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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#1
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329979/how-acute-stress-may-enhance-subsequent-memory-for-threat-stimuli-outside-the-focus-of-attention-dlpfc-amygdala-decoupling
#2
Yu Luo, Guillén Fernández, Erno Hermans, Susanne Vogel, Yu Zhang, Hong Li, Floris Klumpers
Stress-related disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, are characterized by decreased top-down control for distracting information, as well as a memory bias for threatening information. However, it is unclear how acute stress biases mnemonic encoding and leads to prioritized storage of threat-related information even if outside the focus of attention. In the current study, healthy adults (N = 53, all male) were randomly assigned to stress induction using the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) or a control condition...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324551/the-i-pass-mnemonic-and-the-occurrence-of-handoff-related-errors-in-adult-acute-care-hospitals-a-systematic-review-protocol
#3
Brittany Ransom, Karen Winters
What is the effectiveness of the I-PASS mnemonic in reducing handoff related errors during inter- or intrahospital transfers for hospitalized patients?The objective of this systematic review is to identify the impact of the I-PASS mnemonic during hospitalized patient inter- or intrahospital transfers on medication errors, transfer delays, treatment delays and mortality.More specifically, the objective is to identify the effect that the I-PASS mnemonic has on handoff related errors during inter or intrahospital patient transfers by comparing rates pre and post I-PASS implementation...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320183/six-trikentrin-like-cyclopentanoindoles-from-trikentrion-flabbeliforme-absolute-structural-assignment-by-nmr-and-ecd
#4
Mariam N Salib, Tadeusz F Molinski
Six new cyclopenta[g]indoles were isolated from a West Australian sponge, Trikentrion flabbeliforme Hentschel, 1912 and their structures elucidated by integrated spectroscopic analysis. The compounds are analogs of previously described trikentrins, herbindoles and trikentramides from related Axinellid sponges. The assignment of absolute configuration of the new compounds was carried out largely by comparative analysis of specific rotation, calculated and measured ECD and exploiting van't Hoff's principle of optical superposition...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303035/reducing-hospital-readmissions-among-incarcerated-patients
#5
Clarence Cryer
In many health care settings, hospital readmissions represent poor quality and increased costs. The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation includes reduced readmission rates among key performance indicators for the quality of care provided to inmates. More than 25% of the institutions continue to face challenges in minimizing these occurrences. Despite historic deficiencies, the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison at Corcoran reduced 30-day readmissions over a 2-year period...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301107/memory-numbers-and-action-decision-in-human-posterior-parietal-cortex
#6
Josef Parvizi, Anthony D Wagner
Human lateral PPC demonstrates rich, functional heterogeneity across its subregions, including during mnemonic and numerical decision tasks. In this issue of Neuron, Rutishauser et al. (2018) report striking local heterogeneity within a small patch of anterior IPS at the neuronal level during memory-based decisions.
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297387/personalised-fluid-resuscitation-in-the-icu-still-a-fluid-concept
#7
REVIEW
Frank van Haren
The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283042/rethinking-the-role-of-the-angular-gyrus-in-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future-the-contextual-integration-model
#8
Siddharth Ramanan, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
Despite consistent activation on tasks of episodic memory, the precise contribution of the left angular gyrus (AG) to mnemonic functions remains vigorously debated. Mounting evidence suggests that AG activity scales with subjective ratings of vividness and confidence in recollection, with further evidence pointing to its involvement during construction of detailed and coherent future simulations. Lesion studies, however, indicate that damage to the AG does not render patients amnesic on standard source and associative memory paradigms...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280603/a2k-a-comprehensive-and-systematic-approach-to-the-physical-assessment-of-postoperative-patient
#9
Evan Plowman
The physical assessment of postoperative patients is a crucial and potentially lifesaving skill that may be improved with the use of a mnemonic to guide assessment structure.
May 2017: Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279863/combinatorial-inputs-to-the-ventral-striatum-from-the-temporal-cortex-frontal-cortex-and-amygdala-implications-for-segmenting-the-striatum
#10
Eun Young Choi, Song-Lin Ding, Suzanne N Haber
The canonical striatal map, based predominantly on frontal corticostriatal projections, divides the striatum into ventromedial-limbic, central-association, and dorsolateral-motor territories. While this has been a useful heuristic, recent studies indicate that the striatum has a more complex topography when considering converging frontal and nonfrontal inputs from distributed cortical networks. The ventral striatum (VS) in particular is often ascribed a "limbic" role, but it receives diverse information, including motivation and emotion from deep brain structures, cognition from frontal cortex, and polysensory and mnemonic signals from temporal cortex...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277652/transient-synchronization-of-hippocampo-striato-thalamo-cortical-networks-during-sleep-spindle-oscillations-induces-motor-memory-consolidation
#11
Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Arnaud Boré, Julie Carrier, Stuart M Fogel, Julien Doyon
Sleep benefits motor memory consolidation. This mnemonic process is thought to be mediated by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during NREM-stage2 sleep episodes as well as changes in striatal and hippocampal activity. However, direct experimental evidence supporting the contribution of such sleep-dependent physiological mechanisms to motor memory consolidation in humans is lacking. In the present study, we combined EEG and fMRI sleep recordings following practice of a motor sequence learning (MSL) task to determine whether spindle oscillations support sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by transiently synchronizing and coordinating specialized cortical and subcortical networks...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251801/the-role-of-replay-and-theta-sequences-in-mediating-hippocampal-prefrontal-interactions-for-memory-and-cognition
#12
Mark C Zielinski, Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
Sequential activity is seen in the hippocampus during multiple network patterns, prominently as replay activity during both awake and sleep sharp-wave ripples (SWRs), and as theta sequences during active exploration. Although various mnemonic and cognitive functions have been ascribed to these hippocampal sequences, evidence for these proposed functions remains primarily phenomenological. Here, we briefly review current knowledge about replay events and theta sequences in spatial memory tasks. We reason that in order to gain a mechanistic and causal understanding of how these patterns influence memory and cognitive processing, it is important to consider how these sequences influence activity in other regions, and in particular, the prefrontal cortex, which is crucial for memory-guided behavior...
December 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251448/how-helpful-are-mnemonics-in-the-development-of-a-research-question
#13
Helen Sisson
BACKGROUND: The formulation of a research question is a vital first step in the research process and the significance of this is well reported in the literature; a well-structured question increases the outcome of useable findings. To aid the development of a research question, a number of frameworks in the form of mnemonics have been identified. It is suggested that the application of these mnemonics may result in confusion rather than provide helpful guidance. AIM: To present an overview of some of the mnemonically identified frameworks and consider how they may support the development of a research question...
December 18, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243370/neurological-nutritional-and-alcohol-consumption-factors-underlie-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-alcoholism
#14
Rosemary Fama, Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Cheshire Hardcastle, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr
Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al...
December 15, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239625/adaptive-memory-is-there-a-reproduction-processing-effect
#15
Benjamin M Seitz, Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
Like all biological systems, human memory is likely to have been influenced by evolutionary processes, and its abilities have been subjected to selective mechanisms. Consequently, human memory should be primed to better remember information relevant to one's evolutionary fitness. Supporting this view, participants asked to rate words based on their relevance to an imaginary survival situation better recall those words (even the words rated low in relevancy) than the same words rated with respect to non-survival situations...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213515/rehabilitation-in-severe-memory-deficit-a-case-study
#16
Nariana Mattos Figueiredo Sousa
The term amnesia refers to a pathological state of mind in which memory and learning are affected to a greater extent than other cognitive functions in a patient without altered level of consciousness. The aim of the current study was to describe a case of severe amnesia in a patient during neurological rehabilitation and to report the importance of preserved cognitive functions to compensate for the mnemonic deficit. VJA presented a clinical condition suggestive of encephalopathy due to caloric-protein malnutrition following several abdominal surgical procedures for complicated choledocholithiasis...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205291/interactive-effects-of-seizure-frequency-and-lateralization-on-intratemporal-effective-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Hwa-Kyung Chung, A-Reum Jung, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) show brain connectivity changes in association with cognitive impairment. Seizure frequency and lateralization are 2 important clinical factors that characterize epileptic seizures. In this study, we sought to examine an interactive effect of the 2 seizure factors on intratemporal effective connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in patients with TLE. METHODS: For rsfMRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, we applied stochastic dynamical causal modeling to infer effective connectivity between 3 medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions, including the hippocampus (Hipp), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and amygdala (Amyg), ipsilateral to the seizure focus...
December 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198270/contributions-to-understanding-the-neuropsychology-of-alcoholism-an-ins-legacy
#18
Edith V Sullivan
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been a major cause of family, social, and personal strife for centuries, with current prevalence estimates of 14% for 12-month and 29% lifetime AUD. Neuropsychological testing of selective cognitive, sensory, and motor functions complemented with in vivo brain imaging has enabled tracking the consequences of AUD, which follows a dynamic course of development, maintenance, and recovery or relapse. Controlled studies of alcoholism reviewed herein provide evidence for disruption of selective functions involving executive, visuospatial, mnemonic, emotional, and attentional processes, response inhibition, prosody, and postural stability and brain systems supporting these functions...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187172/investing-in-the-use-of-a-checklist-during-differential-diagnoses-consideration-what-s-the-trade-off
#19
Keng Sheng Chew, Jeroen J G van Merrienboer, Steven J Durning
BACKGROUND: A key challenge clinicians face when considering differential diagnoses is whether the patient data have been adequately collected. Insufficient data may inadvertently lead to premature closure of the diagnostic process. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the application of a mnemonic checklist helps to stimulate more patient data collection, thus leading to better diagnostic consideration. METHODS: A total of 88 final year medical students were assigned to either an educational intervention group or a control group in a non-equivalent group post-test only design...
November 29, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186621/is-the-voice-an-auditory-face-an-ale-meta-analysis-comparing-vocal-and-facial-emotion-processing
#20
Annett Schirmer
This meta-analysis compares the brain structures and mechanisms involved in facial and vocal emotion recognition. Neuroimaging studies contrasting emotional with neutral (face: N = 76, voice: N = 34) and explicit with implicit emotion processing (face: N = 27, voice: N = 20) were collected to shed light on stimulus and goal driven mechanisms, respectively. Activation likelihood estimations were conducted on the full data sets for the separate modalities and on reduced, modality-matched data sets for modality comparison...
November 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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