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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107684/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-targeting-the-right-fusiform-gyrus-selectively-increases-working-memory-for-faces
#1
Tad T Brunyé, Joseph M Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor
The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0...
January 17, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107670/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-oral-and-intravenous-users-in-australia-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#2
George Dertadian, Jenny Iversen, Thomas C Dixon, Katrina Sotiropoulos, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2012 dispensing episodes for pharmaceutical opioids (PO) in Australia increased from 500000 to 7500000. In the US, increases in the prescription of PO have been linked to increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality and transitions to heroin injection. However, Australian data indicate that morbidity and mortality related to PO are relatively low, particularly when compared to heroin and other drugs. This paper explores the characteristics and patterns of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use among a sample of young people in Sydney, Australia...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107588/mitochondrial-uncoupler-exerts-a-synthetic-lethal-effect-against-%C3%AE-catenin-mutant-tumor-cells
#3
Yuki Shikata, Masaki Kiga, Yushi Futamura, Harumi Aono, Hiroyuki Inoue, Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Osada, Masaya Imoto
The wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signal transduction pathway plays a central role in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. When β-catenin: a component of the Wnt pathway, is mutated into an active form, cell growth signaling is hyperactive and drives oncogenesis. As β-catenin is mutated in a wide variety of tumors, including up to 10% of all sporadic colon carcinomas and 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas, it has been considered a promising target for therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we screened an in-house natural product library for compounds that exhibited synthetic lethality towards β-catenin mutations and isolated nonactin, an antibiotic mitochondrial uncoupler, as a hit compound...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50-years
#4
Jan Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science 26,992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
January 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107532/social-determinants-of-hiv-disparities-in-the-southern-united-states-and-in-counties-with-historically-black-colleges-and-universities-hbcus-2013-2014
#5
Madeline Y Sutton, Simone C Gray, Kim Elmore, Zaneta Gaul
HIV infection disproportionately affects Blacks in the southern United States (U.S.), a region where legal policies that may unintentionally impede earlier HIV detection and treatment are prevalent. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have historically facilitated social change in communities of color and have been underexplored as partners for HIV prevention. We describe geographic and social determinants of health (SDH) in the southern U.S. to inform potential HBCU-public health partnerships that might improve HIV health equity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107511/environmental-enrichment-blunts-ethanol-consumption-after-restraint-stress-in-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Priscila Marianno, Karina Possa Abrahao, Rosana Camarini
Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107494/protective-roles-for-rgs2-in-a-mouse-model-of-house-dust-mite-induced-airway-inflammation
#7
Tresa George, Matthew Bell, Mainak Chakraborty, David P Siderovski, Mark A Giembycz, Robert Newton
The GTPase-accelerating protein, regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2) reduces signalling from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that signal via Gαq. In humans, RGS2 expression is up-regulated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) such that synergy is produced in combination. This may contribute to the superior clinical efficacy of ICS/LABA therapy in asthma relative to ICS alone. In a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced airways inflammation, three weeks of intranasal HDM (25 μg, 3×/week) reduced lung function and induced granulocytic airways inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107423/characterization-of-the-drug-resistance-profiles-of-patients-infected-with-crf07_bc-using-phenotypic-assay-and-ultra-deep-pyrosequencing
#8
Szu-Wei Huang, Wei-You Li, Wen-Hung Wang, Yu-Ting Lin, Chih-Hung Chou, Marcelo Chen, Hsien-Da Huang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Liang Lu, Sheng-Fan Wang, Shinichi Oka, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen
The usefulness of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) for the diagnosis of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) remains to be determined. Previously, we reported an explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan in 2004. The goal of this study was to characterize the DR of CRF07_BC strains using different assays including UDPS. Seven CRF07_BC isolates including 4 from early epidemic (collected in 2004-2005) and 3 from late epidemic (collected in 2008) were obtained from treatment-naïve patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107396/mixfit-methodology-for-computing-ancestry-related-genetic-scores-at-the-individual-level-and-its-application-to-the-estonian-and-finnish-population-studies
#9
Toomas Haller, Liis Leitsalu, Krista Fischer, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Tõnu Esko, Dorothea Irene Boomsma, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Tim D Spector, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu
Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data. Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by MixFit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107393/t-cell-subset-and-stimulation-strength-dependent-modulation-of-t-cell-activation-by-kv1-3-blockers
#10
Wai-Ping Fung-Leung, Wilson Edwards, Yi Liu, Karen Ngo, Julianty Angsana, Glenda Castro, Nancy Wu, Xuejun Liu, Ronald V Swanson, Alan D Wickenden
Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107345/syk-regulates-neutrophilic-airway-hyper-responsiveness-in-a-chronic-mouse-model-of-allergic-airways-inflammation
#11
Sepehr Salehi, Xiaomin Wang, Stephen Juvet, Jeremy A Scott, Chung-Wai Chow
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation and remodeling. We previously showed that Syk modulates methacholine-induced airways contractility in naïve mice and in mice with allergic airways inflammation. We hypothesize that Syk plays a role in the pathogenesis of AHR; this was evaluated in a chronic 8-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106921/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-impregnated-curtains-in-experimental-hen-houses-as-a-phlebotomine-control-tool-in-northeast-argentina
#12
M Manteca Acosta, M S Santini, A A Pérez, O D Salomón
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated curtains against the entry of phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) flies into experimental slatted hen houses in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Three treatments in experimental dwellings containing three chickens each were applied using, respectively, an impregnated curtain (IC), a non-impregnated curtain (NIC) and no curtain (NC). A control site without chickens (WC) was included. The study used permethrin at 0...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106788/comparison-of-gastric-versus-gastrointestinal-pbet-extractions-for-estimating-oral-bioaccessibility-of-metals-in-house-dust
#13
Kristina Boros, Danielle Fortin, Innocent Jayawardene, Marc Chénier, Christine Levesque, Pat E Rasmussen
Oral bioaccessibility estimates for six metals which are prevalent as contaminants in Canada (zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, and chromium) are investigated for house dust using the simple gastric phase versus the two-phase physiologically-based extraction technique (PBET). The purpose is to determine whether a complete gastrointestinal (GI) assay yields a more conservative (i.e., higher) estimate of metal bioaccessibility in house dust than the gastric phase alone (G-alone). The study samples include household vacuum dust collected from 33 homes in Montreal, Canada, plus four certified reference materials (NIST 2583, NIST 2584, NIST 2710 and NIST 2710a)...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106360/federal-policy-for-the-protection-of-human-subjects-final-rule
#14
(no author information available yet)
The departments and agencies listed in this document announce revisions to modernize, strengthen, and make more effective the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects that was originally promulgated as a Common Rule in 1991. This final rule is intended to better protect human subjects involved in research, while facilitating valuable research and reducing burden, delay, and ambiguity for investigators. These revisions are an effort to modernize, simplify, and enhance the current system of oversight...
19, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106098/social-models-enhance-apes-memory-for-novel-events
#15
Lauren H Howard, Katherine E Wagner, Amanda L Woodward, Stephen R Ross, Lydia M Hopper
Nonhuman primates are more likely to learn from the actions of a social model than a non-social "ghost display", however the mechanism underlying this effect is still unknown. One possibility is that live models are more engaging, drawing increased attention to social stimuli. However, recent research with humans has suggested that live models fundamentally alter memory, not low-level attention. In the current study, we developed a novel eye-tracking paradigm to disentangle the influence of social context on attention and memory in apes...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105993/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-using-a-combination-of-robotics-and-telecommunications-by-an-operator-in-a-separate-physical-location-from-the-patient-an-early-exploration-into-the-feasibility-of-telestenting-the-remote-pci-study
#16
Ryan D Madder, Stacie M VanOosterhout, Mark E Jacoby, J Stewart Collins, Andrew S Borgman, Abbey N Mulder, Matthew A Elmore, Jessica L Campbell, Richard F McNamara, David H Wohns
AIMS: The present study explores the feasibility of telestenting, wherein a physician operator performs stenting on a patient in a separate physical location using a combination of robotics and telecommunications. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing robotic stenting were eligible for inclusion. All manipulations of guidewires, balloons, and stents were performed robotically by a physician operator located in an isolated separate room outside the procedure room housing the patient...
January 20, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105755/morphometric-changes-in-polish-konik-mares-after-nearly-a-hundred-years-of-the-breed-s-existence
#17
E Pasicka, K Tarnawski, A Chrószcz, H Geringer de Oedenberg
The study was carried out on 126 mares of the Polish Konik horse breed. Mares were bred under a stable system housing and they came from five leading conservation breeding centres. The mares were divided into three age groups: 3-5 years old, 6-9 years old and over 10 years old. Each animal was characterized using 40 morphometric measurements. Discriminant analysis proved the exterior differences of mares in terms of the analysed metric values. It was concluded that the morphotype of modern Polish Konik mares is statistically significantly influenced by the following traits: neck ventral length, forearm circumference, distance between the vascular notch (incisura vasorum facialium) and the oral angle (angulus oris), distance between the margo coronalis ungulae and the margo solearis ungulae of the thoracic limb, thorax circumference and pelvis width...
January 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105533/semi-automated-quantification-of-finger-joint-space-narrowing-using-tomosynthesis-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Shota Ichikawa, Tamotsu Kamishima, Kenneth Sutherland, Hideki Kasahara, Yuka Shimizu, Motoshi Fujimori, Nobutoshi Yasojima, Yohei Ono, Takahiko Kaneda, Takao Koike
The purpose of the study is to validate the semi-automated method using tomosynthesis images for the assessment of finger joint space narrowing (JSN) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by using the semi-quantitative scoring method as the reference standard. Twenty patients (14 females and 6 males) with RA were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent radiography and tomosynthesis of the bilateral hand and wrist. Two rheumatologists and a radiologist independently scored JSN with two modalities according to the Sharp/van der Heijde score...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105481/-thoracic-injuries-in-severely-injured-children-association-with-increased-injury-severity-and-a-higher-number-of-complications
#19
Philipp Störmann, Julia Nadine Weber, Heike Jakob, Ingo Marzi, Dorien Schneidmueller
BACKGROUND: Severely injured children and adolescents in clinical practice are rare. For adequate treatment of these patients, detailed knowledge of anatomical and physiological peculiarities, as well as abundant injury patterns, are indispensable. Traumatic brain injuries are known to lead to an unfavorable outcome. In addition, thoracic trauma is regarded as prognostically unfavorable. OBJECTIVES: This study depicts epidemiology and injury patterns of severely injured children and adolescents focusing on peculiarities in the severely injured with associated thoracic injuries...
January 19, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105459/mog-antibody-positive-benign-unilateral-cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-with-epilepsy
#20
Ryo Ogawa, Ichiro Nakashima, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Tetsuya Akaishi, Yoshiki Takai, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Hiroshi Kuroda, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of adult patients with benign, unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis positive for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, after we encountered an index case of MOG antibody-positive unilateral cortical encephalitis with epileptic seizure, we tested for MOG antibody using our in-house, cell-based assay in a cohort of 24 consecutive adult patients with steroid-responsive encephalitis of unknown etiology seen at Tohoku University Hospital (2008-2014)...
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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