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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523125/fat-soluble-vitamin-intake-from-the-consumption-of-food-fortified-food-and-supplements-design-and-methods-of-the-belgian-vitadek-study
#1
Isabelle Moyersoen, Stefaan Demarest, Karin De Ridder, Jean Tafforeau, Carl Lachat, John Van Camp
BACKGROUND: The adequacy of micronutrient intake is a public health concern, as both insufficient and excessive intake levels may result in adverse health effects. Data on dietary intake are needed to evaluate potential problems regarding inadequate intake at population level and to formulate effective public health and food safety recommendations. Assessing the intake of micronutrients in population subgroups such as infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women is challenging and requires specific approaches...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508638/determination-of-the-absolute-configuration-of-%C3%AE-chiral-primary-alcohols-using-the-competing-enantioselective-conversion-method
#2
Alexander S Burns, Alexander J Wagner, Jennifer L Fulton, Kyle Young, Armen Zakarian, Scott D Rychnovsky
A method for determining the absolute configuration of β-chiral primary alcohols has been developed. Enantioenriched alcohols were acylated in the presence of either enantiomer of the enantioselective acylation catalyst HBTM, and the faster reaction was determined by measuring product conversion using (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis. An empirical mnemonic was developed that correlates the absolute configuration of the alcohol to the faster reacting catalyst. Successful substrates for this method include primary alcohols that bear a "directing group" on the stereogenic center; directing groups include arenes, heteroarenes, enones, and halides...
May 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506139/effects-of-aging-and-depression-on-mnemonic-discrimination-ability
#3
D A Camfield, R Fontana, K A Wesnes, J Mills, R J Croft
Ageing and depression have been found to be associated with poorer performance in mnemonic discrimination. In the current study, a two-response format mnemonic similarity test, Cognitive Drug Research MST, was used to compare these effects. Seventy-six participants were tested; with 52 participants in the young group, aged 18-35 years, and 24 participants in the elderly group, aged 55 years or older. Twenty-two young participants and 10 elderly participants met DSM-IV criteria for MDD or dysthymia. Age-related deficits were found for lure identification and speed of response...
May 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504527/the-testing-effect-under-divided-attention
#4
Zachary L Buchin, Neil W Mulligan
Memory retrieval often enhances later memory compared with restudying (i.e., the testing effect), indicating that retrieval does not simply reveal but also modifies memory representations. Dividing attention (DA) during encoding greatly disrupts later memory performance while DA during retrieval typically has modest effects-but what of the memory-modifying effects of retrieval? If these effects are similar to study-based encoding, they should be greatly disrupted by DA, a possibility consistent with elaborative and effortful accounts of the testing effect...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503806/distinctiveness-benefits-novelty-and-not-familiarity-but-only-up-to-a-limit-the-prior-knowledge-perspective
#5
Niv Reggev, Reut Sharoni, Anat Maril
Novelty is a pivotal player in cognition, and its contribution to superior memory performance is a widely accepted convention. On the other hand, mnemonic advantages for familiar information are also well documented. Here, we examine the role of experimental distinctiveness as a potential explanation for these apparently conflicting findings. Across two experiments, we demonstrate that conceptual novelty, an unfamiliar combination of familiar constituents, is sensitive to its experimental proportions: Improved memory for novelty was observed when novel stimuli were relatively rare...
May 15, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#6
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481056/the-tumor-promoter-activated-protein-kinase-cs-are-a-system-for-regulating-filopodia
#7
Carol A Heckman, Pratima Pandey, Marilyn L Cayer, Tania Biswas, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Nancy S Boudreau
Different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have distinct roles in regulating cell functions. The conventional (α, β, γ) and novel (δ, ε, η, θ) classes are targets of phorbol ester tumor promoters, which are surrogates of endogenous second messenger, diacylglycerol. The promoter-stimulated disappearance of filopodia was investigated by use of blocking peptides (BPs) that inhibit PKC maturation and/or docking. Filopodia were partially rescued by a peptide representing PKC ε hydrophobic sequence, but also by a myristoylated PKC α/β pseudosubstrate sequence, and an inhibitor of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP)...
May 8, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469889/a-quality-improvement-approach-to-standardization-and-sustainability-of-the-hand-off-process
#8
Craig Fryman, Carine Hamo, Siddharth Raghavan, Nirvani Goolsarran
There is mounting evidence that communication and hand-off failures are a root cause of two-thirds of sentinel events in hospitals. Several studies have shown that non-standardized hand-offs have yielded poor patient outcomes and adverse events. At Stony Brook University Hospital, there were numerous reported adverse events related to poor hand-off during the transfer of patient responsibility from one resident caregiver to the next. A resident-conducted root cause analysis identified lack of a standardized hand-off process and formal training on safe and efficient hand-off among caregivers as key contributing factors...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468724/in-search-of-a-resident-centered-handoff-tool-discovering-the-complexity-of-transitions-of-care
#9
Meredith Barrett, David Turer, Hadley Stoll, David T Hughes, Gurjit Sandhu
INTRODUCTION: Transfer of a patient's care between providers is a significant potential for medical errors. Given the potential for patient safety breeches we sought to investigate residents' perceptions of handoffs at our institution. METHODS: Residents completed an online survey assessing the effectiveness of handoffs and what they thought was necessary for safe and informative transition communication. Thematic analysis was used to identify critical themes. RESULTS: 78% of residents reported formal training in handoff delivery...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462394/adaptive-value-normalization-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-is-reduced-by-memory-load
#10
L Holper, L D Van Brussel, L Schmidt, S Schulthess, C J Burke, K Louie, E Seifritz, P N Tobler
Adaptation facilitates neural representation of a wide range of diverse inputs, including reward values. Adaptive value coding typically relies on contextual information either obtained from the environment or retrieved from and maintained in memory. However, it is unknown whether having to retrieve and maintain context information modulates the brain's capacity for value adaptation. To address this issue, we measured hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in two studies on risky decision-making...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460149/the-parented-outline-for-observing-hospitalized-pediatric-patients-and-their-families
#11
Amy L Tremain
The PARENTED outline (a mnemonic device) and the companion Parenting Landscape handout are proposed tools for clinical use that were developed as an outgrowth of clinical experience with hospitalized pediatric mental health patients and their families in combination with family systems theories of Minuchin and Bowen, Ainsworth and Bowlby's attachment theory, and Erikson's stages of development. The tools contain eight categories of observable, typical family interactions that a nurse on an inpatient mental health unit may encounter...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458154/sauroxine-reduces-memory-retention-in-rats-and-impairs-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-generation
#12
Mariana Vallejo, Valeria Carlini, Laura Gabach, M G Ortega, José L Cabrera, Susana Rubiales de Barioglio, Mariela Pérez, Alicia M Agnese
In the present paper it was investigated the role of sauroxine, an alkaloid of Phlegmariurus saururus, as a modulator of some types of learning and memory, considering the potential nootropic properties previously reported for the alkaloid extract and the main alkaloid sauroine. Sauroxine was isolated by means of an alkaline extraction, purified by several chromatographic techniques, and assayed in electrophysiological experiments on rat hippocampus slices, tending towards the elicitation of the long-term potentiation (LTP) phenomena...
April 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456583/protracted-development-of-executive-and-mnemonic-brain-systems-underlying-working-memory-in-adolescence-a-longitudinal-fmri-study
#13
Daniel J Simmonds, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna
Working memory (WM), the ability to hold information on-line to guide planned behavior, improves through adolescence in parallel with continued maturation of critical brain systems supporting cognitive control. Initial developmental neuroimaging studies with one or two timepoints have provided important though varied results limiting our understanding of which and how neural systems change during this transition into mature WM. In this study, we leverage functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) longitudinal data spanning up to 9 years in 129 normally developing individuals to identify which systems demonstrate growth changes that accompany improvements in WM performance...
April 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455081/optimizing-postpartum-care-for-the-patient-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Noelle G Martinez, Charlotte M Niznik, Lynn M Yee
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) poses well-established risks to both the mother and infant. As over 50% of women with GDM will develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in their lifetime, performing postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is paramount to initiation of appropriate lifestyle interventions and pharmacologic therapy. Nonetheless, test completion among women with GDM is estimated to be <50%, with particularly low rates in Latina patients, as well as patients with public insurance, low education levels, and low health literacy...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445100/remap-a-framework-for-goals-of-care-conversations
#15
Julie W Childers, Anthony L Back, James A Tulsky, Robert M Arnold
Conversations regarding goals of care with patients who have advanced cancer still occur too late, and oncologists say they lack the training to have these conversations effectively. Experts recommend a number of strategies when having these discussions, including discussing prognosis, responding to patient emotion, exploring values, and often making a recommendation for medical treatments that fit those values. To help learners, from residents to attending oncologists, learn these complex conversational skills, we have developed a framework with a mnemonic, REMAP: Reframe, Expect emotion, Map out patient goals, Align with goals, and Propose a plan...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444371/neural-correlates-of-both-perception-and-memory-for-objects-in-the-rodent-perirhinal-cortex
#16
Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Despite its anatomical positioning as an interface between the perceptual and memory systems, the perirhinal cortex (PER) has long been considered dedicated for object recognition memory. Whether the PER is also involved in object perception has been intensely debated in recent studies, but physiological evidence has been lacking. We recorded single units from the PER while the rat made categorical responses immediately after sampling a visual object as the originally learned objects were ambiguously morphed to varying degrees...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440857/the-anterior-complex-a-visual-mnemonic-to-aid-in-identification-of-normal-structures
#17
Angela C Ranzini
The anterior complex of the fetal brain is a group of structures that are important to evaluate during the routine anatomic survey to exclude several serious brain malformations. These structures include the cavum septum pellucidum, anterior horns, interhemispheric fissure, callosal sulcus, and corpus callosum. The relationship between these structures is easily remembered with the presented visual cartoon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017.
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420935/prevention-of-hypoglycaemia-the-asap-anticipate-suspect-act-prevent-strategy
#18
Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta
This article describes a simple framework to prevent hypoglycaemia. Four strategies of prevention are detailed, which correspond to four levels of prevention (primordial, primary, secondary and tertiary). This framework, given the mnemonic ASAP (As Soon As Possible) includes action to Anticipate and Avoid, and Suspect and Screen hypoglycaemia. It also enjoins us to Act and Assist persons with hypoglycaemia in a timely manner, while working to Prevent and Protect them by using safer glucose lowering drugs and insulins...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414333/dynamic-hidden-states-underlying-working-memory-guided-behavior
#19
Michael J Wolff, Janina Jochim, Elkan G Akyürek, Mark G Stokes
Recent theoretical models propose that working memory is mediated by rapid transitions in 'activity-silent' neural states (for example, short-term synaptic plasticity). According to the dynamic coding framework, such hidden state transitions flexibly configure memory networks for memory-guided behavior and dissolve them equally fast to allow forgetting. We developed a perturbation approach to measure mnemonic hidden states in an electroencephalogram. By 'pinging' the brain during maintenance, we show that memory-item-specific information is decodable from the impulse response, even in the absence of attention and lingering delay activity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412305/memantine-improves-outcomes-after-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Zhengrong Mei, Jianhua Qiu, Sasha Alcon, Jumana Hashim, Alexander Rotenberg, Yan Sun, William P Meehan, Rebekah Mannix
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI; e.g., sports concussions) is common and results in significant cognitive impairment. Targeted therapies for rmTBI are lacking, though evidence from other injury models indicates that targeting N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR)-mediated glutamatergic toxicity might mitigate rmTBI-induced neurologic deficits. However, there is a paucity of preclinical or clinical data regarding NMDAR antagonist efficacy in the rmTBI setting. To test whether NMDAR antagonist therapy improves outcomes after rmTBI, mice were subjected to rmTBI injury (4 injuries in 4days) and randomized to treatment with the NMDA antagonist memantine or with vehicle...
April 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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