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Roger Johansson, Philip Pärnamets, Amanda Bjernestedt, Mikael Johansson
Mnemonic interference refers to the inability to retrieve a goal-relevant memory due to interference from goal-irrelevant memories. Understanding the causes of such interference and how it is overcome has been a central goal in the science of memory for more than a century. Here, we shed new light on this fundamental issue by tracking participants' pupil response when they encode and retrieve memories in the face of competing goal-irrelevant memories. We show that pupil dilation systematically increased in accordance with interference from competing memory traces when participants retrieved previously learned information...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camillo Lamanna
Narrative medicine explores the stories that patients tell; this paper, conversely, looks at some of the stories that patients are told. The paper starts by examining the 'story' told by the Shambaa people of Tanzania to explain the bubonic plague and contrasts this with the stories told by Ghanaian communities to explain lymphatic filariasis. By harnessing insights from memory studies, these stories' memorability is claimed to be due to their use mnemonic devices woven into stories. The paper suggests that stories can be unpatronising, informative, and appropriate vehicles for communicating medical information to all age groups across all cultures...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Andrew Booth, Jane Noyes, Kate Flemming, Ansgar Gehardus, Philip Wahlster, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Kati Mozygemba, Pietro Refolo, Dario Sacchini, Marcia Tummers, Eva Rehfuess
OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast different methods of qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) against criteria identified from the literature and to map their attributes to inform selection of the most appropriate QES method to answer research questions addressed by qualitative research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Electronic databases, citation searching and a study register were used to identify studies reporting QES methods. Attributes compiled from 26 methodological papers (2001-2014) were used as a framework for data extraction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Vera Leo, Aleksi J Sihvonen, Tanja Linnavalli, Mari Tervaniemi, Matti Laine, Seppo Soinila, Teppo Särkämö
Coupling novel verbal material with a musical melody can potentially aid in its learning and recall in healthy subjects, but this has never been systematically studied in stroke patients with cognitive deficits. In a counterbalanced design, we presented novel verbal material (short narrative stories) in both spoken and sung formats to stroke patients at the acute poststroke stage and 6 months poststroke. The task comprised three learning trials and a delayed recall trial. Memory performance on the spoken and sung tasks did not differ at the acute stage, whereas sung stories were learned and recalled significantly better compared with spoken stories at the 6 months poststroke stage...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sanjay Kalra
Insulin is a life saving medicine. Yet, diabetes care professionals encounter many barriers to its use, especially at the patient level. This is even more true in primary care, where patients tend to resist injectable therapy. This article uses the mnemonic,InfoCRIne, to highlight four important barriers to insulin, and proposes bridges to overcome them. The bridges include information, confidence building, resource husbandry and individualization of strategy. These help overcome the barriers of hearsay, perceived inability to use insulin, perceived lack of resources and intrusion into lifestyle...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Synaptic long-term depression (LTD) is believed to underlie critical mnemonic processes in the adult hippocampus. The roles of the metabotropic and ionotropic actions of glutamate in the induction of synaptic LTD by electrical low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in the living adult animal is poorly understood. Here we examined the requirement for metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and NMDA receptors in LTD induction in anaesthetized adult rats. LTD induction was primarily dependent on NMDA receptors and required the involvement of both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the receptor...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Simon W Davis, Erik A Wing, Roberto Cabeza
Our understanding of the role that ventral parietal cortex (VPC) plays in declarative memory processes has changed dramatically over the last two decades. The goal of this chapter is to provide a concise overview data concerning VPC involvement in episodic memory (EM), and to connect this data to several key theories of VPC function. We review evidence from five methodological domains in cognitive neuroscience: neuropsychological lesion evidence, univariate activation studies, multivoxel pattern analyses, functional connectivity studies, and brain stimulation experiments...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Zachariah M Reagh, Jessica A Noche, Nicholas J Tustison, Derek Delisle, Elizabeth A Murray, Michael A Yassa
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is among the earliest brain areas to deteriorate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which functional properties of the EC are altered in the aging brain, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, is not understood. Recent human fMRI studies have identified a functional dissociation within the EC, similar to what is found in rodents. Here, we used high-resolution fMRI to identify a specific hypoactivity in the anterolateral EC (alEC) commensurate with major behavioral deficits on an object pattern separation task in asymptomatic older adults...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Brice Ongali, Nektaria Nicolakakis, Xin-Kang Tong, Clotilde Lecrux, Hans Imboden, Edith Eh Hamel
Transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (TGF mice) display cerebrovascular alterations as seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID), but no or only subtle cognitive deficits. TGF-β1 may exert part of its deleterious effects through interactions with angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling pathways. We test such interactions in the brain and cerebral vessels of TGF mice by measuring cerebrovascular reactivity, levels of protein markers of vascular fibrosis, nitric oxide synthase activity, astrogliosis and mnemonic performance in mice treated (6 months) with the AT1R blocker, losartan (10 mg/kg/day), or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (ACEi,3 mg/kg/day)...
March 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Marci M Horn, Kristen M Kennedy, Karen M Rodrigue
Decline in associative memory abilities is a common cognitive complaint among older adults and is detectable in both normal aging and in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjective memory (SM) complaints may serve as an earlier marker of these mnemonic changes; however, previous research examining the predictive utility of SM to observed memory performance yielded inconsistent results. This inconsistency is likely due to other sources of variance that occur with memory decline such as mood/depression issues, presence of apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) genotype, or beta-amyloid deposition...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Michelle Mattison, Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
The success of witness interviews in the criminal justice system depends on the accuracy of information obtained, which is a function of both amount and quality of information. Attempts to enhance witness retrieval such as mental reinstatement of context have been designed with typically developed adults in mind. In this article, the relative benefits of mental and sketch reinstatement mnemonics are explored with both typically developing children and children with autism. Children watched a crime event video, and their retrieval of event information was examined in free and probed recall phases of a cognitive interview...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
David St-Amand, Signy Sheldon, A Ross Otto
When choosing between options that vary in risk, we often rely on our experience with options-our episodic memories-to make that choice. Although episodic memory has been demonstrated to be critically involved in value-based decision-making, it is not clear how these memory processes contribute to decision-making that involves risk. To investigate this issue, we tested a group of participants on a repeated-choice risky decision-making task. Before completing this task, half of the participants were given a well-validated episodic induction task-a brief training procedure in recollecting the details of a past experience-known to engage episodic memory processes, and the other half were given a general impressions induction task that engages general mnemonic processes...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jan-Willem Thielen, Donghyun Hong, Seyedmorteza Rohani Rankouhi, Jens Wiltfang, Guillén Fernández, David G Norris, Indira Tendolkar
The classical model of the declarative memory system describes the hippocampus and its interactions with representational brain areas in posterior neocortex as being essential for the formation of long-term episodic memories. However, new evidence suggests an extension of this classical model by assigning the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a specific, yet not fully defined role in episodic memory. In this study, we utilized 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to lend further support for the idea of a mnemonic role of the mPFC in humans...
February 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Matthew Carle, Michael A Frölich, Steve Tran, Michael A Yassa, David Matthew White, Abhishek Reddy, Adrienne Carol Lahti
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis, and if N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Olga Lipatova, Matthew M Campolattaro, Dawndra C Dixon, Ayse Durak
Many studies provide evidence that differences in spatial learning exist between males and females. However, it is necessary to consider non-mnemonic factors that may influence these findings. The present experiment investigated acquisition, retention, and the effects of stress on response- and place-learning in male and female rats. Rats were trained in an open-field tower maze. Procedures were used to minimize stress in the rats, and their ability to solve place- or response-learning in the maze was determined by analyzing a response variable (i...
February 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kaitlen O Woodfin, Corey Johnson, Renee Parker, Caroline Mikach, Molly Johnson, Susan P McMullan
Interdisciplinary collaboration is key to safe surgical positioning. Although the surgical procedure dictates the patient's position, surgeons, anesthesia care providers, intraoperative nurses, and ancillary staff members must work together to achieve the goal of safe positioning. Correct patient positioning includes the provision of adequate access to the surgical site for the surgeon and surgical assistants. Surgical positions may put the patient at risk of injury. Understanding human anatomy, including the nerves commonly affected by each surgical position, can help the surgical team prevent accidental and irreversible patient injury...
March 2018: AORN Journal
Nick Love
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ripudaman S Minhas, Hamish Graham, Thivia Jegathesan, Joelene Huber, Elizabeth Young, Tony Barozzino
The Canadian Government has announced that over 50,000 refugees from the Middle East will be resettled in Canada by 2018. More than one-third of these refugees are expected to be children. The Canadian Paediatric Society has called for the Canadian government to prepare for the influx of these children. This should include addressing developmental, behavioural, and mental health needs. The focus of this paper is the role of paediatricians and family physicians in caring for the developmental health of refugee children, as a means of supporting their developmental and learning potential...
May 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
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