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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321703/executive-functions-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-panic-disorder-patients-in-comparison-to-healty-controls
#1
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313722/normative-data-for-farsi-speaking-iranians-in-the-united-states-on-measures-of-executive-functioning
#2
Justina F Avila, Steven P Verney, Kaitlyn Kauzor, Amina Flowers, Maryam Mehradfar, Jill Razani
As the Farsi-speaking Iranian population continues to grow in the United States, examination of their cognitive performance is an imperative first step to providing this group with culturally competent services. Thirty-six healthy primarily Farsi-speaking Iranian adults completed Farsi-translated and adapted versions of three frequently used measures of executive/subcortical functioning: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Color Trails Test (CTT). Participants' performance on each measure was compared to published normative data resulting in 0-85% of cognitively and medically healthy individuals being classified as impaired depending on the executive/subcortical test score examined, with the highest impairment rates for specific WCST outcome scores...
January 9, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288507/effectiveness-of-executive-function-training-on-mental-set-shifting-working-memory-and-inhibition-in-healthy-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Huei-Ling Chiu, Pi-Tuan Chan, Ching-Chiu Kao, Hsin Chu, Pi-Chen Chang, Shu-Tai Sheen Hsiao, Doresses Liu, Wen-Chi Chang, Kuei-Ru Chou
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of executive function training on mental set shifting, working memory and inhibition for healthy older adults. BACKGROUND: Executive functions control and guide individuals' behaviors through a top-down cognitive model and have been regarded as the exhibition and integration of various high-level cognitive functions. However, prior studies have rarely focused on the subcomponent indicators of executive function, such as mental set shifting, working memory and inhibition in healthy older adults...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259322/hubness-of-strategic-planning-and-sociality-influences-depressive-mood-and-anxiety-in-college-population
#4
Je-Yeon Yun, Yoobin Choi, Yoonhee Kwon, Hwa Young Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Joon Hwan Jang
Depressive mood and anxiety can reduce cognitive performance. Conversely, the presence of a biased cognitive tendency may serve as a trigger for depressive mood-anxiety. Previous studies have largely focused on group-wise correlations between clinical-neurocognitive variables. Using network analyses for intra-individual covariance, we sought to decipher the most influential clinical-neurocognitive hub in the differential severity of depressive-anxiety symptoms in a college population. Ninety college students were evaluated for depressive-anxiety symptoms, Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2(MMPI-2), and neuro-cognition...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246282/impulsiveness-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-glucoregulation-affect-measures-of-behavioral-flexibility
#5
Leigh M Riby, Derek Lai Teik Ong, Nurulnadia Binti Mohamad Azmie, Ee Lyn Ooi, Caroline Regina, Eugene Ki Wai Yeo, Jacqueline Massa, Luca Aquili
Behavioral flexibility (BF) performance is influenced by both psychological and physiological factors. Recent evidence suggests that impulsivity and blood glucose can affect executive function, of which BF is a subdomain. Here, we hypothesized that impulsivity, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glucose changes (ie, glucoregulation) from postprandial blood glucose (PBG) following the intake of a 15-g glucose beverage could account for variability in BF performance. The Stroop Color-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of BF, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) to quantify participants' impulsivity...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236921/intermittent-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-open-label-pilot-study
#6
Caio Abujadi, Paul E Croarkin, Bianca B Bellini, Helena Brentani, Marco A Marcolin
OBJECTIVE: Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) modulates synaptic plasticity more efficiently than standard repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivery and may be a promising modality for neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present there are few effective interventions for prefrontal cortex dysfunction in ASD. We report on an open-label, pilot study of intermittent TBS (iTBS) to target executive function deficits and restricted, repetitive behaviors in male children and adolescents with ASD...
December 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209876/mentalization-deficit-in-bipolar-patients-during-an-acute-depressive-and-manic-episode-association-with-cognitive-functions
#7
Anna Bodnar, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND: A number of studies in bipolar patients have shown a deficit in mentalization (theory of mind), one of the main aspects of social cognition. The aim of current study was to assess both cognitive and affective mentalization in well-defined groups of depressed and manic bipolar patients, compared to healthy control subjects, using a battery of tests measuring mentalization processes. The second aim was to investigate a possible relationship between cognitive and affective mentalization and cognitive functions in bipolar patients during a depressive and manic episode...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192947/-executive-functions-in-frontal-lob-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Özge Metin, Ali Evren Tufan, Nagihan Cevher Binici, Özge Saraçlı, Adnan Atalay, Ayşegül Yolga Tahiroğlu
Prefrontal cortex in frontal lobe (FL) is the center of executive functions (EF). FL damage can lead to executive dysfunction by influencing frontal-subcortical circuits (dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, ventromedial). Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can lead to deterioration in EF, whereas damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can lead to personality changes with the characteristic of disinhibition and irritability. In addition, damage to the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/MPFC) can result in decreased spontaneity...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180957/age-related-brain-activation-changes-during-rule-repetition-in-word-matching
#9
Ikram Methqal, Basile Pinsard, Mahnoush Amiri, Maximiliano A Wilson, Oury Monchi, Jean-Sebastien Provost, Yves Joanette
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the age-related brain activation changes during a word-matching semantic-category-based task, which required either repeating or changing a semantic rule to be applied. In order to do so, a word-semantic rule-based task was adapted from the Wisconsin Sorting Card Test, involving the repeated feedback-driven selection of given pairs of words based on semantic category-based criteria. Method: Forty healthy adults (20 younger and 20 older) performed a word-matching task while undergoing a fMRI scan in which they were required to pair a target word with another word from a group of three words...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174830/influence-of-shift-duration-on-cognitive-performance-of-emergency-physicians-a%C3%A2-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#10
Nicolas Persico, François Maltese, Cécile Ferrigno, Amandine Bablon, Cécile Marmillot, Laurent Papazian, Antoine Roch
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The relationship between tiredness and medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the cognitive performance of emergency physicians after a night shift of 14 hours (H14) and after a work shift of 24 hours (H24) and to compare it with tests performed after a rest night at home (H0). METHODS: Forty emergency physicians (19 staff physicians and 21 residents) were randomly evaluated at H0, H14, and H24. Four cognitive abilities (processing speed, working memory capacity, perceptual reasoning, and cognitive flexibility) were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173201/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
K Allott, D Fraguas, C F Bartholomeusz, C M Díaz-Caneja, C Wannan, E M Parrish, G P Amminger, C Pantelis, C Arango, P D McGorry, M Rapado-Castro
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews suggest there is minimal evidence for an association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and neurocognition. This is based on tallied findings of studies with small samples and neurocognition viewed as a single construct. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between DUP and individual neurocognitive domains and tests in first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHOD: MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines were followed...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163238/impairment-of-working-memory-decision-making-and-executive-function-in-the-first-degree-relatives-of-people-with-panic-disorder-a-pilot-study
#12
Zhenhe Zhou, Dongjie Ni
Background: Panic disorder (PD) patients present impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. However, whether the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of people with PD present abnormal characteristics, including clinical and neuropsychological aspects, in comparison to the general population, has not been studied. Investigation and understanding of the abnormal neuropsychological characteristics of the FDRs of people with PD will contribute to the prevention and treatment of PD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157066/association-between-small-for-gestational-age-and-low-birth-weight-with-attention-deficit-and-impaired-executive-functions-in-3-6-years-old-children
#13
M Shariat, J Gharaee, H Dalili, Y Mohammadzadeh, Sh Ansari, Z Farahani
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are frequently reported among children with history of small body size at birth and disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation. The current study aimed to investigate some factors like executive functions and attention deficit in children with history of Small for gestational age (SGA) and /or Low Birth Weight (LBW) at birth. METHODS: A historical cohort study was done and 3-6 years old preschool children (with past history of SGA/LBW) from some kindergartens and health centers were selected...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156426/theory-of-mind-and-schizophrenia-in-young-and-middle-aged-patients-influence-of-executive-functions
#14
Marta Croca, Aurèlie Lagodka, Remi Gadel, Marie Chantal Bourdel, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphael Gaillard, Jean Pierre Olié, M Champagne-Lavau, Marie Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Theory of Mind (ToM) is compromised in schizophrenia, and responsible for social disability. We aim to study the correlation between ToM deficits and Executive Functions (EF), using the Faux Pas Test (FPT) for ToM evaluation, Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for EF assessment. Two groups of patients with schizophrenia were included: 22 young (18-35 years-old) and 18 middle-aged (>50 years-old) Patients, compared to age-matched Controls. We found worst FPT performances in both groups of patients, but with a more generalized pattern of dysfunction in the middle-aged patient group...
November 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124546/fast-neural-dynamics-of-proactive-cognitive-control-in-a-task-switching-analogue-of-the-wisconsin-card-sorting-test
#15
Gema Díaz-Blancat, Juan García-Prieto, Fernando Maestú, Francisco Barceló
One common assumption has been that prefrontal executive control is mostly required for target detection (Posner and Petersen in Ann Rev Neurosci 13:25-42, 1990). Alternatively, cognitive control has also been related to anticipatory updating of task-set (contextual) information, a view that highlights proactive control processes. Frontoparietal cortical networks contribute to both proactive control and reactive target detection, although their fast dynamics are still largely unexplored. To examine this, we analyzed rapid magnetoencephalographic (MEG) source activations elicited by task cues and target cards in a task-cueing analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
November 9, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108366/neural-correlates-of-childhood-trauma-with-executive-function-in-young-healthy-adults
#16
Shaojia Lu, Fen Pan, Weijia Gao, Zhaoguo Wei, Dandan Wang, Shaohua Hu, Manli Huang, Yi Xu, Lingjiang Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among childhood trauma, executive impairments, and altered resting-state brain function in young healthy adults. Twenty four subjects with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched subjects without childhood trauma were recruited. Executive function was assessed by a series of validated test procedures. Localized brain activity was evaluated by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method and compared between two groups. Areas with altered fALFF were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068571/location-of-the-ischemic-focus-in-rehabilitated-stroke-patients-with-impairment-of-executive-functions
#17
Agnieszka M Jankowska, Robert Klimkiewicz, Anna Kubsik, Paulina Klimkiewicz, Janusz Śmigielski, Marta Woldańska-Okońska
BACKGROUND: Executive dysfunctions are part of the clinical symptoms of a stroke and can inhibit the process of rehabilitation. Patients with impaired executive functions may manifest aggression, impulsiveness, impaired thinking and planning. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the ischemic focus location on the effectiveness of physiotherapy in improving the executive functions in patients after stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients after unilateral ischemic cerebral stroke were studied...
August 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068266/individually-tailored-internet-based-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-older-adults-with-anxiety-and-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Kristin Silfvernagel, Anna Westlinder, Stina Andersson, Kajsa Bergman, Rosario Diaz Hernandez, Line Fallhagen, Ida Lundqvist, Nicole Masri, Linda Viberg, Marie-Louise Forsberg, Maria Lind, Thomas Berger, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson
Mixed anxiety and depression is common among older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of an eight-week-long tailored internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) programme and to compare against the provision of weekly general support. A second aim was to investigate if pre-treatment cognitive flexibility and self-reported cognitive problems would predict outcome. We included 66 older adults (aged over 60 years) with mixed anxiety/depression following media recruitment and randomised them into treatment and control groups...
October 25, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033637/cognitive-functioning-in-euthymic-bipolar-patients-on-monotherapy-with-novel-antipsychotics-or-mood-stabilizers
#19
Vesile Şentürk Cankorur, Hilal Demirel, Cem Atbaşoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is associated with cognitive dysfunction in several domains. Medication effect is a potential confounder that can only be statistically controlled in many studies. The cognitive profile in bipolar disorder during remission on maintenance antipsychotics or mood stabilizers medication has not been compared before. METHODS: We compared the cognitive profile of bipolar disorder patients euthymic for 2 month or more on monotherapy with novel antipsychotics (AP) (n=16), lithium carbonate (Li) (n=25) or valproic acid (VPA; n=26)...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032769/amphetamine-modestly-improves-conners-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-healthy-adults
#20
David A MacQueen, Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young, William Perry
OBJECTIVES: Amphetamine improves vigilance as assessed by continuous performance tests (CPT) in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known, however, regarding amphetamine effects on vigilance in healthy adults. Thus, it remains unclear whether amphetamine produces general enhancement of vigilance or if these effects are constrained to the remediation of deficits in patients with ADHD. METHODS: We tested 69 healthy adults (35 female) on a standardized CPT (Conner's CPT-2) after receiving 10- or 20-mg d-amphetamine or placebo...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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