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R9 peptide

Rike Wallbrecher, Tobias Ackels, R Alis Olea, Marco J Klein, Lucie Caillon, Jürgen Schiller, Petra H Bovée-Geurts, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Anne S Ulrich, Marc Spehr, Merel J W Adjobo-Hermans, Roland Brock
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. Internalization efficiency and uptake mechanism depend, next to the type of CPP and cargo, also on cell type. Direct penetration of the plasma membrane is the preferred route of entry as this circumvents endolysosomal sequestration. However, the molecular parameters underlying this import mechanism are still poorly defined. Here, we make use of the frequently used HeLa and HEK cell lines to address the role of lipid composition and membrane potential...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
J Mesken, A Iltzsche, D Mulac, K Langer
Gene therapy bears great potential for the cure of a multitude of human diseases. Research efforts focussed on the use of viral delivery vectors in the past decades, neglecting non-viral gene therapies of physical or chemical origin due to low transfection efficiency. However, side effects such as activation of oncogenes and inflammatory reactions upon immune cell activation are major obstacles impeding the clinical applicability of viral gene therapy vectors. The aim of this study was the development of a non-viral gene delivery system based on plasmid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles, which are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic in relevant concentrations...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
A Özgül Tezgel, Paejonette Jacobs, Coralie M Backlund, Janice C Telfer, Gregory N Tew
The use of proteins as biological tools and therapeutic agents is limited due to the fact that proteins do not effectively cross the plasma membrane of cells. Here, we report a novel class of protein transporter molecules based on protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) synthesized via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The PTDMs reported here were specifically inspired by amphiphilic peptides known to deliver functional proteins into cells via noncovalent interactions between the peptide and the cargo...
March 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Ugutz Unzueta, Joaquin Seras-Franzoso, María Virtudes Céspedes, Paolo Saccardo, Francisco Cortés, Fabián Rueda, Elena Garcia-Fruitós, Neus Ferrer-Miralles, Ramon Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
Bacterial inclusion bodies are non-toxic, mechanically stable and functional protein amyloids within the nanoscale size range that are able to naturally penetrate into mammalian cells, where they deliver the embedded protein in a functional form. The potential use of inclusion bodies in protein delivery or protein replacement therapies is strongly impaired by the absence of specificity in cell binding and penetration, thus preventing targeting. To address this issue, we have here explored whether the genetic fusion of two tumor-homing peptides, the CXCR4 ligands R9 and T22, to an inclusion body-forming green fluorescent protein (GFP), would keep the interaction potential and the functionality of the fused peptides and then confer CXCR4 specificity in cell binding and further uptake of the materials...
January 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
Adam B Edwards, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
In a recent study, we highlighted the importance of cationic charge and arginine residues for the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine and arginine-rich peptides. In this study, using cortical neuronal cultures and an in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity model, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of different modifications to the poly-arginine-9 peptide (R9). We compared an unmodified R9 peptide with R9 peptides containing the following modifications: (i) C-terminal amidation (R9-NH2); (ii) N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9); (iii) C-terminal amidation with N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9-NH2); and (iv) C-terminal amidation with D-amino acids (R9D-NH2)...
February 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Salma Teimoori, Watee Seesuay, Surasak Jittavisutthikul, Urai Chaisri, Nitat Sookrung, Jaslan Densumite, Nawannaporn Saelim, Monrat Chulanetra, Santi Maneewatch, Wanpen Chaicumpa
A direct acting anti-Ebola agent is needed. VP40, a conserved protein across Ebolavirus (EBOV) species has several pivotal roles in the virus life cycle. Inhibition of VP40 functions would lessen the virion integrity and interfere with the viral assembly, budding, and spread. In this study, cell penetrable human scFvs (HuscFvs) that bound to EBOV VP40 were produced by phage display technology. Gene sequences coding for VP40-bound-HuscFvs were subcloned from phagemids into protein expression plasmids downstream to a gene of cell penetrating peptide, i...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jennifer Y Xie, Lindsey A Chew, Xiaofang Yang, Yuying Wang, Chaoling Qu, Yue Wang, Lauren M Federici, Stephanie D Fitz, Matthew S Ripsch, Michael R Due, Aubin Moutal, May Khanna, Fletcher A White, Todd W Vanderah, Philip L Johnson, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Uncoupling the protein-protein interaction between collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2) with an allosteric CRMP2-derived peptide (CBD3) is antinociceptive in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We investigated the efficacy, duration of action, abuse potential, and neurobehavioral toxicity of an improved mutant CRMP2 peptide. A homopolyarginine (R9)-conjugated CBD3-A6K (R9-CBD3-A6K) peptide inhibited the CaV2.2-CRMP2 interaction in a concentration-dependent fashion and diminished surface expression of CaV2...
2016: Pain
Sabrina Sharmin, Md Zahidul Islam, Mohammad Abu Sayem Karal, Sayed Ul Alam Shibly, Hideo Dohra, Masahito Yamazaki
The cell-penetrating peptide R9, an oligoarginine comprising nine arginines, has been used to transport biological cargos into cells. However, the mechanisms underlying its translocation across membranes remain unclear. In this report, we investigated the entry of carboxyfluorescein (CF)-labeled R9 (CF-R9) into single giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of various lipid compositions and the CF-R9-induced leakage of a fluorescent probe, Alexa Fluor 647 hydrazide (AF647), using a method developed recently by us...
August 2, 2016: Biochemistry
Ji Woong Lee, Ji-Ae Park, Yong Jin Lee, Un Chol Shin, Suhng Wook Kim, Byung Il Kim, Sang Moo Lim, Gwang Il An, Jung Young Kim, Kyo Chul Lee
Most studies of radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have shown in vitro affinity for integrin ανβ3, allowing for the targeting of receptor-positive tumors in vivo. However, major differences have been found in the pharmacokinetic profiles of different radiolabeled RGD peptide analogs. The purposes of this study were to prepare (64)Cu-DOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R8), (64)Cu-NOTA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R9), and (64)Cu-NODAGA-gluco-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (R10) and compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)...
August 2016: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Ken Saito, Hidekazu Iioka, Chie Kojima, Mikako Ogawa, Eisaku Kondo
p14(ARF) is one of the major tumor suppressors conventionally identified both as the mdm2-binding molecule restoring p53 function in the nucleus, and as a nucleophosmin-binding partner inside the nucleolous to stabilize ribosomal RNA. However, its recently reported mitochondrial localization has pointed to novel properties as a tumor suppressor. At the same time, functional peptides are gaining much attention in nanomedicine for their in vivo utility as non-invasive biologics. We previously reported the p14(ARF) -specific peptide that restored the sensitivity to gefitinib on the gefitinib-resistant lung cancer cells...
September 2016: Cancer Science
Diego Milani, Vince W Clark, Jane L Cross, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that poly-arginine peptides have neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo. In cultured cortical neurons exposed to glutamic acid excitotoxicity, we demonstrated that neuroprotective potency increases with polymer length plateauing at R15 to R18 (R = arginine resides). In an in vivo study in rats, we also demonstrated that R9D (R9 peptide synthesised with D-isoform amino acids) administered intravenously at a dose of 1000 nmol/kg 30 min after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reduces infarct volume...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Nabil A Alhakamy, Prajnaparamita Dhar, Cory J Berkland
Noncovalent complexation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) forms relatively large complexes with poor gene expression. Yet, condensing these CPP-pDNA complexes via addition of calcium chloride produces small and stable nanoparticles with high levels of gene expression. This simple formulation offered high transfection efficiency and negligible cytotoxicity in HEK-293 (a virus-immortalized kidney cell) and A549 (a human lung cancer cell line). Small changes in CPP charge type, charge spacing, and hydrophobicity were studied by using five arginine-rich CPPs: the well-known hydrophilic polyarginine R9 peptide, a hydrophilic RH9 peptide, and three amphiphilic peptides (RA9, RL9, and RW9) with charge distributions that favor membrane penetration...
March 7, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Long Gu, Peiguo Chu, Robert Lingeman, Heather McDaniel, Steven Kechichian, Robert J Hickey, Zheng Liu, Yate-Ching Yuan, John A Sandoval, Gregg B Fields, Linda H Malkas
Dysregulated expression of MYC family genes is a hallmark of many malignancies. Unfortunately, these proteins are not amenable to blockade by small molecules or protein-based therapeutic agents. Therefore, we must find alternative approaches to target MYC-driven cancers. Amplification of MYCN, a MYC family member, predicts high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) disease. We have shown that R9-caPep blocks the interaction of PCNA with its binding partners and selectively kills human NB cells, especially those with MYCN amplification, and we now show the mechanism...
December 2015: EBioMedicine
Shi-Ying Li, Hong Cheng, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Li-Han Liu, Si Chen, Ying Hu, Bo-Ru Xie, Bin Li, Xian-Zheng Zhang
In this paper, we aimed to develop a conjugate of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2)-sensitive activable cell-penetrating peptide (R9GPLGLAGE8, ACPP) with protoporphyrin (PpIX) for tumor-targeting photodynamic therapy. In normal tissue, the cell-penetrating function of polycationic CPP (R9) would be blocked by a polyanionic peptide (E8) through intramolecular electrostatic attraction. Once exposed to MMP-2 existing at the tumor site, proteolysis of the oligopeptide linker (GPLGLAG) between the CPP and the polyanionic peptide would dissociate the inhibitory polyanions and release CPP-PpIX for photodynamic therapy (PDT)...
December 30, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eun Ju Jeong, Moonhwan Choi, Jangwook Lee, Taiyoun Rhim, Kuen Yong Lee
Although chitosan and its derivatives have been frequently utilized as delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), it is challenging to improve the gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-based nanoparticles. In this study, we hypothesized that controlling the spacer arm length between a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and a nanoparticle could be critical to enhancing the cellular uptake as well as the gene silencing efficiency of conventional chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. A peptide consisting of nine arginine units (R9) was used as a CPP, and the spacer arm length was controlled by varying the number of glycine units between the peptide (R9Gn) and the nanoparticle (n = 0, 4, and 10)...
December 21, 2015: Nanoscale
Hiroko Yamashita, Makoto Oba, Takashi Misawa, Masakazu Tanaka, Takayuki Hattori, Mikihiko Naito, Masaaki Kurihara, Yosuke Demizu
Two types of cationic cyclic α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids: ApiC2NH2 (which possesses a lysine mimic side chain) and Api(C2Gu) (which possesses an arginine mimic side chain), were developed. These amino acids were incorporated into an arginine-based peptide sequence [(L-Arg-L-Arg-dAA)3: dAA=ApiC2NH2 or Api(C2Gu)], and the relationship between the secondary structures of the resulting peptides and their ability to pass through cell membranes was investigated. The peptide containing Api(C2Gu) formed a stable α-helical structure and was more effective at penetrating cells than the nonhelical Arg nonapeptide (R9)...
January 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Andriy Bilichak, Justin Luu, François Eudes
Microspores are specialized generative cells with haploid genome that demonstrate the amenability toward embryogenesis under certain conditions. The induced microspore culture technique is largely exploited by the breeding programs of wheat and other crops due to its high efficiency for generation of the large number of haploid plants in the relatively short period of time. The ability to produce mature double haploid plant from a single cell has also attracted attention of the plant biotechnologists in the past few years...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Casey O'Connor, Kate L White, Nathalie Doncescu, Tatiana Didenko, Bryan L Roth, Georges Czaplicki, Raymond C Stevens, Kurt Wüthrich, Alain Milon
The structure of the dynorphin (1-13) peptide (dynorphin) bound to the human kappa opioid receptor (KOR) has been determined by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. (1)H and (15)N chemical shift variations indicated that free and bound peptide is in fast exchange in solutions containing 1 mM dynorphin and 0.01 mM KOR. Radioligand binding indicated an intermediate-affinity interaction, with a Kd of ∼200 nM. Transferred nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of bound dynorphin...
September 22, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mohamed Abdel-Fattah, Ragia Charmy, Abdel-Rahman Tawfik
We have studied the immune reactivity of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) against HCV immune positive and negative sera. Two published HVR1 consensus nucleotide sequences (Italian and Chinese) were synthesized, and with both of them, a splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing were performed. From the corresponding amino acid sequences, 3 Italian and 1 Chinese HVR1 peptides were selected for synthesis. The 4 peptides (MB1-MB4; GenBank No.: HQ846888-HQ846891) were used to screen 47 and 31 HCV (type 4) immune positive and negative sera, respectively, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2015: Intervirology
Kamran Melikov, Ann Hara, Kwabena Yamoah, Elena Zaitseva, Eugene Zaitsev, Leonid V Chernomordik
Understanding the mechanism of entry of cationic peptides such as nona-arginine (R9) into cells remains an important challenge to their use as efficient drug-delivery vehicles. At nanomolar to low micromolar R9 concentrations and at physiological temperature, peptide entry involves endocytosis. In contrast, at a concentration ≥10 μM, R9 induces a very effective non-endocytic entry pathway specific for cationic peptides. We found that a similar entry pathway is induced at 1-2 μM concentrations of R9 if peptide application is accompanied by a rapid temperature drop to 15°C...
October 15, 2015: Biochemical Journal
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