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Simulation and assessment

Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Lisa Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Methods: Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mary Ann Shinnick, Mary A Woo
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of objective and valid measures for assessing nursing clinical competence which could adversely impact patient safety. Therefore, we evaluated an objective assessment of clinical competence, Time to Task (ability to perform specific, critical nursing care activities within 5 min), and compared it to two subjective measures, (Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric [LCJR] and common "pass/fail" assessment). DESIGN/METHODS: Using a prospective, "Known Groups" (Expert vs...
February 12, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Haoyu Sun, Yongzheng Pan, Yue Gu, Zhifen Lin
Cross-phenomenon in which the concentration-response curve (CRC) for a mixture crosses the CRC for the reference model has been identified in many studies, expressed as a heterogeneous pattern of joint toxic action. However, a mechanistic explanation of the cross-phenomenon has thus far been extremely insufficient. In this study, a time-dependent cross-phenomenon was observed, in which the cross-concentration range between the CRC for the mixture of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) and (Z-)-4-Bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone (C30) to the bioluminescence of Aliivibrio fischeri (A...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vamsi Krishna Rentala, Phani Mylavarapu, Jai Prakash Gautam
In order to successfully implement Damage Tolerance (DT) methodology for aero-engines, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques are vital for assessing the remaining life of the component. Probability of Detection (POD), a standard measure of NDT reliability, is usually estimated as per MIL-HDBK-1823A standard. Estimation of POD of any NDT technique can be obtained by both experimental and model assisted methods. POD depends on many factors such as material, geometry, defect characteristics, inspection technique, etc...
February 13, 2018: Ultrasonics
Chuang Yu, Junfeng Liu, Jianjun Ma, Xiaoniu Yu
Based on large-deformation consolidation theory and the advection-dispersion equation of contaminant in saturated porous media, a one-dimensional theoretical model for coupled large-deformation and solute transport through layered finite soil is presented. This model comprehensively takes the effect of soil weight, sorption, and biodegradation into account. Model validation and applications are achieved through case studies of double-layered finite soil, with the transport and transformation process of contaminant being reproduced numerically...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Weilin Li, Jian Wen, Zhongliang Xiao, Shengxia Xu
To assess the health conditions of tree trunks, it is necessary to estimate the layers and anomalies of their internal structure. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the internal part of tree trunks considering their irregular contour. In this respect, we used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for non-invasive detection of defects and deteriorations in living trees trunks. The Hilbert transform algorithm and the reflection amplitudes were used to estimate the relative dielectric constant. The point cloud data technique was applied as well to extract the irregular contours of trunks...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
Olivia K Ginty, John M Moore, Yuanwei Xu, Wenyao Xia, Satoru Fujii, Daniel Bainbridge, Terry M Peters, Bob B Kiaii, Michael W A Chu
OBJECTIVE: Planned mitral repair strategies are generally established from preoperative echocardiography; however, specific details of the repair are often determined intraoperatively. We propose that three-dimensional printed, patient-specific, dynamic mitral valve models may help surgeons plan and trial all the details of a specific patient's mitral repair preoperatively. METHODS: Using preoperative echocardiography, segmentation, modeling software, and three-dimensional printing, we created dynamic, high-fidelity, patient-specific mitral valve models including the subvalvular apparatus...
February 22, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
A J Delgado, S P Amaya-Pajares, Y Su, L Behar-Horenstein, T E Donovan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the gelation and polymerization time of three polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) putty materials and to determine if those times were affected by nitrile gloves under different conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten specimens (n=10) were obtained for each PVS putty material (Express STD, 3M ESPE; Extrude Xtra, Kerr and Exafast, GC) and tested under different conditions (gloves washed, gloves unwashed and hands contaminated)...
February 20, 2018: Community Dental Health
Sara Morgan
Simulation has been introduced in recent years into international nursing curricula. Many educational establishments have developed simulation centres that resemble the ward settings nursing students will be exposed to so that they can use the same equipment as they will in clinical practice. This is referred to as high fidelity simulation training (HFST). This article reflects on an example of a multidisciplinary HFST scenario in the context of the assessment and accountability and learning domains of the Nursing and Midwifery Council standards...
February 22, 2018: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Michael T Prusator, Salahuddin Ahmad, Yong Chen
For passive scattering proton therapy systems, neutron contamination is the main concern both from an occupational and patient safety perspective. The Mevion S250 compact proton therapy system is the first of its kind, offering an in-room cyclotron design which prompts more concern for shielding assessment. The purpose of this study was to accomplish an in-depth evaluation of both the shielding design and in-room neutron production at our facility using both Monte Carlo simulation and measurement. We found that the shielding in place at our facility is adequate, with simulated annual neutron ambient dose equivalents at 30 cm outside wall/door perimeter ranging from background to 0...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Bhumi Bhusal, Pallab Bhattacharyya, Tanvir Baig, Stephen Jones, Michael Martens
PURPOSE: To assess RF-induced heating during MRI of patients with implanted stereo-electroencephalography electrodes. METHODS: Simulations and experimental measurements using phantom and a head-only transmit/receive coil on a 3T MR system were performed to evaluate temperature increases at the tip of an 8-contact stereo-electroencephalography electrode and an insulated wire partially immersed into the phantom. The lengths of wire producing maximum (resonant condition) and minimum (anti-resonant condition) heating were evaluated for different entry modes and penetration depths...
February 21, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Afsaneh Yakhforoshha, Seyed Amir Hossein Emami, Farhad Shahi, Saeed Shahsavari, Mohammadali Cheraghi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Mandana Shirazi
The task of breaking bad news (BBN) may be improved by incorporating simulation with art-based teaching methods. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of an integrating simulation with art-based teaching strategies, on fellows' performance regarding BBN, in Iran. The study was carried out using quasi-experimental methods, interrupted time series. The participants were selected from medical oncology fellows at two teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. Participants were trained through workshop, followed by engaging participants with different types of art-based teaching methods...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Kumail Khandwala, Adeel A Waheed, Muhammad I Alvi, Waseem A Mirza, Masood Umer, Eraj Khurshid
Osteochondroma and synovial chondromatosis are frequently reported benign bony and cartilaginous lesions. Osteochondroma is distinguished by a cartilage-capped bony exostosis on the exterior surface of the bone, whereas synovial chondromatosis is secondary to metaplasia and is characterized by multiple cartilaginous loose bodies within the synovium. We present an atypical case of synovial chondromatosis developing in a bursa sec-ondary to an underlying osteochondroma of the proximal medial tibia in a child...
December 14, 2017: Curēus
Katharina Steyer, Annika Tiesmeyer, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Carsten Nowak
Hybridization between wild species and their domestic congeners is considered a major threat for wildlife conservation. Genetic integrity of the European wildcat, for instance, is a concern as they are outnumbered by domestic cats by several orders of magnitude throughout its range. We genotyped 1,071 individual wildcat samples obtained from hair traps and roadkills collected across the highly fragmented forests of western Central Europe, in Germany and Luxembourg, to assess domestic cat introgression in wildcats in human-dominated landscapes...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Leidy Y Serna, Miguel A Mañanas, Alher M Hernández, Roberto A Rabinovich
Respiratory system modeling has been extensively studied in steady-state conditions to simulate sleep disorders, to predict its behavior under ventilatory diseases or stimuli and to simulate its interaction with mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, the studies focused on the instantaneous response are limited, which restricts its application in clinical practice. The aim of this study is double: firstly, to analyze both dynamic and static responses of two known respiratory models under exercise stimuli by using an incremental exercise stimulus sequence (to analyze the model responses when step inputs are applied) and experimental data (to assess prediction capability of each model)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Donghoon Lee, Hyun-Young Shin, Sang Min Park
Background: In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for approximately 65-75% of HBV-related diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cancer, and mother-to-child transmission is presumed to be a major source of the infection. To tackle this issue, the Korean government launched the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) in 2002. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis compared with the current PHBPP and/or universal vaccination, as well as identified the optimal strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Korea...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Fabian Kording, Bjoern P Schoennagel, Manuela Tavares de Sousa, Kai Fehrs, Gerhard Adam, Jin Yamamura, Christian Ruprecht
PURPOSE: Fetal cardiac MRI has the potential to play an important role in the assessment of fetal cardiac pathologies, but it is up to now not feasible due to a missing gating method. The purpose of this work was the evaluation of Doppler ultrasound (DUS) for external fetal cardiac gating with regard to compatibility, functionality, and reliability. Preliminary results were assessed performing fetal cardiac MRI. METHODS: An MRI conditional DUS device was developed to obtain a gating signal from the fetal heart...
February 21, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Ji Hoon Kim, Jin Ha Park, Junho Cho, Tae Young Kong, Ji Hwan Lee, Jin Ho Beom, Young Seon Joo, Dong Ryul Ko, Hyun Soo Chung
BACKGROUND: Using a two-dimensional ultrasound-guided approach does not guarantee success during the first attempt at internal jugular vein cannulation. Our randomized, parallel simulation study examined whether a new disposable device could improve the success rate of the first attempt at ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation of a simulated internal jugular vein. METHODS: Eighty-eight participants were randomized to perform needle insertion for internal jugular vein cannulation of a phantom using the ultrasound-guided approach with (case group) or without (control group) this new device...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Neil L Duplantier, Ronald J Mitchell, Steve Zambrano, Aaron C Stone, Domenica A Delgado, Bradley S Lambert, Michael R Moreno, Joshua D Harris, Patrick C McCulloch, David M Lintner, Kevin E Varner
BACKGROUND: Fifth metatarsal base fractures of the metaphyseal-diaphyseal watershed junction (Jones fracture) are commonly treated with surgical fixation in athletes. Intramedullary screw fixation remains the most utilized construct, although plantar-lateral plating is an alternative. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the mechanical strength of fracture fixation between an intramedullary screw and plantar-lateral plating. The hypothesis was that plantar-lateral plate fixation would allow for more cycles and higher peak loads before failure, as well as less fracture gapping, than would an intramedullary screw in cadaveric foot specimens with simulated Jones fractures exposed to cantilever bending...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Lukas M Vos, Boudewijn Stegenga, A Dennis Stant, Elize H Quik, James Jr Huddleston Slater
AIMS: To determine the cost effectiveness and cost utility of arthrocentesis as an initial treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia compared to usual care. METHODS: A two-armed, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Netherlands from January 2009 to June 2012 that included patients with TMJ arthralgia. Patients were randomly allocated to arthrocentesis (n = 40) or usual care (n = 40) for initial treatment. Arthrocentesis consisted of rinsing the intra-articular space with isotonic saline, and usual care included a soft diet, physical therapy, and splint therapy...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
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