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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936491/intrinsic-%C3%AE-helix-propensities-compact-hydrodynamic-radii-in-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#1
Lance R English, Erin C Tilton, Benjamin J Ricard, Steven T Whitten
Proteins that lack tertiary stability under normal conditions, known as intrinsically disordered, exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Molecular descriptions for the biology of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) consequently rely on disordered structural models, which in turn require experiments that assess the origins to structural features observed. For example, while hydrodynamic size is mostly insensitive to sequence composition in chemically denatured proteins, IDPs show strong sequence-specific effects in the hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) when measured under normal conditions...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936287/combining-item-response-theory-with-multiple-imputation-to-equate-health-assessment-questionnaires
#2
Chenyang Gu, Roee Gutman
The assessment of patients' functional status across the continuum of care requires a common patient assessment tool. However, assessment tools that are used in various health care settings differ and cannot be easily contrasted. For example, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is used to evaluate the functional status of patients who stay in inpatient rehabilitation facilities, the Minimum Data Set (MDS) is collected for all patients who stay in skilled nursing facilities, and the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) is collected if they choose home health care provided by home health agencies...
December 9, 2016: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936155/variation-in-plant-response-to-herbivory-underscored-by-functional-traits
#3
Aspen T Reese, Gregory M Ames, Justin P Wright
The effects of herbivory can shape plant communities and evolution. However, the many forms of herbivory costs and the wide variation in herbivory pressure, including across latitudinal gradients, can make predicting the effects of herbivory on different plant species difficult. Functional trait approaches may aid in contextualizing and standardizing the assessment of herbivory impacts. Here we assessed the response of 26 old-field plant species to simulated defoliation in a greenhouse setting by measuring whole plant and leaf level traits in control and treated individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936093/olfactory-assessment-of-competitors-to-the-nest-site-an-experiment-on-a-passerine-species
#4
Matteo Griggio, Gerardo Fracasso, Katharina Mahr, Herbert Hoi
Since most avian species have been considered anosmic or microsmatic, olfaction and associated behavioural patterns have hardly been investigated. Most importantly, empirical data on avian olfaction is not equally distributed among species. Initial investigations focused on species with relatively big olfactory bulbs because they were thought to have better olfactory capabilities. Hence, in this study we tested the ability of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to use chemical cues as parameters to estimate nest features...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936015/towards-assessing-the-human-trajectory-planning-horizon
#5
Daniel Carton, Verena Nitsch, Dominik Meinzer, Dirk Wollherr
Mobile robots are envisioned to cooperate closely with humans and to integrate seamlessly into a shared environment. For locomotion, these environments resemble traversable areas which are shared between multiple agents like humans and robots. The seamless integration of mobile robots into these environments requires accurate predictions of human locomotion. This work considers optimal control and model predictive control approaches for accurate trajectory prediction and proposes to integrate aspects of human behavior to improve their performance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935947/a-stochastic-model-of-the-yeast-cell-cycle-reveals-roles-for-feedback-regulation-in-limiting-cellular-variability
#6
Debashis Barik, David A Ball, Jean Peccoud, John J Tyson
The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935641/pinus-contorta-invasions-increase-wildfire-fuel-loads-and-may-create-a-positive-feedback-with-fire
#7
Kimberley T Taylor, Bruce D Maxwell, David B McWethy, Aníbal Pauchard, Martín A Nuñez, Cathy Whitlock
Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory...
December 9, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935607/microencapsulated-cells-of-lactobacillus-paracasei-subsp-paracasei-in-biopolymer-complex-coacervates-and-their-function-in-a-yogurt-matrix
#8
L A Bosnea, T Moschakis, C G Biliaderis
L. paracasei subsp. paracasei E6 cells were encapsulated by complex coacervation using whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic and introduced in stirred yogurts after fermentation. For comparison purposes, yogurts without addition of L. paracasei and yogurts with free cells of L. paracasei were produced. The survival of free and microencapsulated L. paracasei cells was evaluated during storage of the yogurts for 45 days at 4 °C. In addition, yogurts were exposed to simulated gastric juice and the reduction in viable numbers of L...
August 26, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935446/sample-size-requirement-in-analytical-studies-for-similarity-assessment
#9
Shein-Chung Chow, Fuyu Song, He Bai
For assessment of biosimilar products, FDA recommends a stepwise approach for obtaining the totality-of-the-evidence for assessing biosimilarity between a proposed biosimilar product and its corresponding innovative biologic product (FDA, 2015). The stepwise approach starts with analytical studies for assessing similarity in critical quality attributes (CQAs) which are relevant to clinical outcomes at various stages of manufacturing process (Christl, 2015). For CQAs that are most relevant to clinical outcomes, FDA requires equivalence test be performed for similarity assessment based on an equivalence acceptance criterion that is obtained using single test value of some selected reference lots (Tsong, 2015)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935431/moving-a-hospital-simulation-a-way-to-coproduce-safety-healthcare-facilities
#10
Maxime Gignon, Carole Amsallem, Christine Ammirati
Moving a hospital is a critical period for quality and safety of healthcare. Change is very stressful for professionals. Workers who have experienced relocation of their place of work report deterioration in health status. Building a new hospital or restructuring a unit could provide an opportunity for improving safety and value in healthcare and for ensuring better quality of worklife for the staff. We used in situ simulation to promote experiential learning by training healthcare workers in the workplace in which they are expected to use their skills...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935275/new-magnetic-graphitized-carbon-black-tio2-composite-for-phosphopeptide-selective-enrichment-in-shotgun-phosphoproteomics
#11
Susy Piovesana, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Francesca Ferraris, Daniel Iglesias, Silvia Marchesan, Aldo Laganà
Graphitized carbon black (GCB) has been employed for extraction of several classes of analytes, due to the large surface area and the unique chemistry of its surface groups that allows for extracting a wide range of analytes, including polar, acidic compounds. Despite the fact that structurally related materials, such as graphene, found application as hybrid-components in phosphoproteomics, surprisingly, GCB has never been used for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. For this purpose, in the present work we used GCB to prepare a magnetic composite with TiO2 (mGCB@TiO2) that was then applied to yeast total extracts...
December 9, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934982/shape-electronic-structure-and-steric-effects-of-organometallic-nanocatalysts-relevant-tools-to-improve-the-synergy-between-theory-and-experiment
#12
Lucy Cusinato, Iker Del Rosal, Romuald Poteau
Working closely with experimentalists on the comprehension of the surface properties of catalytically active organometallic nanoparticles (NPs) requires the development of several computational strategies which significantly differ from the cluster domain where a precise knowledge of their optimal geometry is a mandatory prerequisite to computational modeling. Theoretical simulations can address several properties of organometallic nanoparticles: the morphology of the metal core, the surface composition under realistic thermodynamic conditions, the relationship between adsorption energies and predictive descriptors of reactivity...
December 9, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933944/diffusion-in-multicomponent-liquids-from-microscopic-to-macroscopic-scales
#13
G Guevara-Carrion, Y Gaponenko, T Janzen, J Vrabec, V Shevtsova
In spite of considerable research on the nature of aqueous alcohol mixtures that are characterized by microscopic inhomogeneity or incomplete mixing at the molecular level, transport properties have received little attention. We report the results of a study on diffusion in the ternary mixture of water with two alcohols, that is, water + methanol + ethanol, which is investigated on microscopic and macroscopic scales by means of molecular simulation and Taylor dispersion experiments. A novel protocol is developed for the comparison of mutual diffusion coefficients sampled by two fundamentally different approaches, which allows for their critical analysis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933495/photocatalysis-of-s-metolachlor-in-aqueous-suspension-of-magnetic-cerium-doped-mtio2-core-shell-under-simulated-solar-light
#14
J Mermana, P Sutthivaiyakit, C Blaise, F Gagné, S Charnsethikul, P Kidkhunthod, S Sutthivaiyakit
Magnetic cerium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide was synthesized by combining sol-gel method and calcination using tetrabutanate and ammonium cerium nitrate as precursors and Pluronic P123 as a template coating on iron oxide covered with carbon in ethanol. The magnetic Ce-doped catalyst showed only anatase structure with a slight increase in lattice parameters compared to the undoped catalyst. The Ce LIII-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra showed Ce(3+), and the cerium substitution doping into titanium dioxide was proposed...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933290/validation-of-a-cochlear-implant-patient-specific-model-of-the-voltage-distribution-in-a-clinical-setting
#15
Waldo Nogueira, Daniel Schurzig, Andreas Büchner, Richard T Penninger, Waldemar Würfel
Cochlear Implants (CIs) are medical implantable devices that can restore the sense of hearing in people with profound hearing loss. Clinical trials assessing speech intelligibility in CI users have found large intersubject variability. One possibility to explain the variability is the individual differences in the interface created between electrodes of the CI and the auditory nerve. In order to understand the variability, models of the voltage distribution of the electrically stimulated cochlea may be useful...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933152/ensuring-availability-of-in-date-and-fit-for-purpose-emergency-guidelines-in-all-anaesthetic-areas-throughout-the-south-east-scotland-deanery
#16
Elise Hindle
Our aim was to institute a system whereby emergency anaesthetic guidelines are available in >90% of appropriate clinical areas throughout each of the acute hospital sites in three health board administrative regions, and whereby >90% of available guidelines are deemed to be in date and fit for purpose. Our objective was to achieve these targets within 6 months. Using quality improvement methodology, we inventoried available emergency anaesthetic guidelines in 132 locations throughout seven acute care hospitals...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932961/patient-specific-electric-field-simulations-and-acceleration-measurements-for-objective-analysis-of-intraoperative-stimulation-tests-in-the-thalamus
#17
Simone Hemm, Daniela Pison, Fabiola Alonso, Ashesh Shah, Jérôme Coste, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Karin Wårdell
Despite an increasing use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) the fundamental mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Simulation of electric entities has previously been proposed for chronic DBS combined with subjective symptom evaluations, but not for intraoperative stimulation tests. The present paper introduces a method for an objective exploitation of intraoperative stimulation test data to identify the optimal implant position of the chronic DBS lead by relating the electric field (EF) simulations to the patient-specific anatomy and the clinical effects quantified by accelerometry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932666/interval-estimation-for-a-proportion-using-a-double-sampling-scheme-with-two-fallible-classifiers
#18
Shi-Fang Qiu, Heng Lian, G Y Zou, Xiao-Song Zeng
Double-sampling schemes using one classifier assessing the whole sample and another classifier assessing a subset of the sample have been introduced for reducing classification errors when an infallible or gold standard classifier is unavailable or impractical. Inference procedures have previously been proposed for situations where an infallible classifier is available for validating a subset of the sample that has already been classified by a fallible classifier. Here, we consider the case where both classifiers are fallible, proposing and evaluating several confidence interval procedures for a proportion under two models, distinguished by the assumption regarding ascertainment of two classifiers...
December 8, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932544/improving-the-identification-of-phenotypic-abnormalities-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-mice-when-studying-rare-event-categorical-characteristics
#19
Natasha A Karp, Ruth Heller, Shay Yaacoby, Jacqueline K White, Yoav Benjamini
Biological research frequently involves the study of phenotyping data. Many of these studies focus on rare event categorical data, and in functional genomics typically study the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype. With the growing interest in the role of sex, there is a need to assess the phenotype for sexual dimorphism. The identification of abnormal phenotypes for downstream research is challenged by the small sample size, the rare event nature, and the multiple testing problem, as many variables are monitored simultaneously...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931937/influence-of-capillary-barrier-effect-on-biogas-distribution-at-the-base-of-passive-methane-oxidation-biosystems-parametric-study
#20
Bahar Ahoughalandari, Alexandre R Cabral
The efficiency of methane oxidation in passive methane oxidation biosystems (PMOBs) is influenced by, among other things, the intensity and distribution of the CH4 loading at the base of the methane oxidation layer (MOL). Both the intensity and distribution are affected by the capillary barrier that results from the superposition of the two materials constituting the PMOB, namely the MOL and the gas distribution layer (GDL). The effect of capillary barriers on the unsaturated flow of water has been well documented in the literature...
December 5, 2016: Waste Management
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