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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775662/multivoxel-pattern-similarity-suggests-the-integration-of-temporal-duration-in-hippocampal-event-sequence-representations
#1
Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Edward B O'Neil, Andy C H Lee
Recent rodent work suggests the hippocampus may provide a temporal representation of event sequences, in which the order of events and the interval durations between them are encoded. There is, however, limited human evidence for the latter, in particular whether the hippocampus processes duration information pertaining to the passage of time rather than qualitative or quantitative changes in event content. We scanned participants while they made match/mismatch judgements on each trial between a study sequence of events and a subsequent test sequence...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772960/is-music-a-memory-booster-in-normal-aging-the-influence-of-emotion
#2
Stéphie Ratovohery, Alexia Baudouin, Aude Gachet, Juliette Palisson, Pauline Narme
Age-related differences in episodic memory have been explained by a decrement in strategic encoding implementation. It has been shown in clinical populations that music can be used during the encoding stage as a mnemonic strategy to learn verbal information. The effectiveness of this strategy remains equivocal in older adults (OA). Furthermore, the impact of the emotional valence of the music used has never been investigated in this context. Thirty OA and 24 young adults (YA) learned texts that were either set to music that was positively or negatively valenced, or spoken only...
May 17, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765962/value-of-eponyms-in-dermato-trichological-nomenclature
#3
REVIEW
Ralph M Trüeb
Traditionally, syndromes have been named after the physician who originally identified the condition. These are referred to as eponymous syndromes. Nevertheless, the term eponym is to be regarded in a broader sense, since - by definition - an eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which something is named. Accordingly, some eponymous syndromes do not refer to the physician who originally reported the condition, but alternatively to the indicator patient, a geographic location, or a historical, literary, or mythological context...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764975/development-of-mnemonic-discrimination-during-childhood
#4
Leslie Rollins, Elizabeth B Cloude
The present study examined mnemonic discrimination in 5- and 6-yr-old children, 8- and 9-yr-old children, 11- and 12-yr-old children, and young adults. Participants incidentally encoded pictorial stimuli and subsequently judged whether targets (i.e., repeated stimuli), lures (i.e., mnemonically related stimuli), and foils (i.e., novel stimuli) were old, similar, or new. Compared to older age groups, younger children were more likely to (1) incorrectly identify lures as "old" (rather than "similar") and (2) fail to recognize lures altogether, especially when lures were more mnemonically distinct from targets...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760852/altered-mental-status-current-evidence-based-recommendations-for-prehospital-care
#5
REVIEW
Ashley Sanello, Marianne Gausche-Hill, William Mulkerin, Karl A Sporer, John F Brown, Kristi L Koenig, Eric M Rudnick, Angelo A Salvucci, Gregory H Gilbert
Introduction: In the United States emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS) and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754115/delusional-misidentifications-in-a-procrustean-bed
#6
EDITORIAL
G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739623/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-after-tia-or-minor-stroke-a-more-sensitive-measure-for-detecting-subtle-memory-dysfunction
#7
Sofie Geurts, Sieberen P van der Werf, Vincent I H Kwa, Roy P C Kessels
Cognitive changes after minor stroke or TIA have been reported, with studies describing a 'vascular' cognitive profile with spared episodic memory. Still, many patients also report memory complaints. Studies using long-term forgetting paradigms have detected memory impairment after prolonged intervals in contrast to standard delayed testing in other patient groups. This study examined whether accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is present in patients with minor stroke or TIA by comparing one-week delayed recall and recognition with the performance of a healthy control group...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725951/suppressing-my-memories-by-listening-to-yours-the-effect-of-socially-triggered-context-based-prediction-error-on-memory
#8
Madalina Vlasceanu, Rae Drach, Alin Coman
The mind is a prediction machine. In most situations, it has expectations as to what might happen. But when predictions are invalidated by experience (i.e., prediction errors), the memories that generate these predictions are suppressed. Here, we explore the effect of prediction error on listeners' memories following social interaction. We find that listening to a speaker recounting experiences similar to one's own triggers prediction errors on the part of the listener that lead to the suppression of her memories...
May 3, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725876/can-very-small-font-size-enhance-memory
#9
Vered Halamish
Presenting information in a perceptually degraded format sometimes enhances learning outcomes. However, earlier studies in which words were presented in large or small fonts in a paradigm that also involved item-by-item judgments of learning (JOLs) consistently yielded no mnemonic benefit of small fonts. Can small font size enhance memory under hitherto unexamined conditions? A series of 11 experiments was conducted to examine systematically the effect of font size on memory for words and whether it depends on the strength of the font size manipulation, whether JOLs are solicited, the format of the test, and study time...
May 3, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718722/integrating-visual-mnemonics-and-input-feedback-with-passphrases-to-improve-the-usability-and-security-of-digital-authentication
#10
Kevin Juang, Joel Greenstein
OBJECTIVE: We developed a new authentication system based on passphrases instead of passwords. Our new system incorporates a user-generated mnemonic picture displayed during login, definition tooltips, error correction to reduce typographical errors, a decoy-based input masking technique, and random passphrase generation using either a specialized wordlist or a sentence template. BACKGROUND: Passphrases exhibit a greater level of security than traditional passwords, but their wider adoption has been hindered by human factors issues...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717845/assessment-and-management-of-older-patients-with-delirium-in-acute-settings
#11
Martha Dixon
This article aims to assist nurses and nursing students to consider the presentation of delirium in older patients and the resulting assessment and nursing interventions required. It considers the three types of delirium: hyperactive, hypoactive and mixed. It also discusses potential causes of delirium. Older patients are at increased risk of delirium due to factors such as cognitive impairment, co-morbidities and acute illness. Nurses should be confident in the use of the 4AT score to assess patients with delirium...
May 2, 2018: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715544/semantic-memory-in-developmental-amnesia
#12
REVIEW
Rachael L Elward, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem
Patients with developmental amnesia resulting from bilateral hippocampal atrophy associated with neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia typically show relatively preserved semantic memory and factual knowledge about the natural world despite severe impairments in episodic memory. Understanding the neural and mnemonic processes that enable this context-free semantic knowledge to be acquired throughout development without the support of the contextualised episodic memory system is a serious challenge. This review describes the clinical presentation of patients with developmental amnesia, contrasts its features with those reported for adult-onset hippocampal amnesia, and analyses the effects of variables that influence the learning of new semantic information...
April 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712783/conditional-bistability-a-generic-cellular-mnemonic-mechanism-for-robust-and-flexible-working-memory-computations
#13
Guillaume Rodriguez, Matthieu Sarazin, Alexandra Clemente, Stephanie Holden, Jeanne T Paz, Bruno Delord
Persistent neural activity, the substrate of working memory, is thought to emerge from synaptic reverberation within recurrent networks. However, reverberation models do not robustly explain fundamental dynamics of persistent activity, including high-spiking irregularity, large intertrial variability, and state transitions. While cellular bistability may contribute to persistent activity, its rigidity appears incompatible with persistent activity labile characteristics. Here, we unravel in a cellular model a form of spike-mediated conditional bistability that is robust, generic and provides a rich repertoire of mnemonic computations...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705066/manipulating-memory-efficacy-affects-the-behavioral-and-neural-profiles-of-deterministic-learning-and-decision-making
#14
Joshua J Tremel, Daniella M Ortiz, Julie A Fiez
When making a decision, we have to identify, collect, and evaluate relevant bits of information to ensure an optimal outcome. How we approach a given choice can be influenced by prior experience. Contextual factors and structural elements of these past decisions can cause a shift in how information is encoded and can in turn influence later decision-making. In this two-experiment study, we sought to manipulate declarative memory efficacy and decision-making in a concurrent discrimination learning task by altering the amount of information to be learned...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693496/opqrst-u-integrating-substance-use-disorders-or-use-into-the-medical-history
#15
Joshua Eloge, T Celeste Napier, Bezalel Dantz
Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) are pervasive in the United States, with 20.1 million cases in 2016, of which only 19% receive treatment. SUDs permeate all medical specialties and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every chief complaint. Acknowledging the salience of SUDs provides a unique opportunity for early identification and intervention. Thus, SUDs should be reflected prominently in the History of the Present Illness rather than in the Social History. To this effect, we propose the inclusion of Use (U) in the History of Present Illness, and incorporating "U" into the pedagogical mnemonic of OPQRST that is commonly used in medical training...
April 25, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692201/fluctuating-confidence-the-dynamic-consequences-of-true-false-affirmatives-and-denials-on-how-a-listener-appraises-their-personal-past
#16
Jolee Davis, Sharon Y Bayantemur, Sasha Seecharan, Leslie D Unger, Johanna Hellgren, Charles B Stone
The present study examined the mnemonic consequences of true/false denials and affirmatives on how a listener appraises their personal past. To this end, participants (listeners) rated the extent to which they were confident certain events occurred during their childhood. They rated these events both before and after a confederate (speaker) denied or affirmed the occurrence of four different childhood events each, for a total of eight "rehearsed" events. For each set (denials and affirmatives) of events, half were true and half were false...
April 25, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686072/spatiotemporal-encoding-of-search-strategies-by-prefrontal-neurons
#17
Feng-Kuei Chiang, Joni D Wallis
Working memory is capacity-limited. In everyday life we rarely notice this limitation, in part because we develop behavioral strategies that help mitigate the capacity limitation. How behavioral strategies are mediated at the neural level is unclear, but a likely locus is lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Neurons in LPFC play a prominent role in working memory and have been shown to encode behavioral strategies. To examine the role of LPFC in overcoming working-memory limitations, we recorded the activity of LPFC neurons in animals trained to perform a serial self-ordered search task...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680966/mnemonic-and-behavioral-effects-of-biperiden-an-m1-selective-antagonist-in-the-rat
#18
Anna Popelíková, Štěpán Bahník, Veronika Lobellová, Jan Svoboda, Aleš Stuchlík
RATIONALE: There is a persistent pressing need for valid animal models of cognitive and mnemonic disruptions (such as seen in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias) usable for preclinical research. OBJECTIVES: We have set out to test the validity of administration of biperiden, an M1-acetylcholine receptor antagonist with central selectivity, as a potential tool for generating a fast screening model of cognitive impairment, in outbred Wistar rats. METHODS: We used several variants of the Morris water maze task: (1) reversal learning, to assess cognitive flexibility, with probe trials testing memory retention; (2) delayed matching to position (DMP), to evaluate working memory; and (3) "counter-balanced acquisition," to test for possible anomalies in acquisition learning...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676617/a-useful-hand-mnemonic-to-demonstrate-ion-channel-gating
#19
S Mehran Hosseini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#20
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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