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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142387/fast-hugs-bid-modified-mnemonic-for-surgical-patient
#1
Abhijit S Nair, Vibhavari Milind Naik, Basanth Kumar Rayani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138923/hippocampal-caudate-nucleus-interactions-support-exceptional-memory-performance
#2
Nils C J Müller, Boris N Konrad, Nils Kohn, Monica Muñoz-López, Michael Czisch, Guillén Fernández, Martin Dresler
Participants of the annual World Memory Championships regularly demonstrate extraordinary memory feats, such as memorising the order of 52 playing cards in 20 s or 1000 binary digits in 5 min. On a cognitive level, memory athletes use well-known mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci. However, whether these feats are enabled solely through the use of mnemonic strategies or whether they benefit additionally from optimised neural circuits is still not fully clarified. Investigating 23 leading memory athletes, we found volumes of their right hippocampus and caudate nucleus were stronger correlated with each other compared to matched controls; both these volumes positively correlated with their position in the memory sports world ranking...
November 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138109/mesopontine-neurons-implicated-in-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness-have-either-ascending-or-descending-axonal-projections-but-not-both
#3
Adi Miriam Goldenberg, Anne Minert, Yelena Fishman, Gilly Wolf, Marshall Devor
The MPTA (mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area) is a key node in a network of axonal pathways that collectively engage the key components of general anesthesia: immobility and atonia, analgesia, amnesia and loss-of-consciousness. In this study we have applied double retrograde tracing to analyze MPTA connectivity, with a focus on axon collateralization. Prior tracer studies have shown that collectively, MPTA neurons send descending projections to spinal and medullary brain targets associated with atonia and analgesia as well as ascending projections to forebrain structures associated with amnesia and arousal...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129536/event-boundaries-trigger-rapid-memory-reinstatement-of-the-prior-events-to-promote-their-representation-in-long-term-memory
#4
Ignasi Sols, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi, Lluís Fuentemilla
Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123562/the-role-of-occupational-and-physiotherapy-in-multi-modal-approach-to-tackling-delirium-in-the-intensive-care
#5
REVIEW
Jenny Rains, Nigel Chee
The presence of delirium within critical care remains a long-standing challenge for patients and clinicians alike. A myriad of pre-disposing and precipitating factors lead to this patient cohort being high risk for developing delirium during their critical care stay. Until now, non-pharmacological management of these patients usually encompasses a 'bundle' of principles to reduce delirium days. These bundles have limited focus on the entire multi-disciplinary team (including occupational therapists and physiotherapists) who could assist with the reduction of delirium...
November 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120893/ce-pressure-injuries-caused-by-medical-devices-and-other-objects-a-clinical-update
#6
Barbara Ann Delmore, Elizabeth A Ayello
A review of practical resources, including mnemonics, to aid in prevention and identification. ABSTRACT: At the April 2016 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) consensus conference, terminology and staging definitions were updated and two definitions were revised to describe pressure injuries (PIs) caused by medical devices or other items on the skin or mucosa. Here, the authors discuss the etiology and prevention of PIs resulting from medical and other devices, the frequency of such injuries, and the bodily sites at which they most often occur...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116882/lingering-cognitive-states-shape-fundamental-mnemonic-abilities
#7
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116132/serial-dependence-is-absent-at-the-time-of-perception-but-increases-in-visual-working-memory
#8
Daniel P Bliss, Jerome J Sun, Mark D'Esposito
Recent experiments have shown that visual cognition blends current input with that from the recent past to guide ongoing decision making. This serial dependence appears to exploit the temporal autocorrelation normally present in visual scenes to promote perceptual stability. While this benefit has been assumed, evidence that serial dependence directly alters stimulus perception has been limited. In the present study, we parametrically vary the delay between stimulus and response in a spatial delayed response task to explore the trajectory of serial dependence from the moment of perception into post-perceptual visual working memory...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115921/identifying-protective-and-risk-factors-for-injurious-falls-in-patients-hospitalized-for-acute-care-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#9
Emmanuel Aryee, Spencer L James, Guenola M Hunt, Hilary F Ryder
BACKGROUND: Admitted patients who fall and injure themselves during an acute hospitalization incur increased costs, morbidity, and mortality, but little research has been conducted on identifying inpatients at high risk to injure themselves in a fall. Falls risk assessment tools have been unsuccessful due to their low positive predictive value when applied broadly to entire hospital populations. We aimed to identify variables associated with the risk of or protection against injurious fall in the inpatient setting...
November 7, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107771/overlapping-frontoparietal-networks-for-tactile-and-visual-parametric-working-memory-representations
#10
Yuan-Hao Wu, Işıl Uluç, Timo Torsten Schmidt, Kathrin Tertel, Evgeniya Kirilina, Felix Blankenburg
Previous working memory (WM) research based on non-human primate electrophysiology and human EEG has shown that frontal brain regions maintain frequencies of flutter stimulation across different sensory modalities by means of a supramodal parametric WM code. These findings imply that frontal regions encode the memorized frequencies in a sensory-unspecific, quantitative format. Here, we explored which brain regions maintain information about frequencies provided by different sensory modalities at the level of activity pattern across fMRI voxel populations...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102592/negative-transfer-effects-between-reference-memory-and-working-memory-training-in-the-water-maze-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Lucas Ezequiel Serrano Sponton, Gonzalo Jose Soria, Sylvain Dubroqua, Philipp Singer, Joram Feldon, Pascual A Gargiulo, Benjamin K Yee
The water maze is one of the most widely employed spatial learning paradigms in the cognitive profiling of genetically modified mice. Oftentimes, tests of reference memory (RM) and working memory (WM) in the water maze are sequentially evaluated in the same animals. However, critical difference in the rules governing efficient escape from the water between WM and RM tests is expected to promote the adoption of incompatible mnemonic or navigational strategies. Hence, performance in a given test is likely poorer if it follows the other test instead of being conducted first...
November 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102097/management-of-an-entrapped-patient-with-a-field-amputation
#12
John C Bunyasaranand, Erasmo Espino, Kelli A Rummings, Gregory M Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Emergency surgical amputations are rare and resource-intensive lifesaving interventions. Most emergency medical services (EMS) lack a formal protocol to manage these high-risk but low-occurrence events. There has been limited attention in the EMS community to address this issue. Without a literature-based approach, the EMS community has been offered little guidance on managing surgical field amputations. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man was terminally entrapped below the waist in an industrial auger...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101315/hippocampal-gaba-enables-inhibitory-control-over-unwanted-thoughts
#13
Taylor W Schmitz, Marta M Correia, Catarina S Ferreira, Andrew P Prescot, Michael C Anderson
Intrusive memories, images, and hallucinations are hallmark symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Although often attributed to deficient inhibitory control by the prefrontal cortex, difficulty in controlling intrusive thoughts is also associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, arising from dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons. How hippocampal GABA contributes to stopping unwanted thoughts is unknown. Here we show that GABAergic inhibition of hippocampal retrieval activity forms a key link in a fronto-hippocampal inhibitory control pathway underlying thought suppression...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094989/the-efficacy-of-learners-testing-choices
#14
Jonathan G Tullis, Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
Practice tests provide large mnemonic benefits over restudying, but learners judge practice tests as less effective than restudying. Consequently, learners infrequently utilize testing when controlling their study and often choose to be tested only on well-learned items. In 5 experiments, we examined whether learners' choices about testing and restudying are effective for improving subsequent memory performance. Learners studied a list of word pairs and chose which items to restudy and which to test. Some of learners' choices were honored (by assigning those items to the chosen activity) and some of learners' choices were dishonored (by assigning those items to the opposite study activity)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082627/gastrointestinal-and-feeding-difficulties-in-charge-syndrome-a-review-from-head-to-toe
#15
REVIEW
Kim D Blake, Alexandra S Hudson
CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is primarily diagnosed based on clinical features, with genetic testing available for confirmation. The CHARGE mnemonic stands for some of the common characteristics: coloboma, heart defects, atresia/stenosis of the choanae, retardation of growth/development, genitourinary anomalies, and ear abnormalities (CHARGE). However, many of the common clinical features are not captured by this mnemonic, including cranial nerve dysfunction, considered by some to be one of the major diagnostic criteria...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079492/the-contribution-of-different-prefrontal-cortex-regions-to-recollection-and-familiarity-a-review-of-fmri-data
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Scalici, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
Dual-process theories of recognition memory sustain that recollection and familiarity reflect different mnemonic processes and rely on separate neural substrates that are located primarily in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Aggleton and Brown's model (1999) assumes that this distinction extends to other brain regions, including the thalamus, and that both recognition memory processes interact with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether recollection and familiarity are subtended by separate prefrontal regions...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070629/object-maintenance-beyond-their-visible-parts-in-working-memory
#17
Siyi Chen, Thomas Töllner, Hermann J Müller, Markus Conci
Completion of a partially occluded object requires that a representation of the whole is constructed based on the information provided by the physically specified parts of the stimulus. Such processes of amodal completion rely on the generation and maintenance of a mental image that renders the completed object in visual working memory (VWM). The present study examined this relationship between VWM storage and processes of object completion. We recorded event-related potentials to track VWM maintenance by means of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) during a change detection task in which to-be-memorized composite objects (notched shapes abutting an occluding shape) were primed to induce either a globally completed object or a non-completed, mosaic representation...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068095/mnemonic-and-attentional-roles-for-states-of-attenuated-alpha-oscillations-in-perceptual-working-memory-a-review
#18
Freek van Ede
Alpha oscillations are often reported to be amplified during working memory retention, serving to disengage sensory areas to protect internal representations from external interference. At the same time, contemporary views of working memory postulate that sensory areas may often also be recruited for retention. I here review recent evidence that during such 'perceptual' working memory, alpha oscillations in mnemonically relevant sensory areas are not amplified but attenuated instead. I will argue that such attenuated alpha states serve a mnemonic role and, further, that larger attenuation may support item-specific attentional prioritisation within perceptual working memory...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067352/combined-mnemonic-strategy-training-and-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Benjamin M Hampstead, Krishnankutty Sathian, Marom Bikson, Anthony Y Stringer
INTRODUCTION: Memory deficits characterize Alzheimer's dementia and the clinical precursor stage known as mild cognitive impairment. Nonpharmacologic interventions hold promise for enhancing functioning in these patients, potentially delaying functional impairment that denotes transition to dementia. Previous findings revealed that mnemonic strategy training (MST) enhances long-term retention of trained stimuli and is accompanied by increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the lateral frontal and parietal cortices as well as in the hippocampus...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067311/mnemonic-strategy-training-of-the-elderly-at-risk-for-dementia-enhances-integration-of-information-processing-via-cross-frequency-coupling
#20
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Ioannis Tarnanas, Mark Wiederhold, Brenda Wiederhold, Magda Tsolaki, Elgar Fleisch
INTRODUCTION: We sought to identify whether intensive 10-week mobile health mnemonic strategy training (MST) could shift the resting-state brain network more toward cortical-level integration, which has recently been proven to reflect the reorganization of the brain networks compensating the cognitive decline. METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were selected and participated in 10-week training lasting 90 min/d of memory training...
November 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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