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Simulation and assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728324/the-chicken-thigh-adductor-profundus-free-muscle-flap-a-novel-validated-non-living-microsurgery-simulation-training-model
#1
Georgios Pafitanis, Yasmine Serrar, Maria Raveendran, Ali Ghanem, Simon Myers
BACKGROUND: Simulation training is becoming an increasingly important component of skills acquisition in surgical specialties, including Plastic Surgery. Non-living simulation models have an established place in Plastic Surgical microsurgery training, and support the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use. A more sophisticated version of the basic chicken thigh microsurgery model has been developed to include dissection of a type 1-muscle flap and is described and validated here...
July 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727944/computer-based-case-simulations-for-assessment-in-health-care-a-literature-review-of-validity-evidence
#2
Robyn C Ward, Timothy J Muckle, Michael J Kremer, Mary Anne Krogh
Simulation for education and training in health-care professions has been widely applied. However, its value as an assessment tool for competence is not fully known. Logistical barriers of simulation-based assessments have led some health-care organizations to utilize computer-based case simulations (CCSs) for assessment. This article provides a review of the literature on the identification of psychometrically sound, CCS instruments designed to measure decision-making competence in health-care professionals...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727902/glucocorticoid-assessment-in-the-domestic-horse-the-impact-of-time-and-climatic-variables-on-sample-integrity
#3
K Yarnell, S L Walker
BACKGROUND: Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) offers a non-invasive method of monitoring adrenal activity in domestic horses. Sample collection is on an opportunistic basis, and if samples are not fresh or have been exposed to the elements before they are identified, then they may not accurately reflect FGM concentration. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of a range of environmental conditions upon the integrity of FGM levels in equine faeces...
July 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727258/changing-systems-through-effective-teams-a-role-for-simulation
#4
Elizabeth D Rosenman, Rosemarie Fernandez, Ambrose H Wong, Michael Cassara, Dylan D Cooper, Maybelle Kou, Torrey A Laack, Ivette Motola, Jessica R Parsons, Benjamin R Levine, James A Grand
Teams are the building blocks of the healthcare system, with growing evidence linking the quality of health care to team effectiveness, and team effectiveness to team training. Simulation has been identified as an effective modality for team training and assessment. Despite this, there are gaps in methodology, measurement, and implementation that prevent maximizing the impact of simulation modalities on team performance. As part of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes," we explored the impact of simulation on various aspects of team effectiveness...
July 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727171/modelling-chemical-accumulation-in-sediment-of-small-water-bodies-accounting-for-sediment-transport-and-water-sediment-exchange-processes-over-long-periods
#5
David Albert Patterson, Alexander-Christian Strehmel, Beate Erzgräber, Klaus Hammel
In a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) it is argued that the accumulation of plant protection products (PPP) in sediments over long time periods may be an environmentally significant process. Therefore, EFSA proposed a calculation to account for PPP accumulation. This calculation, however, considers PPP degradation within sediment as the only dissipation route, and does not account for sediment dynamics or back-diffusion into the water column. The hydraulic model HEC-RAS was parameterized to assess sediment transport and deposition dynamics within FOCUS scenarios in simulations spanning 20 years...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727136/a-multidimensional-view-of-racial-differences-in-access-to-prostate-cancer-care
#6
Craig Evan Pollack, Katrina A Armstrong, Nandita Mitra, Xinwei Chen, Katelyn R Ward, Archana Radhakrishnan, Michelle S Wong, Justin E Bekelman, Charles C Branas, Karin V Rhodes, David T Grande
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are widespread and poorly understood. In the current study, the authors sought to determine whether access to care, measured across multiple dimensions, contributed to racial differences in prostate cancer. METHODS: The Philadelphia Area Prostate Cancer Access Study (P(2) Access) included 2374 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2012 and 2014. Men were surveyed to assess their experiences accessing care (response rate of 51...
July 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727089/the-use-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-live-animals-in-vivo-to-predict-meat-quality-deterioration-postmortem-in-vitro-caused-by-changes-in-muscle-biochemical-components
#7
E N Ponnampalam, D L Hopkins, K Giri, J L Jacobs, T Plozza, P Lewandowski, A Bekhit
This study was conducted to determine whether circulating concentrations of blood isoprostanes can be used as an effective biomarker in lambs to predict degradation of color and/or lipid stability in meat. Lambs ( = 84) were fed diets of either lucerne pasture, annual ryegrass pasture, a commercial feedlot pellet, or a combination of annual ryegrass and feedlot pellet for 8 wk, including a 2-wk adaptation period. Blood isoprostane concentration at wk 0, 4, 6 or 8 of feeding was determined. Blood isoprostane concentration for each animal was then correlated with muscle biochemical components that impact color and/or lipid oxidative status during retail display...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726753/antimicrobial-properties-of-selected-copper-alloys-on-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli-in-different-simulations-of-environmental-conditions-with-vs-without-organic-contamination
#8
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Agnieszka Sroka-Oleksiak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726698/experimental-study-and-artificial-neural-network-modeling-of-tartrazine-removal-by-photocatalytic-process-under-solar-light
#9
Aicha Sebti, Fatiha Souahi, Faroudja Mohellebi, Sadek Igoud
This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726581/phenomenological-modeling-of-reactive-dye-adsorption-onto-fish-scales-surface-in-the-presence-of-electrolyte-and-surfactant-mixtures
#10
C V Neves, F B Scheufele, A P Nardino, M G A Vieira, M G C da Silva, A N Módenes, C E Borba
The aim of this work was an experimental and theoretical investigation of the influence of electrolyte (NaCl) and surfactant (SP), as textile auxiliary agents (TAAs), on the removal of reactive blue 5G dye (RB5G) by applying untreated fish scales (FS) in batch system. For this, kinetic and equilibrium studies were performed aiming the comprehension of the mass transfer mechanisms through a phenomenological modeling. The biosorbent was texturally characterized, not only to investigate the adsorbent's characteristics but especially to support the definition of the assumptions of the models...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725549/performance-of-unscented-kalman-filter-tractography-in-edema-analysis-of-the-two-tensor-model
#11
Ruizhi Liao, Lipeng Ning, Zhenrui Chen, Laura Rigolo, Shun Gong, Ofer Pasternak, Alexandra J Golby, Yogesh Rathi, Lauren J O'Donnell
Diffusion MRI tractography is increasingly used in pre-operative neurosurgical planning to visualize critical fiber tracts. However, a major challenge for conventional tractography, especially in patients with brain tumors, is tracing fiber tracts that are affected by vasogenic edema, which increases water content in the tissue and lowers diffusion anisotropy. One strategy for improving fiber tracking is to use a tractography method that is more sensitive than the traditional single-tensor streamline tractography...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725437/towards-evidence-based-strength-training-a-comparison-of-muscle-forces-during-deadlifts-goodmornings-and-split-squats
#12
Florian Schellenberg, William R Taylor, Silvio Lorenzetti
BACKGROUND: To ensure an efficient and targeted adaptation with low injury risk during strength exercises, knowledge of the participant specific internal loading conditions is essential. The goal of this study was to calculate the lower limb muscles forces during the strength exercises deadlifts, goodmornings and splits squats by means of musculoskeletal simulation. METHODS: 11 participants were assessed performing 10 different variations of split squats by varying the step length as well as the maximal frontal tibia angle, and 13 participants were measured performing deadlift and goodmorning exercises...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725188/using-virtual-reality-to-assess-ethical-decisions-in-road-traffic-scenarios-applicability-of-value-of-life-based-models-and-influences-of-time-pressure
#13
Leon R Sütfeld, Richard Gast, Peter König, Gordon Pipa
Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724794/apol1-variants-change-c-terminal-conformational-dynamics-and-binding-to-snare-protein-vamp8
#14
Sethu M Madhavan, John F O'Toole, Martha Konieczkowski, Laura Barisoni, David B Thomas, Santhi Ganesan, Leslie A Bruggeman, Matthias Buck, John R Sedor
APOL1 variants in African populations mediate resistance to trypanosomal infection but increase risk for kidney diseases through unknown mechanisms. APOL1 is expressed in glomerular podocytes and does not vary with underlying kidney disease diagnoses or APOL1 genotypes, suggesting that the kidney disease-associated variants dysregulate its function rather than its localization or abundance. Structural homology searches identified vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) as an APOL1 protein interactor. VAMP8 colocalizes with APOL1 in the podocyte, and the APOL1:VAMP8 interaction was confirmed biochemically and with surface plasmon resonance...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724196/a-local-agreement-pattern-measure-based-on-hazard-functions-for-survival-outcomes
#15
Tian Dai, Ying Guo, Limin Peng, Amita K Manatunga
Assessing agreement is often of interest in biomedical and clinical research when measurements are obtained on the same subjects by different raters or methods. Most classical agreement methods have been focused on global summary statistics, which cannot be used to describe various local agreement patterns. The objective of this work is to study the local agreement pattern between two continuous measurements subject to censoring. In this article, we propose a new agreement measure based on bivariate hazard functions to characterize the local agreement pattern between two correlated survival outcomes...
July 19, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724095/modeling-the-effects-of-onsite-wastewater-treatment-systems-on-nitrate-loads-using-swat-in-an-urban-watershed-of-metropolitan-atlanta
#16
Nahal Hoghooghi, David E Radcliffe, Mussie Y Habteselassie, Jaehak Jeong
Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) can be a source of nitrogen (N) pollution in both surface and ground waters. In metropolitan Atlanta, GA, >26% of homes are on OWTSs. In a previous article, we used the Soil Water Assessment Tool to model the effect of OWTSs on stream flow in the Big Haynes Creek Watershed in metropolitan Atlanta. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs, including failing systems, on nitrate as N (NO-N) load in the same watershed. Big Haynes Creek has a drainage area of 44 km with mainly urban land use (67%), and most of the homes use OWTSs...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724088/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-aqueously-extractable-estrogens-in-poultry-manure-after-pilot-scale-composting
#17
Kirsten M Hammett, Elizabeth J Mullin, Diana S Aga, Gary K Felton, Daniel J Fisher, Lance T Yonkos
Poultry manure contains free and conjugated forms of the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol and estrone, which can be transported to receiving waters via runoff when land-applied. Previous studies have demonstrated estrogens in runoff from poultry manure-amended fields but have not tracked changes in estrogenicity within this water over time. Microbial conversion of conjugated estrogens (a major portion of water-extractable estrogens) to parent forms may result in temporary increases in estrogenicity in natural water bodies...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724079/single-step-genomic-and-pedigree-genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-models-for-predicting-wheat-lines-in-international-environments
#18
Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, José Crossa, Jessica Rutkoski, Jesse Poland, Ravi Singh, Andrés Legarra, Enrique Autrique, Gustavo de Los Campos, Juan Burgueño, Susanne Dreisigacker
Genomic prediction models have been commonly used in plant breeding but only in reduced datasets comprising a few hundred genotyped individuals. However, pedigree information for an entire breeding population is frequently available, as are historical data on the performance of a large number of selection candidates. The single-step method extends the genomic relationship information from genotyped individuals to pedigree information from a larger number of phenotyped individuals in order to combine relationship information on all members of the breeding population...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723815/effect-of-energy-drink-consumption-on-power-and-velocity-of-selected-sport-performance-activities
#19
Bert H Jacobson, Garrett M Hester, Ty B Palmer, Kathryn Williams, Zachary K Pope, John H Sellers, Eric C Conchola, Conrad Woolsey, Carlos Estrada
Energy drinks comprise a multibillion dollar market focused on younger, active and competitive individuals. Marketing includes claims of improved alertness and performance. The purpose of this study was to assess power (W) and velocity (m·s) of a simulated, isolated forehand stroke (FHS) and a counter movement vertical jump (CVJ) before and after ingestion of a commercially available energy shot (ES) or a placebo (PL). Healthy college-aged male and female (N=36) volunteers were randomly placed in the ES or PL...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723718/three-dimensional-head-mounted-gaming-task-procedure-maximizes-effects-of-vestibular-rehabilitation-in-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#20
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, Ivan Augimeri, Domenico Micarelli, Marco Alessandrini
Considering the emerging advantages related to virtual reality implementation in clinical rehabilitation, the aim of the present study was to discover possible (i) improvements achievable in unilateral vestibular hypofunction patients using a self-assessed head-mounted device (HMD)-based gaming procedure when combined with a classical vestibular rehabilitation protocol (HMD group) as compared with a group undergoing only vestibular rehabilitation and (ii) HMD procedure-related side effects. Therefore, 24 vestibular rehabilitation and 23-matched HMD unilateral vestibular hypofunction individuals simultaneously underwent a 4-week rehabilitation protocol...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
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