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Audrey M B Wong-Kee-You, Scott A Adler
Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Elpiniki Pappa, Denis Burdakov, John Apergis-Schoute
The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Robert G Averkin, Viktor Szemenyei, Sándor Bordé, Gábor Tamás
Ultra-high-frequency network events in the hippocampus are instrumental in a dialogue with the neocortex during memory formation, but the existence of transient ∼200 Hz network events in the neocortex is not clear. Our recordings from neocortical layer II/III of freely behaving rats revealed field potential events at ripple and high-gamma frequencies repeatedly occurring at troughs of spindle oscillations during sleep. Juxtacellular recordings identified subpopulations of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing basket cells with epochs of firing at ripple (∼200 Hz) and high-gamma (∼120 Hz) frequencies detected during spindles and centered with millisecond precision at the trough of spindle waves in phase with field potential events but phase shifted relative to pyramidal cell firing...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Joel Pearson, Rocco Chiou, Sebastian Rogers, Marcus Wicken, Stewart Heitmann, Bard Ermentrout
Hallucinations occur in both normal and clinical populations. Due to their unpredictability and complexity, the mechanisms underlying hallucinations remain largely untested. Here we show that visual hallucinations can be induced in the normal population by visual flicker, limited to an annulus that constricts content complexity to simple moving grey blobs, allowing objective mechanistic investigation. Hallucination strength peaked at ~11 Hz flicker and was dependent on cortical processing. Hallucinated motion speed increased with flicker rate, when mapped onto visual cortex it was independent of eccentricity, underwent local sensory adaptation and showed the same bistable and mnemonic dynamics as sensory perception...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Brenda Han, Cristin Grant
With an increasing number of older people using emergency services, researchers have raised concerns about the quality of care in an environment that is not designed to address older patients' specific needs and conditions. The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) model was developed to address these issues, and to optimise healthcare delivery to older adults. This article introduces a complementary mnemonic, FRAIL, that refers to important elements of health information to consider before initiating care for older patients - falls/functional decline, reactions, altered mental status, illnesses, and living situation...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Katherine A Johnson, Marita Bryan, Kira Polonowita, Delia Decroupet, Jennifer T Coull
Knowing when an event is likely to occur allows attentional resources to be oriented toward that moment in time, enhancing processing of the event. We previously found that children (mean age 11 years) are unable to use endogenous temporal cues to orient attention in time, despite being able to use endogenous spatial cues (arrows) to orient attention in space. Arrow cues, however, may have proved beneficial by engaging exogenous (automatic), as well as endogenous (voluntary), orienting mechanisms. We therefore conducted two studies in which the exogenous properties of visual temporal cues were increased, to examine whether this helped children orient their attention in time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Lorena Deuker, Jacob Ls Bellmund, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Christian F Doeller
The hippocampus has long been implicated in both episodic and spatial memory, however these mnemonic functions have been traditionally investigated in separate research strands. Theoretical accounts and rodent data suggest a common mechanism for spatial and episodic memory in the hippocampus by providing an abstract and flexible representation of the external world. Here, we monitor the de novo formation of such a representation of space and time in humans using fMRI. After learning spatio-temporal trajectories in a large-scale virtual city, subject-specific neural similarity in the hippocampus scaled with the remembered proximity of events in space and time...
October 6, 2016: ELife
Benjamin Boury-Jamot, Olivier Halfon, Pierre J Magistretti, Benjamin Boutrel
The identification of neural substrates underlying the long lasting debilitating impact of drug cues is critical for developing novel therapeutic tools. Metabolic coupling has long been considered a key mechanism through which astrocytes and neurons actively interact in response of neuronal activity, but recent findings suggested that disrupting metabolic coupling may represent an innovative approach to prevent memory formation, in particular drug-related memories. Here, we review converging evidence illustrating how memory and addiction share neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms implicating lactate-mediated metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons...
October 4, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Joanne Jordan, Louise Rose, Katie N Dainty, Jane Noyes, Bronagh Blackwood
BACKGROUND: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is associated with a longer intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and higher mortality. Consequently, methods to improve ventilator weaning processes have been sought. Two recent Cochrane systematic reviews in ICU adult and paediatric populations concluded that protocols can be effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation, but there was significant heterogeneity in study findings. Growing awareness of the benefits of understanding the contextual factors impacting on effectiveness has encouraged the integration of qualitative evidence syntheses with effectiveness reviews, which has delivered important insights into the reasons underpinning (differential) effectiveness of healthcare interventions...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Isabel C Duarte, João Castelhano, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
INTRODUCTION: Hippocampal oscillations have been regularly described as playing a dominant role in spatial memory and navigation in rodents. In humans, the relative role of anterior versus posterior rhythms during navigational memory is not established. METHODS: Here, we tested this hypothesis using direct brain ECoG recordings in the anterior and posterior hippocampus of a patient, in a navigational task requiring spatial memory. We assessed multiple oscillatory bands during encoding and retrieval phases...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Ana Rita Silva, Maria Salomé Pinho, Luís Macedo, Céline Souchay, Christopher Moulin
INTRODUCTION: There is a debate about the ability of patients with Alzheimer's disease to build an up-to-date representation of their memory function, which has been termed mnemonic anosognosia. This form of anosognosia is typified by accurate online evaluations of performance, but dysfunctional or outmoded representations of function more generally. METHOD: We tested whether people with Alzheimer's disease could adapt or change their representations of memory performance across three different six-week memory training programs using global judgements of learning...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Michael Deuschle, Ulrike Gotthardt, Ulrich Schweiger, Michael Dettling, Florian Holsboer, Isabella Heuser
Animal studies suggest that repeated episodes of elevated glucocorticoids lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system at a supra-pituitary level, and to impaired mnemonic function. We compared cognitive tests and both, feedback integrity and stress responsivity of the HPA system, between 11 elderly, male marathon runners - a model of repeated HPA system activation - and 10 sedentary controls. Marathon runners had significantly increased baseline, stress and post-stress ACTH, but not cortisol concentrations...
September 28, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Stuart Lockhart, Gurpreet Singh-Ranger
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common procedures performed worldwide. Despite advances in technique, injury to the common bile duct and blood vessels still occurs. Rouviere's sulcus, a naturally occurring cleft in the right lobe, anterior to Segment 1, occurs in over 80% of normal livers. It is a useful, but often ignored, anatomical landmark for beginning dissection of Calot's triangle, and also for confirming its location. Despite this, its usefulness is not widely known or appreciated by general surgeons...
September 16, 2016: Asian Journal of Surgery
Peter A Ljubenkov, Michael D Geschwind
Dementia often is defined as a progressive cognitive disturbance leading to a loss of independent function. Most clinicians are familiar with the typical pattern of amnestic Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative presentation of dementia. Atypical dementia presentations, including atypical Alzheimer's variants, however, may pose a diagnostic challenge for even experienced clinicians. In this article the authors discuss clinical "pearls" for the diagnosis of various neurodegenerative dementia syndromes...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
William T O'Brien, Stefan Hamelin, Erik K Weitzel
Although functional endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective means of treating patients with recurrent and refractory sinusitis, the procedure is not without risk of serious surgical complications. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) affords radiologists the opportunity to prospectively identify anatomic variants that predispose patients to major surgical complications; however, these critical variants are not consistently evaluated or documented on preoperative imaging reports. The purpose of this review is to illustrate important anatomic variants and landmarks on the preoperative sinus CT with a focus on those that predispose patients to surgical complications...
October 2016: Radiology
Keng Sheng Chew, Jeroen van Merriënboer, Steven J Durning
BACKGROUND: Although a clinician may have the intention of carrying out strategies to reduce cognitive errors, this intention may not be realized especially under heavy workload situations or following a period of interruptions. Implementing strategies to reduce cognitive errors in clinical setting may be facilitated by a portable mnemonic in the form of a checklist. METHODS: A 2-stage approach using both qualitative and quantitative methods was used in the development and evaluation of a mnemonic checklist...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Felicia W Sun, Michael R Stepanovic, Joseph Andreano, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Bradford C Dickerson
UNLABELLED: Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of "normal" aging. Yet some individuals "age better" than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20-30 years younger (i.e., "superagers"), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bachir Tazkarji, Robert Lam, Shawn Lee, Soumia Meiyappan
OBJECTIVE: To guide family physicians in creating preventive screening and treatment plans for their elderly patients. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: The MEDLINE database was searched for Canadian guidelines on primary health care and the elderly; guidelines or meta-analyses or practice guidelines or systematic reviews related to mass screening in those aged 80 and older and the frail elderly, limited to between 2006 and July 2016; and articles on preventive health services for the elderly related to family practice or family physicians, limited to English-language publications between 2012 and July 2016...
September 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Ernest Palomer, Adrián Martín-Segura, Shishir Baliyan, Tariq Ahmed, Detlef Balschun, Cesar Venero, Mauricio G Martin, Carlos G Dotti
Cognitive capacities decline with age, an event accompanied by the altered transcription of synaptic plasticity genes. Here, we show that the transcriptional induction of Bdnf by a mnemonic stimulus is impaired in aged hippocampal neurons. Mechanistically, this defect is due to reduced NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated activation of CaMKII. Decreased NMDAR signaling prevents changes associated with activation at specific Bdnf promoters, including displacement of histone deacetylase 4, recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase CBP, increased H3K27 acetylation, and reduced H3K27 trimethylation...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
Roberto Bottini, Stefania Mattioni, Olivier Collignon
Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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