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stroke review

Lizhen Chen
Axon regeneration is a fundamental and conserved process that allows the nervous system to repair circuits after trauma. Due to its conserved genome, transparent body, and relatively simple neuroanatomy, C. elegans has become a powerful model organism for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration. Various studies from different model organisms have found microtubule dynamics to be pivotal to axon regrowth. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings on how microtubule dynamics are regulated during axon regeneration in C...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
John R Best, Janice J Eng, Jennifer C Davis, Robin Hsiung, Peter A Hall, Laura E Middleton, Peter Graf, Charles H Goldsmith, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease-such as stroke-is the second most common cause of dementia (ie, vascular dementia). Specifically, a stroke increases one's risk for dementia by a factor of two. Thus, stroke survivors represent a target population in need of intervention strategies to promote cognitive function and prevent dementia. The current standard of care in stroke rehabilitation does not adequately address the significant cognitive consequences of stroke, especially for those who are in the chronic phase (ie, >12 months since an index stroke)...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Cyril Chivot, Hervé Deramond, Roger Bouzerar, Thierry Yzet
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of using the FemoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to seal 8F access sites during mechanical thrombectomy for stroke. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective database was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of femoral arterial closure using FemoSeal device in all patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy using an 8F sheath between January 2015 and July 2017. Efficacy endpoints were the successful deployment of the system and haemostasis success...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Jenq-Lin Yang, Sujira Mukda, Shang-Der Chen
Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and mortality in most developing and developed countries. The current best practices for patients with acute ischemic stroke include intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion to improve clinical outcomes. However, only a limited portion of patients receive thrombolytic therapy or endovascular treatment because the therapeutic time window after ischemic stroke is narrow. To address the current shortage of stroke management approaches, it is critical to identify new potential therapeutic targets...
March 9, 2018: Redox Biology
Nazia Karsan, Eric B Gonzales, Gregory Dussor
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels, consisting of four members; ASIC1 to 4. These channels are sensitive to changes in pH and are expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems-including brain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia. They have been implicated in a number of neurological conditions such as stroke and cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy, and more recently in migraine. Their expression within areas of interest in the brain in migraine, such as the hypothalamus and PAG, their demonstrated involvement in preclinical models of meningeal afferent signaling, and their role in cortical spreading depression (the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura), has enhanced research interest into these channels as potential therapeutic targets in migraine...
March 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Frantisek Nehaj, Juraj Sokol, Michal Mokan, Veronika Jankovicova, Frantisek Kovar, Marianna Kubaskova, Stanislav Mizera, Marian Mokan
The patient database at the First Department of Internal Medicine in Martin, the Central Slovak Institute for Cardiac and Vascular Diseases in Banska Bystrica, and the National Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bratislava was searched to identify patients with benign tumors of the heart seen during the 5-year period between 2011 and 2016. Forty-one patients with primary cardiac myxomas were identified and their medical records were reviewed for details pertaining to presenting symptoms, staging modalities, treatment approaches, and outcomes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ji-Eun Cho, Jun Sang Yoo, Kyoung Eun Kim, Sung Tae Cho, Woo Seok Jang, Ki Hun Cho, Wan-Hee Lee
The purpose of this study was to critically evaluate the effects of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) on gait-related function in patients with acute/subacute stroke. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials published between May 2012 and April 2016. This search included 334 articles (Cochrane, 51 articles; Embase, 175 articles; PubMed, 108 articles). Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 studies were selected for this review. We performed a quality evaluation using the PEDro scale...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Khaled Elshazly, Varun R Kshettry, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
BACKGROUND: Giant pituitary adenomas represent a surgical challenge. We present the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for giant pituitary adenomas. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 55 patients with giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) that underwent an EEA from 2008 - 2016. Factors affecting the extent of resection (EOR) were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean age was 55.5 years. All tumors were non-functional except in four patients (GH-secreting [2], ACTH-secreting [1], prolactinoma [1])...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
William J Meurer, Bradley Barth, Michael Abraham, Jerome Hoffman, Gary M Vilke, Gerard DeMers
BACKGROUND: Stroke treatment is a continuum that begins with the rapid identification of symptoms and treatment with transition to successful rehabilitation. Therapies for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) may vary based on anatomic location, interval from symptom onset, and coexisting health conditions. Successful therapy requires a seamless systematic approach with coordination from prehospital environment through acute management at medical facilities to disposition and long-term care of the patient...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
S Arques
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Conceptually, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory status and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of most cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease and heart failure. Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, has many physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation activity. It also plays an essential role in the fluid exchange across the capillary membrane...
March 12, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Meng Wu, Mengya Chen, Yubo Ma, Jiajia Yang, Renfang Han, Yaping Yuan, Xingxing Hu, Mengmeng Wang, Xu Zhang, Shengqian Xu, Rui Liu, Guangming Jiang, Jianhua Xu, Zongwen Shuai, Yanfeng Zou, Guixia Pan, Faming Pan
BACKGROUND: Current findings regarding serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) concentration in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have proven inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to provide a better understanding of serum DKK-1 and AS. METHODS: Online electronic databases were used to retrieve all relevant articles published before November 2017. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by the random-effect model. RESULTS: 23 studies, containing 1348 AS patients and 909 healthy controls, were included in this meta-analysis...
March 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Wuxiang Xie, Fanfan Zheng, Evangelos Evangelou, Ou Liu, Zhenchun Yang, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Yangfeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of five commonly used blood pressure-lowering drugs in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with nonacute cardiovascular disease, but without heart failure. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on 18 March 2017. The primary outcome was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, and the secondary outcomes were all-cause death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Tamara Barghouthi, Cheryl Bushnell
Stroke risk is 3 times higher in pregnancy than in the general young adult population and carries high morbidity and mortality risks. The recognition of signs and symptoms of stroke and other serious cerebrovascular disorders in pregnant and postpartum patients is important for the obstetrician to be able to initiate urgent evaluation and management. The objective of this review is to provide an evidence-based summary of stroke incidence, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of stroke in pregnancy. The impact of postpartum contraceptive use can on stroke risk is summarized...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Carlos Garcia-Esperon, Andrew Bivard, Christopher Levi, Mark Parsons
Background Computed tomography perfusion is becoming widely accepted and used in acute stroke treatment. Computed tomography perfusion provides pathophysiological information needed in the acute decision making. Moreover, computed tomography perfusion shows excellent correlation with diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted sequences to evaluate core and penumbra volumes. Multimodal computed tomography perfusion has practical advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including availability, accessibility, and speed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Bruce Cv Campbell, Mark W Parsons
This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the use of imaging to guide stroke treatment. Brain imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of stroke and identification of the mechanism of stroke, which is relevant to acute treatment, prognosis, and secondary prevention. The chief potential modalities are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, most imaging occurs in hospital but mobile stroke units have expanded CT brain imaging into the prehospital field...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Hui Zhu, Zhixing Li, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) describes a syndrome of neuroimaging, pathological, and associated clinical features caused by small intracranial vascular lesions, which commonly coexists with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and has been identified as a major cause of motor impairment over time. In this review, we aim to summarize the relationship between CSVD and LAA, and discuss the effects of CSVD on the clinical outcome of patients with ischemic stroke caused by LAA...
March 15, 2018: Neurological Research
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Ekaterina Turlova, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Stroke is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, yet novel therapeutic treatments for this condition are lacking. This review focuses on the roles of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) ion channels in cellular damage following hypoxia-ischemia and their potential as a future therapeutic target for stroke. Here, we highlight the complex molecular signaling that takes place in neurons, glial cells and the blood-brain barrier following ischemic insult. We also describe the evidence of TRPM2 involvement in these processes, as shown from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that utilize genetic and pharmacological approaches...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Francesco Caso, Marco Tasso, Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola, Dario Di Minno, Roberta Lupoli, Livio Criscuolo, Paolo Caso, Francesco Ursini, Antonio Del Puente, Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Rosario Peluso
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that affects 14%-30% of patients with skin and/or nail psoriasis and leading to severe physical limitations and disability. It has been included in the group of spondyloarthropathy with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features in addition to familial and genetic relationship. Beyond skin and joint involvement, psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a high prevalence of extra-articular manifestation and comorbidities, such as autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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