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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072892/use-of-statins-and-aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-survey-among-italian-hiv-physicians
#1
Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Antonio Di Biagio, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Stefano Rusconi, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
We conducted a survey among Italian HIV specialists to study the utilization of statins and aspirin, administering a questionnaire aimed at investigating their use, the use of guidelines and scores, and the management of interactions. The answers were uniform in the different geographic areas. The majority directly prescribe statins and 43% of them prescribe aspirin. The majority follows guidelines and utilize scores to calculate the CV risk. Our survey demonstrates the commitment and autonomy in prescribing statins and aspirin of Italian physicians...
10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#2
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
December 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#3
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#4
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060965/the-clinical-research-landscape-in-rhode-island
#5
George Mao, Bharat Ramratnam
OBJECTIVES: To present an overview of clinical research activity and the state of medical research funding in Rhode Island. METHODS: We utilized clinicaltrials.gov registry to profile clinical studies between 2011 to 2016. NIH RePORT and other federal databases were used to extract information on levels of federal funding. Previously published hospital financial reports were reviewed for data on hospital-specific total external research funding. RESULTS: During 2011-2016, 1651 clinical studies were registered in clinicaltrials...
January 6, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060868/non-communicable-disease-preventive-screening-by-hiv-care-model
#6
Corinne M Rhodes, Yuchiao Chang, Susan Regan, Virginia A Triant
IMPORTANCE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057254/hiv-and-nonischemic-heart-disease
#7
REVIEW
Pravin Manga, Keir McCutcheon, Nqoba Tsabedze, Ahmed Vachiat, Don Zachariah
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated heart disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases. HIV infection may involve the pericardium, myocardium, coronary arteries, pulmonary vasculature, and valves, as well as the systemic vasculature. Access to combination antiretroviral therapy, as well as health resources, has had a significant influence on the prevalence and severity of the effects on each cardiac structure. Investigations over the recent past have improved our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052699/high-prevalence-of-physical-inactivity-among-patients-from-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#8
Juliane Schäfer, Jim Young, Alexandra Calmy, Dunja Nicca, Barbara Hasse, Claudia Brun Del Re, Matthias Cavassini, Enos Bernasconi, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Heiner C Bucher
Physical activity (PA) can improve cardiorespiratory status, strength, body composition and quality of life for patients infected with HIV. Evidence from HIV-uninfected populations also shows that PA is associated with a lower risk of mortality, primarily death due to cardiovascular causes. There is, however, a lack of data on how physically active HIV-infected patients are. In this study, we assessed levels of self-reported PA over time in patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, a large multicentre prospective observational cohort study...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#9
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051897/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#10
Sivaraj Naidu, Sasheela Ponnampalvanar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of components associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the HIV population is increasing in epidemic proportions globally. However, the magnitude and characteristics of MS are not fully elucidated in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components among people living with HIV (PLWH) in developing countries. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, other web sources, and by hand search...
January 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050758/effect-of-the-anti-retroviral-drugs-efavirenz-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-on-endothelial-cell-function-role-of-parp
#11
Mary Faltz, Hild Bergin, Elly Pilavachi, Guy Grimwade, Jon G Mabley
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has proved successful in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection though it has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To date, the direct effects of the anti-retroviral drugs Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine on the vasculature relaxant response have not been elucidated, which impaired may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease. Increased cellular oxidative stress and overactivation of the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have been identified as central mediators of vascular dysfunction...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045766/baseline-vitamin-d-deficiency-decreases-the-effectiveness-of-statins-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Corrilynn O Hileman, Vin Tangpricha, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV. Statins may increase vitamin D and it is unknown whether vitamin D modifies the effect of statins on cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: SATURN-HIV was a 96-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on immune activation and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. This analysis focuses on the pre-specified secondary endpoint 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005710/time-trend-in-hypertension-prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-in-a-contemporary-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-the-hiv-and-hypertension-study
#13
Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Elena Ricci, Paolo Maggi, Giustino Parruti, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Giancarlo Orofino, Giordano Madeddu, Canio Martinelli, Barbara Menzaghi, Lucia Taramasso, Paolo Bonfanti, Giacomo Pucci, Giuseppe Schillaci
BACKGROUND: Hypertension control is often inadequate in HIV patients. In a contemporary, nationwide cohort of Italian HIV-infected adults, we assessed time trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. We also evaluated predictors of cardiovascular events and of new-onset hypertension. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study, sampling 961 consecutive HIV patients (71% men, mean age 46 ± 9 years, 30% hypertensive) examined in 2010-2014 and after a median follow-up of 3...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003289/burden-of-multimorbidity-in-relation-to-age-gender-and-immigrant-status-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-administrative-data
#14
Jacopo Lenzi, Vera Maria Avaldi, Paola Rucci, Giulia Pieri, Maria Pia Fantini
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on administrative data...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998918/role-of-t-cell-dysfunction-inflammation-and-coagulation-in-microvascular-disease-in-hiv
#15
Arjun Sinha, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Sophia Hur, Danny Li, Peter Ganz, Steven G Deeks, Priscilla Y Hsue
BACKGROUND: Compared to uninfected adults, HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the increase in T-cell dysfunction, inflammation, and coagulation in HIV infection, microvascular dysfunction is thought to contribute to this excess cardiovascular risk. However, the relationships between these variables remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 HIV-infected adults from the SCOPE cohort...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#16
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981873/causes-of-death-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-immunovirologic-success-in-a-national-prospective-survey
#17
François Goehringer, Fabrice Bonnet, Dominique Salmon, Patrice Cacoub, Aissatou Paye, Genevieve Chêne, Philippe Morlat, Thierry May
OBJECTIVE: To describe causes of death and their trends from 2000 to 2010 among treated HIV-infected patients with immunovirologic success (PIVS) in France. DESIGN: Prospective multi-center observational survey Participants: Deceased HIV-infected people from a French national sample of 90 clinical sites providing HIV care and treatment, representing a cohort of 82,000 patients in 2010. MEASUREMENT: Underlying causes of death and characteristics of deceased patients were prospectively recorded in 2000, 2005 and 2010 using a standardized form...
December 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981189/untangling-the-gordian-knot-of-hiv-stress-and-cognitive-impairment
#18
REVIEW
Arielle N Valdez, Leah H Rubin, Gretchen N Neigh
As individuals live longer with HIV, this "graying of the HIV epidemic" has introduced a new set of challenges including a growing number of age and inflammation-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, cancer, and dementia. The biological underpinnings of these complex and co-morbid diseases are not fully understood and become very difficult to disentangle in the context of HIV and aging. In the current review we examine the contributions and interactions of HIV, stress, and cognitive impairment and query the extent to which inflammation is the linchpin in these dynamic interactions...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977253/reducing-disparities-and-achieving-equity-in-african-american-women-s-health
#19
Faye Z Belgrave, Jasmine A Abrams
The colloquial phrase "Black Don't Crack" refers to perceptions of African American women retaining youthful features over time and seemingly defying the aging process. This conjecture appears to only be skin deep, as across almost every health indicator, African American women fare worse than women in other racial/ethnic groups. African American women experience excess morbidity in obesity, diabetes, and adverse birth outcomes, and are more likely than women of other ethnic groups to die from breast and cervical cancer, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDS...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956833/inflammation-modulating-cytokine-profile-and-lipid-interaction-in-hiv-related-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
Elizabeth Gori, Takafira Mduluza, Mudavanhu Nyagura, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Zvenyika Alfred Gomo
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with changes in plasma levels of lipoproteins, thus posing the risk of cardiovascular complications in infected individuals. The alteration in plasma lipoprotein levels results from dysregulation of inflammation-modulating cytokines that control lipid metabolism. Little is understood regarding the relationship between the cytokines and serum lipid levels, which have been reported to be altered in adults receiving ART. The objective of this study was to describe the profiles of inflammation-modulating cytokines and their relationship to lipids as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in HIV infection...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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