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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912950/quality-improvement-regarding-handoff
#1
Scott Studeny, Lauren Burley, Kelsey Cowen, Melanie Akers, Kelly O'Neill, Susan L Flesher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have emphasized the importance of effectual communication during patient handoffs. The objectives of this study were to (1) implement a resident-driven quality improvement project to improve handoffs by including key elements that are necessary for a safe and effective handoff. We chose to use the IPASS (illness severity, patient summary, action items, situation awareness and contingency planning, synthesis by receiver) mnemonic as our standardized handoff model; (2) Consider balancing measures in an effort to be aware of any negative effects of our interventions on resident satisfaction with the system...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904893/surgical-patient-selection-and-counseling
#2
REVIEW
Matt Ziegelmann, Tobias S Köhler, George C Bailey, Tanner Miest, Manaf Alom, Landon Trost
The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures...
August 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888073/selective-decline-of-neurotrophin-and-neurotrophin-receptor-genes-within-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-and-hippocampus-proper-correlation-with-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathology-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Stephen D Ginsberg, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Irina Elarova, Yinghua Chen, Freddy Jeanneteau, Thorsten M Kranz, Moses V Chao, Scott E Counts, Elliott J Mufson
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887225/substance-p-and-neurotensin-in-the-limbic-system-their-roles-in-reinforcement-and-memory-consolidation
#4
REVIEW
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885486/bacopa-monnieri-extract-enhances-learning-dependent-hippocampal-long-term-synaptic-potentiation
#5
Charkriya Promsuban, Suveerawan Limsuvan, Pravit Akarasereenont, Kanokwan Tilokskulchai, Sompol Tapechum, Narawut Pakaprot
Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a memory enhancer for a long time; however, its direct effect on synaptic plasticity has not been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the effect of B. monnieri on long-term synaptic potentiation in acute hippocampal slices. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered either sterile water or the ethanolic extract of B. monnieri for 60 days. The extracellular recording was performed to measure the field excitatory postsynaptic potential in the acute hippocampal slices of these rats...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881444/gabaergic-inhibition-gates-excitatory-ltp-in-perirhinal-cortex
#6
Vibhakar C Kotak, Ana Mirallave, Todd M Mowery, Dan H Sanes
The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a key region downstream of auditory cortex (ACx) that processes familiarity linked mnemonic signaling. In gerbils, ACx-driven EPSPs recorded in PRh neurons are largely shunted by GABAergic inhibition (Kotak et al. 2015). To determine whether inhibitory shunting prevents the induction of excitatory long-term potentiation (e-LTP), we stimulated ACx-recipient PRh in a brain slice preparation using theta burst stimulation (TBS). Under control conditions, without GABA blockers, the majority of PRh neurons exhibited long-term depression...
September 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871031/angular-gyrus-involvement-at-encoding-and-retrieval-is-associated-with-durable-but-less-specific-memories
#7
Marieke van der Linden, Ruud M W J Berkers, Richard G M Morris, Guillén Fernández
After consolidation, information belonging to a mental schema is better remembered, but such memory can be less specific when it comes to details. A neuronal mechanism in line with this behavioral pattern could result from a dynamic interaction that entails mediation by a specific cortical network with associated hippocampal disengagement. We now report that in male and female adult human subjects, encoding and later consolidation of a series of objects embedded in a semantic schema was associated with a build-up of activity in the angular gyrus (AG) that predicted memory 24h later...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866682/are-there-place-cells-in-the-avian-hippocampus
#8
David F Sherry, Stephanie L Grella, Mélanie F Guigueno, David J White, Diano F Marrone
Birds possess a hippocampus that serves many of the same spatial and mnemonic functions as the mammalian hippocampus but achieves these outcomes with a dramatically different neuroanatomical organization. The properties of spatially responsive neurons in birds and mammals are also different. Much of the contemporary interest in the role of the mammalian hippocampus in spatial representation dates to the discovery of place cells in the rat hippocampus. Since that time, cells that respond to head direction and cells that encode a grid-like representation of space have been described in the rat brain...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865286/the-influence-of-time-on-task-on-mind-wandering-and-visual-working-memory
#9
Marissa Krimsky, Daniel E Forster, Maria M Llabre, Amishi P Jha
Working memory relies on executive resources for successful task performance, with higher demands necessitating greater resource engagement. In addition to mnemonic demands, prior studies suggest that internal sources of distraction, such as mind wandering (i.e., having off-task thoughts) and greater time on task, may tax executive resources. Herein, the consequences of mnemonic demand, mind wandering, and time on task were investigated during a visual working memory task. Participants (N=143) completed a delayed-recognition visual working memory task, with mnemonic load for visual objects manipulated across trials (1 item=low load; 2 items=high load) and subjective mind wandering assessed intermittently throughout the experiment using a self-report Likert-type scale (1=on-task, 6=off-task)...
August 30, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863221/resident-workshop-standardizes-patient-handoff-and-improves-quality-confidence-and-knowledge
#10
Heidi J Murphy, Aryn C Karpinski, Amanda Messer, Julie Gallois, Michelle Mims, Ashley Farge, Lauren Hernandez, Michelle Steinhardt, Chelsey Sandlin
OBJECTIVES: Residency programs are required to instruct residents in handoff; however, a handoff curriculum endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education does not exist. Although curricula are available, we preferred to use a curriculum that could be taught quickly, was easy to implement, and used a mnemonic that resembled current practices at our institution. We designed and implemented a novel handoff educational workshop intended to improve resident confidence and performance...
September 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843132/henry-where-have-you-lost-your-self
#11
Nathalie Philippi, Daniel Roquet, Hédi Ben Malek, Vincent Noblet, Anne Botzung, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
The Self is a complex construct encompassing distinct components, including episodic and semantic autobiographical memory, the Self-concept, and the subjective sense of Self, which highest level consists of Self-awareness. The neuro-anatomical correlates are complex, and it is debated as to whether a common region could support these different components of the Self, with a particular interest for the cortical midline structures and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes an interesting model for the study of Self as autobiographical memory typically deteriorates as the disease progresses...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839217/re-stepping-into-the-same-river-competition-problem-rather-than-a-reconsolidation-failure-in-an-established-motor-skill
#12
Ella Gabitov, Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Nitzan Censor, Stuart M Fogel, Geneviève Albouy, Bradley R King, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Leonardo G Cohen, Avi Karni, Julien Doyon
Animal models suggest that consolidated memories return to their labile state when reactivated and need to be restabilized through reconsolidation processes to persist. Consistent with this notion, post-reactivation pharmacological protein synthesis blockage results in mnemonic failure in hippocampus-dependent memories. It has been proposed that, in humans, post-reactivation experience with a competitive task can also interfere with memory restabilization. However, several studies failed to induce performance deficit implementing this approach...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822732/gamma-phase-synchrony-in-autobiographical-memory-evidence-from-magnetoencephalography-and-severely-deficient-autobiographical-memory
#13
Lluís Fuentemilla, Daniela J Palombo, Brian Levine
The subjective sense of recollecting events from one's past is an essential feature of episodic memory, but the neural mechanisms supporting this capacity are poorly understood. We examined the role of large-scale patterns of neural synchrony using whole-head MEG recordings in healthy adults and S.M., who has severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM; Palombo et al., 2015), a syndrome in which autobiographical recollection is absent but other functions (including other mnemonic functions), are normal...
August 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818944/conversion-of-object-identity-to-object-general-semantic-value-in-the-primate-temporal-cortex
#14
Keita Tamura, Masaki Takeda, Rieko Setsuie, Tadashi Tsubota, Toshiyuki Hirabayashi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Yasushi Miyashita
At the final stage of the ventral visual stream, perirhinal neurons encode the identity of memorized objects through learning. However, it remains elusive whether and how object percepts alone, or concomitantly a nonphysical attribute of the objects ("learned"), are decoded from perirhinal activities. By combining monkey psychophysics with optogenetic and electrical stimulations, we found a focal spot of memory neurons where both stimulations led monkeys to preferentially judge presented objects as "already seen...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#15
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804008/perk-as-a-hub-of-multiple-pathogenic-pathways-leading-to-memory-deficits-and-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Masuo Ohno
Cell signaling in response to an array of diverse stress stimuli converges on the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). In the brain, eIF2α is a hub for controlling learning and memory function and for maintaining neuronal integrity in health and disease. Among four eIF2α kinases, PERK is emerging as a key regulator for memory impairments and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of PERK-eIF2α signaling have revealed that the overactivation of this pathway is not a mere consequence of the neurodegenerative process but play critical roles in AD pathogenesis and the occurrence of memory deficits...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799437/development-of-the-emap-tool-facilitating-existential-communication-between-general-practitioners-and-cancer-patients
#17
Elisabeth Assing Hvidt, Dorte Gilså Hansen, Jette Ammentorp, Lars Bjerrum, Søren Cold, Pål Gulbrandsen, Frede Olesen, Susanne S Pedersen, Jens Søndergaard, Connie Timmermann, Helle Timm, Niels Christian Hvidt
BACKGROUND: General practice recognizes the existential dimension as an integral part of multidimensional patient care alongside the physical, psychological and social dimensions. However, general practitioners (GPs) report substantial barriers related to communication with patients about existential concerns. OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of the EMAP tool facilitating communication about existential problems and resources between GPs and patients with cancer...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780308/faster-native-vowel-discrimination-learning-in-musicians-is-mediated-by-an-optimization-of-mnemonic-functions
#18
Stefan Elmer, Marielle Greber, Arethy Pushparaj, Jürg Kühnis, Lutz Jäncke
The ability to discriminate phonemes varying in spectral and temporal attributes constitutes one of the most basic intrinsic elements underlying language learning mechanisms. Since previous work has consistently shown that professional musicians are characterized by perceptual and cognitive advantages in a variety of language-related tasks, and since vowels can be considered musical sounds within the domain of speech, here we investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of native vowel discrimination learning in a sample of professional musicians and non-musicians...
August 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769847/a-causal-theory-of-mnemonic-confabulation
#19
Sven Bernecker
This paper attempts to answer the question of what defines mnemonic confabulation vis-à-vis genuine memory. The two extant accounts of mnemonic confabulation as "false memory" and as ill-grounded memory are shown to be problematic, for they cannot account for the possibility of veridical confabulation, ill-grounded memory, and well-grounded confabulation. This paper argues that the defining characteristic of mnemonic confabulation is that it lacks the appropriate causal history. In the confabulation case, there is no proper counterfactual dependence of the state of seeming to remember on the corresponding past representation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767720/neuronal-oscillations-reveal-the-processes-underlying-intentional-compared-to-incidental-learning-in-children-and-young-adults
#20
Moritz Köster, André Haese, Daniela Czernochowski
This EEG study investigated the neuronal processes during intentional compared to incidental learning in young adults and two groups of children aged 10 and 7 years. Theta (3-8 Hz) and alpha (10-16 Hz) neuronal oscillations were analyzed to compare encoding processes during an intentional and an incidental encoding task. In all three age groups, both encoding conditions were associated with an increase in event-related theta activity. Encoding-related alpha suppression increased with age. Memory performance was higher in the intentional compared to the incidental task in all age groups...
2017: PloS One
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