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Blueprinting and assessment

Timm Schäfer, Christian Doose, Buntaro Fujita, Marc Utzenrath, Sandrine Egron, Christoph Schmitz, Smita Scholtz, Maximilian Kütting, Kavous Hakim-Meibodi, Jochen Börgermann, Jan Gummert, Ulrich Steinseifer, Stephan Ensminger
AIMS: The aim was to determine the best functional position of a transcatheter heart valve (THV) implanted as a valve-in-valve (ViV) procedure in small rapid deployment valves (RDV) in an in vitro model. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 21mm Perceval™, Enable™ or INTUITY™ RDV was mounted into a pulse duplicator and a 23mm balloon-expandable or a self-expanding THV was deployed (valve-in-valve) in two different positions. Under physiological hydrodynamic conditions, performance of the THV was characterized by mean transvalvular pressure gradient (MPG), effective orifice area (EOA) and regurgitation volume (RV)...
October 18, 2016: EuroIntervention
Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Orr Shomroni, Magali Hennion, Rashi Halder, Ramon Vidal, Raza-Ur Rahman, Stefan Bonn
Recent evidence suggests that the formation and maintenance of memory requires epigenetic changes. In an effort to understand the spatio-temporal extent of learning and memory-related epigenetic changes we have charted genome-wide histone and DNA methylation profiles, in two different brain regions, two cell types, and three time-points, before and after learning. In this data descriptor we provide detailed information on data generation, give insights into the rationale of experiments, highlight necessary steps to assess data quality, offer guidelines for future use of the data and supply ready-to-use code to replicate the analysis results...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Data
Tom M Wilkinson, Tim J Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Most research into the validity of admissions tools focuses on the isolated correlations of individual tools with later outcomes. Instead, looking at how domains of attributes, rather than tools, predict later success is likely to be more generalizable. We aim to produce a blueprint for an admissions scheme that is broadly relevant across institutions. METHODS: We broke down all measures used for admissions at one medical school into the smallest possible component scores...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Matthew P Hoffman, Erik N Taylor, George E Aninwene, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Richard J Gilbert
Contraction of muscular tissue requires the synchronized shortening of myofibers arrayed in complex geometrical patterns. Imaging such myofiber patterns with diffusion-weighted MRI reveals architectural ensembles that underlie force generation at the organ scale. Restricted proton diffusion is a stochastic process resulting from random translational motion that may be used to probe the directionality of myofibers in whole tissue. During diffusion-weighted MRI, magnetic field gradients are applied to determine the directional dependence of proton diffusion through the analysis of a diffusional probability distribution function (PDF)...
October 2, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ralph E Parchment, Andrea Regier Voth, James H Doroshow, Jay A Berzofsky
Immunotherapy has become a major modality of cancer treatment, with multiple new classes of immunotherapeutics recently entering the clinic and obtaining market approval from regulatory agencies. While the promise of these therapies is great, so is the number of possible combinations not only with each other but also with small molecule therapeutics. Furthermore, the observation of unusual dose-response relationships suggests a critical dependency of drug effectiveness on the dosage regimen (dose and schedule)...
August 2016: Seminars in Oncology
Marian Smeulers, Hester Vermeulen
OBJECTIVE: Standardization of the handover process is deemed necessary to ensure continuity and safety of care. However, local context is considered of equal importance to improve the handover process. Our objective was to determine what recommendations on standardized shift handover nurses make, if we combine evidence from the literature with the local context of the nurses. DESIGN: A RAND-modified Delphi consensus process that combines evidence from systematic reviews with expert opinion of local nurses and an evaluation of the consensus process with a survey...
September 12, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Matthew R Ginther, Richard J Bonnie, Morris B Hoffman, Francis X Shen, Kenneth W Simons, Owen D Jones, René Marois
UNLABELLED: The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Julia R Varshavsky, Ami R Zota, Tracey J Woodruff
Phthalates are ubiquitous chemicals linked to hormonal disruptions that affect reproduction and development. Multiple antiandrogenic phthalates exposure during fetal development can have greater impacts than individual exposure; thus, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommends them for cumulative assessment. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES, 2001-2012), we developed a potency-weighted sum of daily intake (∑androgen-disruptor; μg/kg/day) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) based on NAS recommendations, and included diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) in additional metrics (2005-2012)...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Boaz Levy, Elena Tsoy, Samuel Gable
A comprehensive approach to the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) warrants a synergy across multiple domains and procedures. Whereas the study of biological markers has mobilized major activity in the field, the development of cognitive markers is largely ignored, despite the unique advantages they may offer. Cognitive markers essentially assess the core clinical feature that biological markers intend to predict. In this respect, cognitive markers expand the foundation of preclinical diagnostics and disease staging in a manner that integrates both physiological and psychological factors...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Christy M Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G Barletta, Etsuko N Moriyama, Timothy P L Smith, Jay Reddy
BACKGROUND: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911. RESULTS: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we propose that this organism belongs to the species Bacillus infantis, previously shown to be associated with sepsis in a newborn child...
2016: BMC Genomics
K J Wilby, E K Black, Z Austin, B Mukhalalati, S Aboulsoud, S I Khalifa
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and psychometric defensibility of implementing a comprehensive objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on the complete pharmacy programme for pharmacy students in a Middle Eastern context, and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation within new settings. Eight cases were developed, validated, and had standards set according to a blueprint, and were assessed with graduating pharmacy students. Assessor reliability was evaluated using inter-class coefficients (ICCs)...
April 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
R Cameron Wolf, Darrin Adams, Robyn Dayton, Annette Verster, Joe Wong, Marcela Romero, Rafael Mazin, Edmund Settle, Tim Sladden, JoAnne Keatley
Transgender (trans) activists and global health partners have collaborated to develop new tools and guidance for assessing and addressing HIV and other health needs within trans populations. Trans women experience a heavy burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), high incidence of violence and difficulties accessing gender-affirming services. At the same time, little has been published on trans men's health, HIV issues, needs and experiences. Young trans people are especially marginalized and vulnerable, with few programmes and services specifically tailored to their needs...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ibrahim Birma Bwatanglang, Faruq Mohammad, Nor Azah Yusof, Jaafar Abdullah, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Mohd Zubir Hussein, Nadiah Abu, Nurul Elyani Mohammed, Noraini Nordin, Nur Rizi Zamberi, Swee Keong Yeap
In this study, we modulated the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) using a carrier system with enhanced targeting efficacy towards folate receptors (FRs) expressing malignant tissues. The 5-FU drug was loaded onto Mn-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated with chitosan (CS) biopolymer and conjugated with folic acid (FA) based on a simple wet chemical method. The formation of 5-FU drug loaded composite was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
(no author information available yet)
DNA methylation patterns are altered in numerous diseases and often correlate with clinically relevant information such as disease subtypes, prognosis and drug response. With suitable assays and after validation in large cohorts, such associations can be exploited for clinical diagnostics and personalized treatment decisions. Here we describe the results of a community-wide benchmarking study comparing the performance of all widely used methods for DNA methylation analysis that are compatible with routine clinical use...
July 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Arshiya Bose, Bhaskar Vira, Claude Garcia
Conservation initiatives are designed to address threats to forests and biodiversity, often through partnerships with natural-resource users who are incentivized to change their land-use and livelihood practices to avoid further biodiversity loss. In particular, direct incentives programmes that provide monetary benefits are commended for being effective in achieving conservation across short timescales. In biodiversity-rich areas, outside protected areas, such as coffee agroforestry systems, direct incentives, such as certification schemes, are used to motivate coffee producers to maintain native tree species, natural vegetation, restrict wildlife hunting, and conserve soil and water, in addition to encouraging welfare of workers...
June 21, 2016: Ambio
Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo, Marie-Pierre Preziosi, David Wood, Vasee Moorthy, Marie Paule Kieny
During 2014 and 2015 an outbreak of Ebola deemed a Public Health Emergency of International Concern affected a number of West African countries. The outbreak underscored the need for a vaccine against Ebola. An unprecedented and to great extent collaborative effort built on the availability of a number of candidate vaccines that could enter into clinical phase evaluation. A series of international consultations and activities were led by WHO as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to develop and assess an Ebola vaccine...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Kai Klepiszewski, Silvia Venditti, Christian Koehler
The development of a strategic approach to manage pollution of surface waters with pharmaceutical residues is in centre of interest in Europe. In this context a lack of reliable standard procedures for sampling and subsequent assessment of pharmaceutical mass flows in the water cycle has been identified. Authoritative assessment of relevant substance concentrations and flows is essential for environmental risk assessments and reliable efficiency analysis of measures to reduce or avoid emissions of drugs to water systems...
July 1, 2016: Water Research
Jisung Kim, Mia J Biondi, Jordan J Feld, Warren C W Chan
There has been a major focus on the clinical translation of emerging technologies for diagnosing patients with infectious diseases, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. However, most developments still remain at the academic stage where researchers use spiked target molecules to demonstrate the utility of a technology and assess the analytical performance. This approach does not account for the biological complexities and variabilities of human patient samples. As a technology matures and potentially becomes clinically viable, one important intermediate step in the translation process is to conduct a full clinical validation of the technology using a large number of patient samples...
April 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Tahra AlMahmoud, Margaret Ann Elzubeir, Sami Shaban, Frank Branicki
BACKGROUND: The primary goal of any assessment of students is to provide valid and reliable evaluations of students' knowledge and skills as well as provision of accurate feedback to students about their performance. Contrary to best practice guidelines for development of multiple choice questions (MCQs), however, items used within medical schools are often flawed. This disappoints students and discourages examiners from using in-house MCQ databases. Vetting and reviewing items can improve the quality of MCQs...
September 2015: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Carl Rudolf Blankart, Tom Stargardt
In recent years, the expiration of patents for large drug classes has increased the importance of post-patent drug markets. However, previous research has focused solely on patent drug markets. In this study, the authors evaluate the influence of preferred supplier contracts, the German approach to tendering, in post-patent drug markets using a hierarchical market share attraction model. The authors find that preferred supplier contracts are a powerful strategic instrument for generic manufacturers in a highly competitive environment...
February 22, 2016: Health Care Management Science
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