikolaus Weiskopf
Accelerated data acquisition with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging for functional MRI studies leads to interacting and opposing effects that influence the sensitivity to blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Image signal to noise ratio (SNR) is decreased with higher SMS acceleration factors and shorter repetition times (TR) due to g-factor noise penalties and saturation of longitudinal magnetization. However, the lower image SNR is counteracted by greater statistical power from more samples per unit time and a higher temporal Nyquist frequency that allows for better removal of spurious non-BOLD high frequency signal content...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424401/-the-map-of-auditory-function
#18
So Fujimoto, Yutaka Komura
Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are located in the superior temporal gyrus and regarded as auditory cortices. The fundamental function in audition is frequency analysis; however, the findings on tonotopy maps of the human auditory cortex were not unified until recently when they were compared to the findings on inputs and outputs of the monkey auditory cortex. The auditory cortex shows plasticity after conditioned learning and surgery of cochlear implant. It is also involved in speech perception, music appreciation, and auditory hallucination in schizophrenia through interactions with other brain areas, such as the thalamus, frontal cortex, and limbic systems...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424389/-brodmann-areas-8-and-9-including-the-frontal-eye-field
#19
Masataka Watanabe
Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424388/-interface-between-brain-and-outside
#20
Masato Taira
Areas 5 and 7 are the association cortices which are located in the parietal lobe and process somatosensory and visual information, respectively. The location of area 7 differ in the Brodmann's human and monkey brain map, in the human brain map area 7 is located in the superior parietal lobe, while it is in the inferior parietal lobe in the monkey brain map. Thus, it is difficult to discuss the function of these areas.
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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