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Jennifer E Lansford, Marc H Bornstein, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Kenneth A Dodge, Suha M Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini, Anna Silvia Bombi, Lei Chang, Bin-Bin Chen, Laura Di Giunta, Patrick S Malone, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Ann T Skinner, Emma Sorbring, Laurence Steinberg, Sombat Tapanya, Liane Peña Alampay, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Arnaldo Zelli
International research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts...
September 2016: Child Development Perspectives
Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Vanessa M Christie, Annu Prabhakar, Asia L Harris, Katie A Siek
Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers...
September 17, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
V Heaslip, S Hean, J Parker
AIM: To present a new etemic model of vulnerability. BACKGROUND: Despite vulnerability being identified as a core consequence of health and health experiences there has been little research exploring the meaning of vulnerability as a concept. Yet being vulnerable is known to have dire physical/mental health consequences. It is therefore a fundamental issue for nurses to address. To date, the meaning of the term vulnerability has been influenced by the work of Spiers (2000, 2005)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Hélène Vaillant-Roussel, Catherine Laporte, Bruno Pereira, Marion De Rosa, Bénédicte Eschalier, Charles Vorilhon, Romain Eschalier, Gilles Clément, Denis Pouchain, Jean-François Chenot, Claude Dubray, Philippe Vorilhon
BACKGROUND: The Education Thérapeutique des patients Insuffisants Cardiaques (ETIC; Therapeutic Education for Patients with Cardiac Failure) trial aimed to determine whether a pragmatic education intervention in general practice could improve the quality of life of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) compared with routine care. RESULTS: This cluster randomised controlled clinical trial included 241 patients with CHF attending 54 general practitioners (GPs) in France and involved 19 months of follow-up...
2016: BMC Family Practice
John Gaber
Health impact assessment (HIA) researchers regularly use community input in their investigations to help them better understand local health issues. Community data is commonly associated with the lived experiences of local impacted residents known as 'emic' data. It is becoming more common practice for HIA researchers to access outside experts and stakeholders ('etic' data) during the community input phase of their investigations. Utilizing published international HIA data, I look at who HIA researchers invite when they seek to get 'community input' in their HIA investigations...
June 21, 2016: Health Promotion International
Anita Hemmilä
Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed...
July 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Irene Teixidor-Toneu, Gary J Martin, Ahmed Ouhammou, Rajindra K Puri, Julie A Hawkins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants from a poorly studied region, the High Atlas in Morocco, is reported here for the first time; this permits consideration of efficacy and safety of current practises whilst highlighting species previously not known to have traditional medicinal use. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aims to document local medicinal plant knowledge among Tashelhit speaking communities through ethnobotanical survey, identifying preferred species and new medicinal plant citations and illuminating the relationship between emic and etic ailment classifications...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Amaya G Perez-Brumer, Catherine E Oldenburg, Sari L Reisner, Jesse L Clark, Richard G Parker
The HIV epidemic has had a widespread impact on global scientific and cultural discourses related to gender, sexuality, and identity. 'Male sex workers' have been identified as a 'key population' in the global HIV epidemic; however, there are methodological and conceptual challenges for defining inclusion and exclusion of transgender women within this group. To assess these potential implications, this study employs self-critique and reflection to grapple with the empiric and conceptual implications of shifting understandings of sexuality and gender within the externally re-created etic category of 'MSM' and 'transgender women' in epidemiologic HIV research...
August 2016: Global Public Health
Mónica Berger-González, Michael Stauffacher, Jakob Zinsstag, Peter Edwards, Pius Krütli
Transdisciplinarity (TD) is a participatory research approach in which actors from science and society work closely together. It offers means for promoting knowledge integration and finding solutions to complex societal problems, and can be applied within a multiplicity of epistemic systems. We conducted a TD process from 2011 to 2014 between indigenous Mayan medical specialists from Guatemala and Western biomedical physicians and scientists to study cancer. Given the immense cultural gap between the partners, it was necessary to develop new methods to overcome biases induced by ethnocentric behaviors and power differentials...
January 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Kristin L Dunkle, Hannah L F Cooper, Michael Windle, Craig Hadley
Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions...
January 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Greer Lamaro Haintz, Melissa Graham, Hayley McKenzie
Health promotion researchers must consider the ethics of their research, and are usually required to abide by a set of ethical requirements stipulated by governing bodies (such as the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and human research ethics committees (HRECs). These requirements address both deontological (rule-based) and consequence-based issues. However, at times there can be a disconnect between the requirements of deontological issues and the cultural sensitivity required when research is set in cultural contexts and settings etic to the HREC...
December 2015: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Shui-fong Lam, Shane Jimerson, Hyeonsook Shin, Carmel Cefai, Feliciano H Veiga, Chryse Hatzichristou, Fotini Polychroni, Eve Kikas, Bernard P H Wong, Elena Stanculescu, Julie Basnett, Robert Duck, Peter Farrell, Yi Liu, Valeria Negovan, Brett Nelson, Hongfei Yang, Josef Zollneritsch
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors that are linked to student engagement requires research that includes cross-cultural perspectives. AIMS: This study investigated how student engagement in school is associated with grade, gender, and contextual factors across 12 countries. It also investigated whether these associations vary across countries with different levels of individualism and socio-economic development. SAMPLES: The participants were 3,420 7th, 8th, and 9th grade students from Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States...
March 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Tali Stolovy, Rachel Lev-Wiesel, Zvi Eisikovits
"Channeling" is a phenomenon in which people describe themselves as receiving messages from another personality or dimension of reality. Channeling is often regarded as dissociation, which is a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception. This study explored the interface between channeling and dissociation through a phenomenological analysis. Qualitative data were obtained through interviews with 20 Israeli women who practice channeling. The analysis revealed 3 themes: dissociation, absorption, and control...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Thomas R Morrison, Lesley A Ricci, Richard H Melloni
In pubertal male Syrian hamsters, exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence facilitates a high level of offensive aggression modulated by the enhanced development and activity of the vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA) neural systems within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH), that is, a brain region implicated in the control of aggression. The present studies provide a detailed report of the pharmacologic interactions between AVP and DA D2 receptor signaling within the LAH in the control of adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression...
April 2015: Behavioral Neuroscience
Tracey-Lee Cloete, Wayne J Wilson, Lucretia Petersen, Harsha Kathard
OBJECTIVE: To identify a context-effective hearing screening test for primary schools in the Western Cape, South Africa using an emic-etic framework for test selection. DESIGN: A sequential mixed methods design was used to: (1) Identify test properties needed to successfully screen hearing in primary school children in the Western Cape, (2) select the hearing screening test most likely to succeed in this context, and (3) assess the use of the test in context. STUDY SAMPLE: Three nurses, two nursing assistants, two paediatric audiologists, and 100 grade-one children participated...
2015: International Journal of Audiology
Giulia Alabiso, Luigi Alio, Saverio Arena, Allegra Barbasetti di Prun, Valentino Bergamini, Nicola Berlanda, Mauro Busacca, Massimo Candiani, Gabriele Centini, Annalisa Di Cello, Caterina Exacoustos, Luigi Fedele, Laura Gabbi, Elisa Geraci, Elena Lavarini, Domenico Incandela, Lucia Lazzeri, Stefano Luisi, Antonio Maiorana, Francesco Maneschi, Alberto Mattei, Ludovico Muzii, Luca Pagliardini, Alessio Perandini, Federica Perelli, Serena Pinzauti, Valentino Remorgida, Ana Maria Sanchez, Renato Seracchioli, Edgardo Somigliana, Claudia Tosti, Roberta Venturella, Paolo Vercellini, Paola Viganò, Michele Vignali, Fulvio Zullo, Errico Zupi
A panel of experts in the field of endometriosis expressed their opinions on management options in a 35-year-old patient desiring pregnancy with a history of previous surgery for endometrioma and bowel obstruction symptoms. Many questions that this paradigmatic patient may pose to the clinician are addressed, and various clinical scenarios are discussed. A decision algorithm derived from this discussion is proposed as well.
May 2015: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Velichko H Fetvadjiev, Deon Meiring, Fons J R van de Vijver, J Alewyn Nel, Carin Hill
We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory...
September 2015: Psychological Assessment
Diana Quiroz, Tinde van Andel
BACKGROUND: One of the main obstacles for the mainstreaming of religious traditions as tools for the conservation of nature is the limited applicability of research results in this field. We documented two different restrictions implemented by local people (taboos and sacrifices) related to the use of ritual plants in Benin (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa). METHODS: To see whether these restrictions reflected plant scarcity from an etic perspective (official threat status) and an emic viewpoint (perceived scarcity by local people), we conducted 102 interviews with traditional healers and adepts of traditional faiths...
2015: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Charlotta Webb, Fredrik Norström, Anna Myléus, Anneli Ivarsson, Britta Halvarsson, Lotta Högberg, Carina Lagerqvist, Anna Rosén, Olof Sandström, Lars Stenhammar, Annelie Carlsson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate any potential correlation between anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies of type immunoglobulin A (tTG-IgA) and the degree of gluten-induced enteropathy in children participating in a screening study for celiac disease (CD) and to assess to what extent the revised European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines cover this group of patients. METHODS: The present study is a substudy of a cross-sectional CD screening study, Exploring the Iceberg of Celiacs in Sweden, a 2-phased study performed during 2005 to 2006 and 2009 to 2010...
June 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Hélène Vaillant-Roussel, Catherine Laporte, Bruno Pereira, Gilles Tanguy, Jean Cassagnes, Marc Ruivard, Gilles Clément, Jean-Yves Le Reste, Jean-Pierre Lebeau, Jean-François Chenot, Denis Pouchain, Claude Dubray, Philippe Vorilhon
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure, is increasing due to the aging population and improvements in heart disease detection and management. The prevalence is estimated at ~10% of the French general practice patient population over 59 years old. The primary objective of this study is to improve the quality of life for heart failure patients though a complex intervention involving patient and general practitioner (GP) education in primary care. METHODS: A randomised, cluster controlled trial, stratified over 4 areas of the Auvergne region in France comparing intervention and control groups...
2014: BMC Family Practice
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