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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212629/cardiometabolic-risk-in-a-population-of-older-adults-with-multiple-co-morbidities-in-rural-south-africa-the-haalsi-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-indepth-communities-study
#1
Thomas A Gaziano, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Alisha Wade, Nigel J Crowther, Sartaj Alam, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan Wagner, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Kathleen Kahn, Till W Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#2
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210784/novel-aids-therapies-based-on-gene-editing
#3
REVIEW
Kamel Khalili, Martyn K White, Jeffrey M Jacobson
HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2.6 million children. Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the 1990s, treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. However, while people with HIV can expect to live a normal life span with cART, lifelong medication is required and cardiovascular, renal, liver, and neurologic diseases are still possible, which continues to prompt research for a cure for HIV...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208120/cardiovascular-complications-of-hiv-infection
#4
Marshall J Glesby
HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Widely used cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators to determine indications for statin treatment are not well validated for use in the HIV-infecte population. Some experts advocate including HIV infection as an independent risk factor for CVD. The effects of antiretroviral therapy on lipid profiles and the potentially increased risk for cardiovascular events must be taken into account when selecting treatment for HIV-infected individuals...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207331/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#5
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199660/macrophage-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-hiv-mechanistic-insights-and-future-directions
#6
Matthew J Feinstein, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#7
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182622/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-hiv-adis-a-new-way-of-modulation-of-cardiovascular-risk
#8
Mohamed H Ahmed, Nazik Elmalaika Hussian, Akif Malik, Clare Woodward, Dushyant Mital
With the advent and subsequent success of antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely become a chronic condition and is increasingly seen alongside metabolic disorders such as dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) itself is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors (namely insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidaemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV patients). Thus, further challenges in the management of HIV patients include the management of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182619/contribution-of-common-infections-to-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#9
Victoria Berquist, Jennifer F Hoy, Janine M Trevillyan
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to complex interactions between the increased incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV and antiretroviral-associated inflammation and dyslipidemia. Increasing evidence suggests that a number of important co-pathogens, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, and periodontal disease, are likely to also be contributing. Mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and modification of lipids play a role; however, induction of systemic inflammation is the likely key pathogenic link by which this occurs...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182617/statins-in-hiv-infected-patients-potential-beneficial-effects-and-clinical-use
#10
Enrique Bernal, Mar Masiá, Irene Marín, Félix Gutiérrez
Patients living with HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is considered to be the result of an interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking and dyslipidemia, and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection, along with side effects of antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, the administration of statins has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease-associated mortality, and these drugs are among the most common class of medication prescribed in high-income countries...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155318/weight-status-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-people-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-dikgale-limpopo-south-africa
#11
Felistas Mashinya, Marianne Alberts, Robert Colebunders, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Underweight in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) complicates the management of HIV infection and contributes to mortality, whereas overweight increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: The study determined weight status and associated factors in people with HIV infection receiving ART. SETTING: Rural primary health care clinics in Dikgale, Limpopo province, South Africa...
November 29, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155001/change-in-urinary-cortisol-excretion-mediates-the-effect-of-angry-hostile-mood-on-9-month-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-hiv-adults
#12
Roger C McIntosh, Michael Antoni, Adam Carrico, Ron Duran, Barry E Hurwitz, Gail Ironson, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy Klimas, Mahendra Kumar, Neil Schneiderman
Cardiovascular disease is a growing concern in HIV disease management and nearly 1 out of 3 persons living with the virus is hypertensive. Biobehavioral factors such as anger, hostility, and HPA axis reactivity are emperically linked to blood pressure regulation. Whether HPA axis or mood disturbance increases risk for hypertension remains unclear in HIV disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether 9-month change in angry/hostile mood predicts alterations in systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and whether this change is mediated by 24-h urinary cortisol (CORT) output...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141779/direct-targeting-of-macrophages-with-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-decreases-siv-associated-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-pathology
#13
Joshua A Walker, Andrew D Miller, Tricia H Burdo, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) HIV infected individuals develop co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), where activated macrophages play a key role. To date, few therapies target activated monocytes and macrophages. METHODS: We evaluated a novel oral form of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor methylglyoxal-bisguanylhydrazone (MGBG) on cardiovascular inflammation, carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), and fibrosis in a SIV infection model of AIDS...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134710/mortal-allies-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-noncommunicable-diseases
#14
Elizabeth S Mayne, Jaya A George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected individuals have improved access to antiretroviral therapy. This has resulted in a shift in causes of mortality from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and malignancies. This review will look at the epidemiological shift, risk factors for the development of these diseases and examine some of the supporting laboratory diagnostic testing, which may be required. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors for the development of these diseases in HIV-infected patients include underlying genetic predisposition, lifestyle risk factors, chronic inflammation as a consequence of HIV infection, the presence and persistence of opportunistic infections and in some cases, highly active antiretroviral therapy, itself...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121706/greater-remnant-lipoprotein-cholesterol-reduction-with-pitavastatin-compared-to-pravastatin-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-intrepid-trial
#15
Parag H Joshi, P Elliott Miller, Seth S Martin, Steven R Jones, Joseph M Massaro, Ralph B D'Agostino, Krishnaji R Kulkarni, Craig Sponseller, Peter P Toth
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those with HIV. An emerging CVD risk factor is triglyceride-rich remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: the sum of intermediate-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol). The effects of statin therapy on lipoprotein subfractions, including RLP-C, in HIV-dyslipidemia are unknown. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the randomized INTREPID trial (NCT 01301066) comparing pitavastatin 4 mg daily vs...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114890/estimating-cardiovascular-disease-incidence-from-prevalence-a-spreadsheet-based-model
#16
Xue Feng Hu, Kue Young, Hing Man Chan
BACKGROUND: Disease incidence and prevalence are both core indicators of population health. Incidence is generally not as readily accessible as prevalence. Cohort studies and electronic health record systems are two major way to estimate disease incidence. The former is time-consuming and expensive; the latter is not available in most developing countries. Alternatively, mathematical models could be used to estimate disease incidence from prevalence. METHODS: We proposed and validated a method to estimate the age-standardized incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with prevalence data from successive surveys and mortality data from empirical studies...
January 23, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072892/use-of-statins-and-aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-survey-among-italian-hiv-physicians
#17
Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Antonio Di Biagio, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Stefano Rusconi, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
We conducted a survey among Italian HIV specialists to study the utilization of statins and aspirin, administering a questionnaire aimed at investigating their use, the use of guidelines and scores, and the management of interactions. The answers were uniform in the different geographic areas. The majority directly prescribe statins and 43% of them prescribe aspirin. The majority follows guidelines and utilize scores to calculate the CV risk. Our survey demonstrates the commitment and autonomy in prescribing statins and aspirin of Italian physicians...
10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#18
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
December 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#19
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#20
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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