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Simulation and assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677057/newborn-resuscitation-skills-in-health-care-providers-at-a-zambian-tertiary-center-and-comparison-to-world-health-organization-standards
#2
Sara C Mistry, Richard Lin, Hazel Mumphansha, Laura C Kettley, Janaki A Pearson, Sonia Akrimi, David J Mayne, Wonder Hangoma, M Dylan Bould
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of early neonatal death. In 2013, 32% of neonatal deaths in Zambia were attributable to birth asphyxia and trauma. Basic, timely interventions are key to improving outcomes. However, data from the World Health Organization suggest that resuscitation is often not initiated, or is conducted suboptimally. Currently, there are little data on the quality of newborn resuscitation in the context of a tertiary center in a lower-middle income country...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676932/exoplanet-biosignatures-a-framework-for-their-assessment
#3
David C Catling, Joshua Krissansen-Totton, Nancy Y Kiang, David Crisp, Tyler D Robinson, Shiladitya DasSarma, Andrew J Rushby, Anthony Del Genio, William Bains, Shawn Domagal-Goldman
Finding life on exoplanets from telescopic observations is an ultimate goal of exoplanet science. Life produces gases and other substances, such as pigments, which can have distinct spectral or photometric signatures. Whether or not life is found with future data must be expressed with probabilities, requiring a framework of biosignature assessment. We present a framework in which we advocate using biogeochemical "Exo-Earth System" models to simulate potential biosignatures in spectra or photometry...
April 20, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675923/latent-therapeutic-demand-model-for-the-immunoglobulin-replacement-therapy-of-primary-immune-deficiency-disorders-in-the-usa
#4
J S Stonebraker, J Hajjar, J S Orange
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our research aim is to model latent therapeutic demand (LTD) for the immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgGRT) of primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDDs) in the USA. Given the high level of variability of IgGRT use and major differences among American and European practices in the management of patients with PIDDs, we develop a USA-specific LTD model for common variable immune deficiency (CVID), hyper IGM syndrome, severe combined immune deficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)...
April 20, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675909/computational-assessment-of-folding-energy-landscapes-in-heterodimeric-coiled-coils
#5
Ingemar André, Sinisa Bjelic
The coiled coil structural motif consists of alpha helices supercoiling around each other to form staggered knobs-into-holes packing. Such structures are deceptively simple, especially as they often can be described with parametric equations, but are known to exist in various conformations. Even the simplest systems, consisting of two monomers, can assemble into a wide range of states. They can form canonical as well as noncanonical coiled coils, be parallel or antiparallel, where helices associate with different degrees of shift, tilt, and rotation...
April 20, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675732/bias-flow-rate-and-ventilation-efficiency-during-adult-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-a-lung-model-study
#6
Osamu Nagano, Tetsuya Yumoto, Atsunori Nishimatsu, Shunsuke Kanazawa, Takahisa Fujita, Sunao Asaba, Hideo Yamanouchi
BACKGROUND: Bias flow (BF) is essential to maintain mean airway pressure (MAP) and to washout carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from the oscillator circuit during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). If the BF rate is inadequate, substantial CO2 rebreathing could occur and ventilation efficiency could worsen. With lower ventilation efficiency, the required stroke volume (SV) would increase in order to obtain the same alveolar ventilation with constant frequency. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of BF rate on ventilation efficiency during adult HFOV...
April 19, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675570/driving-ability-after-right-sided-puncture-of-the-common-femoral-artery-during-coronary-angiography
#7
Christoph Brenner, Raoul Fuehring, David Niederseer, Rudolf Kirchmair, Christian Haid, Michael Liebensteiner
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: To assess brake reaction time (BRT; key factor in driving ability) in patients receiving transfemoral coronary angiography (CAG). We assumed that patients would have a significantly impaired BRT after the procedure. METHODS: A prospective, observational study design was applied. Consecutive patients undergoing right-sided transfemoral CAG as part of the clinical routine were included. An experimental driving simulator was used to determine BRT after receiving a visual stimulus...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675530/hepatoprotective-activity-of-iridoids-seco-iridoids-and-analog-glycosides-from-gentianaceae-on-hepg2-cells-via-cyp3a4-induction-and-mitochondrial-pathway
#8
Kang Dai, Xue-Jia Yi, Xian-Ju Huang, Azhar Muhammad, Mei Li, Jun Li, Guang-Zhong Yang, Yue Gao
Gentianaceae herb extracts have been widely used as food additives, teas or medicinal remedies for various diseases and disorders of the human body. Herein, the potential effects of iridoids, seco-iridoids and analog glycosides from gentian on acontine-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated in HepG2 cells to obtain metabolic data of drug-biotarget interactions. Molecular docking analysis was performed to assess the binding efficiencies of 53 iridoids, seco-iridoids and analog compounds obtained from 50 gentian species to the active sites of human CYP3A4 enzyme...
April 20, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675293/l-1-norm-based-nonlinear-reconstruction-improves-quantitative-accuracy-of-spectral-diffuse-optical-tomography
#9
Wenqi Lu, Daniel Lighter, Iain B Styles
Spectrally constrained diffuse optical tomography (SCDOT) is known to improve reconstruction in diffuse optical imaging; constraining the reconstruction by coupling the optical properties across multiple wavelengths suppresses artefacts in the resulting reconstructed images. In other work, L1 -norm regularization has been shown to improve certain types of image reconstruction problems as its sparsity-promoting properties render it robust against noise and enable the preservation of edges in images, but because the L1 -norm is non-differentiable, it is not always simple to implement...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675201/tagging-effects-on-the-mid-infrared-spectrum-of-microsolvated-protonated-methane
#10
Alexander Esser, Harald Forbert, Dominik Marx
Although bare protonated methane is by now essentially understood at the level of intramolecular large-amplitude motion, scrambling dynamics and broadband vibrational spectra, the microsolvated species still offer plenty of challenges. One aspect is the effect of the attached solvent molecules on the infrared absorption spectra of microsolvated CH5 + complexes compared to the bare parent molecule. In this study we analyze, based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, protonated methane molecules that have been microsolvated with up to three hydrogen molecules, i...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674844/evaluation-of-performance-acceptance-and-compliance-of-an-auto-injector-in-healthy-and-rheumatoid-arthritic-subjects-measured-by-a-motion-capture-system
#11
Xiao Xiao, Wei Li, Corbin Clawson, David Karvani, Perceval Sondag, James K Hahn
Purpose: The study aimed to develop a motion capture system that can track, visualize, and analyze the entire performance of self-injection with the auto-injector. Methods: Each of nine healthy subjects and 29 rheumatoid arthritic (RA) patients with different degrees of hand disability performed two simulated injections into an injection pad while six degrees of freedom (DOF) motions of the auto-injector and the injection pad were captured. We quantitatively measured the performance of the injection by calculating needle displacement from the motion trajectories...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674641/the-impact-of-storage-buffer-dna-extraction-method-and-polymerase-on-microbial-analysis
#12
Luisa K Hallmaier-Wacker, Simone Lueert, Christian Roos, Sascha Knauf
Next-generation sequencing approaches used to characterize microbial communities are subject to technical caveats that can lead to major distortion of acquired data. Determining the optimal sample handling protocol is essential to minimize the bias for different sample types. Using a mock community composed of 22 bacterial strains of even concentration, we studied a combination of handling conditions to determine the optimal conditions for swab material. Examining a combination of effects simulates the reality of handling environmental samples and may thus provide a better foundation for the standardization of protocols...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673935/investigation-of-the-dependence-of-joint-contact-forces-on-musculotendon-parameters-using-a-codified-workflow-for-image-based-modelling
#13
Luca Modenese, Erica Montefiori, Anqi Wang, Stefan Wesarg, Marco Viceconti, Claudia Mazzà
The generation of subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the lower limb has become a feasible task thanks to improvements in medical imaging technology and musculoskeletal modelling software. Nevertheless, clinical use of these models in paediatric applications is still limited for what concerns the estimation of muscle and joint contact forces. Aiming to improve the current state of the art, a methodology to generate highly personalized subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the lower limb based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans was codified as a step-by-step procedure and applied to data from eight juvenile individuals...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673385/risk-based-inspection-as-a-cost-effective-strategy-to-reduce-human-exposure-to-cysticerci-of-taenia-saginata-in-low-prevalence-settings
#14
Bhagyalakshmi Chengat Prakashbabu, Laura Rebecca Marshall, Matteo Crotta, William Gilbert, Jade Cherry Johnson, Lis Alban, Javier Guitian
BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata cysticercus is the larval stage of the zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata, with a life-cycle involving both cattle and humans. The public health impact is considered low. The current surveillance system, based on post-mortem inspection of carcasses has low sensitivity and leads to considerable economic burden. Therefore, in the interests of public health and food production efficiency, this study aims to explore the potential of risk-based and cost-effective meat inspection activities for the detection and control of T...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673087/naturalgwas-an-r-package-for-evaluating-genome-hyphen-wide-association-methods-with-empirical-data
#15
Olivier François, Kevin Caye
Association studies of polygenic traits are notoriously difficult when those studies are conducted at large geographic scales. The difficulty arises as genotype frequencies often vary in geographic space and across distinct environments. Those large{\hyphen}scale variations are known to yield false positives in standard association testing approaches. Although several methods alleviate this problem, no tools have been proposed to evaluate the power that association tests could achieve for a specific study design and set of genotypes...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672548/water-and-nitrogen-management-effects-on-semiarid-sorghum-production-and-soil-trace-gas-flux-under-future-climate
#16
Benjamin D Duval, Rajan Ghimire, Melannie D Hartman, Mark A Marsalis
External inputs to agricultural systems can overcome latent soil and climate constraints on production, while contributing to greenhouse gas emissions from fertilizer and water management inefficiencies. Proper crop selection for a given region can lessen the need for irrigation and timing of N fertilizer application with crop N demand can potentially reduce N2O emissions and increase N use efficiency while reducing residual soil N and N leaching. However, increased variability in precipitation is an expectation of climate change and makes predicting biomass and gas flux responses to management more challenging...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672464/effects-of-breathing-motion-on-pet-acquisitions-step-and-shoot-versus-continuous-bed-motion
#17
Yoshiki Owaki, Tadaki Nakahara, Takeshi Shimizu, Anne M Smith, Wing K Luk, Kazumasa Inoue, Masahiro Fukushi, Kiyotaka Nakajima
OBJECTIVES: Continuous bed motion (CBM) acquisition recently became available in whole-body PET/CT scanners in addition to the conventional step and shoot (S&S) acquisition. In this work, we compared the image quality between these acquisition methods using a phantom simulating periodic motion to mimic motion from patient breathing in a controlled manner. METHODS: PET image quality was assessed using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association IQ torso phantom filled with an F-FDG solution using a 4 : 1 target-to-background ratio...
April 18, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671704/sporangia-production-over-time-by-phytophthora-ramorum-on-rhododendron-cunningham-s-white-after-placement-at-different-relative-humidities
#18
Paul W Tooley, Marsha Browning
We examined the impact of relative humidity (RH) on Phytophthora ramorum sporangia production on Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White'. When diseased plants were maintained under continuous moisture in a mist tent, sporangia were collected from some plants for 22 weeks. More than 3,000 sporangia/leaf/week were collected over the first 3 weeks but levels declined to <100 sporangia/leaf/week after 7 weeks. We also examined the impact of drying on P. ramorum sporangia production. Diseased, detached leaves were maintained in humidity chambers (100, 96...
April 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671581/novel-mao-b-hit-inhibitors-using-multidimensional-molecular-modeling-approaches-and-application-of-binary-qsar-models-for-prediction-of-their-therapeutic-activity-and-toxic-effects
#19
Yusuf Serhat Is, Serdar Durdagi, Busecan Aksoydan, Mine Yurtsever
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes MAO-A and MAO-B play a critical role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. Hence, MAO inhibitors are very important for the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, 256750 molecules from Otava Green Chemical Collection were virtually screened for their binding activities as MAO-B inhibitors. Two hit molecules were identified after applying different filters such as high docking scores and selectivity to MAO-B, desired pharmacokinetic profile predictions with binary QSAR models...
April 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670967/investigation-of-hsa-as-a-biocompatible-coating-material-for-arsenic-trioxide-nanoparticles
#20
Maneka Hoonjan, Geetanjali Sachdeva, Sudeshna Chandra, Prashant S Kharkar, Niteshkumar Sahu, Purvi Bhatt
The anticancer properties of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) are accompanied by highly cytotoxic effects on normal cells. This necessitates developing modalities towards the targeted delivery of As2O3. Albumins, on account of their large structure and presence of several interacting groups, are ideal for encapsulating or carrying various drugs. In the present study, human serum albumin (HSA) was chosen as a coating agent to increase the biocompatibility of As2O3. An in situ chemical precipitation method was adopted for the synthesis of HSA-coated As2O3 nanoparticles (HSA-As2O3NPs) that were further characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
April 19, 2018: Nanoscale
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