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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719030/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Shi-Heng Wang, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ling-Ling Yeh, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Tzung-Jeng Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chien, Yi-Ting Lin, Sharon D Chandler, Stephen V Faraone, Nan Laird, Benjamin Neale, Steve A McCarroll, Stephen J Glatt, Ming T Tsuang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Wei J Chen
Both neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia are highly heritable. Genetic overlap between neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia has been observed in both the general population and in clinical samples. This study aimed to examine if the polygenic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia modified neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) were first derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) on schizophrenia, and then the scores were calculated in our independent sample of 1130 schizophrenia trios, who had PsychChip data and were part of the Schizophrenia Families from Taiwan project...
July 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710968/enduring-changes-in-brain-metabolites-and-executive-functioning-in-abstinent-cocaine-users
#2
Candice E Crocker, Scot E Purdon, Christopher C Hanstock, Bonnie Lakusta, Peter Seres, Philip G Tibbo
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data connecting the metabolic and cognitive functioning of abstinent cocaine users. This is a pressing public health concern as approximately 1% of the Canadian population and 0.4% of the global population is estimated to have used cocaine in the past year. METHODS: Our clinical study compared the in vivo neurochemical profiles in the prefrontal cortex to cognitive tests associated with the same region in 21 moderate term abstinent cocaine users (average 187days abstinent, range 15-1432days), and 30 healthy controls using 3T (1)H MRS...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685446/pfc-blood-oxygenation-changes-in-four-different-cognitive-tasks
#3
Tomotaka Takeda, Yoshiaki Kawakami, Michiyo Konno, Yoshiaki Matsuda, Masayasu Nishino, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Yoshiaki Kawano, Kazunori Nakajima, Toshimitsu Ozawa, Yoshihiro Kondo, Kaoru Sakatani
Aging often results in a decline in cognitive function, related to alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation. Maintenance of this function in an aging society is an important issue. Some practices/drills, moderate exercise, mastication, and a cognitive task itself could enhance cognitive function. In this validation study, before evaluating the effects of some drills on the elderly, we examined the neural substrate of blood oxygenation changes by the use of four cognitive tasks and fNIRS. Seven healthy volunteers (mean age 25...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680315/theory-of-mind-and-selective-attention-response-inhibition-cognitive-flexibility-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Altan Eşsizoğlu, Ferdi Köşger, Ferdane Özlem Akarsu, Özer Özaydin, Gülcan Güleç
INTRODUCTION: The aims of the current study are to investigate the relationship between selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility that are among executive functions and sociocognitive and socioperceptual theory of mind (ToM) functions and also to investigate whether selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility are predictive factors for ToM functions in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a control group consisting of 42 individuals were administered demographic information form, Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Stroop test, Eye test, Hinting test...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659771/cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-chronic-neuropathic-or-radicular-pain-an-interaction-of-pain-and-age
#5
Orla Moriarty, Nancy Ruane, David O'Gorman, Chris H Maharaj, Caroline Mitchell, Kiran M Sarma, David P Finn, Brian E McGuire
A growing body of empirical research has confirmed an association between chronic pain and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cognitive function is affected in patients with a diagnosis of chronic neuropathic or radicular pain relative to healthy control participants matched by age, gender, and years of education. We also examined the interaction of pain with age in terms of cognitive performance. Some limitations of previous clinical research investigating the effects of chronic pain on cognitive function include differences in the pain and cognitive scale materials used, and the heterogeneity of patient participants, both in terms of their demographics and pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647493/associations-between-the-dbh-gene-plasma-dopamine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-activity-and-cognitive-measures-in-han-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Zuoli Sun, Yun Ma, Wenbiao Li, Jing He, Jun Li, Xue Yang, Peixian Mao, Joseph F Cubells, Yilang Tang
The dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems modulate cognitive function. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts DA to NE, and its activity is under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of plasma DβH (pDβH) activity, DBH gene polymorphisms (-1021C>T, rs1611115 and 444G>A, rs1108580) and cognitive deficits in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed pDβH activity and cognitive function using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Stroop color-word test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 200 patients with schizophrenia before and after 8weeks of antipsychotic treatment (96 patients completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment)...
June 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638206/effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cigarette-smoking-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Wanli Huang, Fang Shen, Jiangtao Zhang, Baoping Xing
BACKGROUND: The high smoking rate among patients with schizophrenia is an important public health problem, and researchers have been studying how to change the status quo. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of high frequency (10Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the amount of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This study enrolled 37 male patients with schizophrenia who were at a stable stage of treatment...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622557/the-executive-profile-of-children-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Ellen M Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
RATIONALE: Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represent two distinct models of focal epilepsy of childhood. In both, there is evidence of executive dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to identify particular deficits in the executive function that would distinguish children with BECTS from children with TLE. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 19 consecutive children and adolescents with TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (57...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621205/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-psychometric-neurophysiologic-and-radiologic-evaluation
#9
M S Elalfy, R H Aly, H Azzam, K Aboelftouh, R H Shatla, M Tarif, M Abdatty, R M Elsayed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of iron chelating drugs and serum ferritin on the neurocognitive functions of patients with β thalassemia major (β-TM), using psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic tests. METHODS: Eighty children with β-TM were enrolled into the study and were compared to 40 healthy controls. All participants were evaluated by measuring serum ferritin, neurocognitive assessment by Benton Visual Retention Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wisconsin Card Sort Test, P300 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
June 16, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615758/regional-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-and-its-association-with-phenotype-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-autism
#10
B N Anil Kumar, Savita Malhotra, Anish Bhattacharya, Sandeep Grover, Y K Batra
INTRODUCTION: In spite of three decades of neuroimaging, we are unable to find consistent and coherent anatomical or pathophysiological basis for autism as changes are subtle and there are no studies from India. AIM: To study the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in children with autism using positron emission tomography (PET) scan and to study the behavior and cognitive functioning among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten subjects (8-19 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for autism were evaluated on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), trail making test (TMT) A and B, Wisconsin card sorting test, Raven's progressive matrices, and PET scan...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591067/bergamot-polyphenolic-fraction-supplementation-improves-cognitive-functioning-in-schizophrenia-data-from-an-8-week-open-label-pilot-study
#11
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Clemente Cedro, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
BACKGROUND: Novel treatment strategies for cognitive dysfunctions may prevent long-term disability in patients with schizophrenia, and polyphenolic compounds might be a promising strategy. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia), a citrus fruit characterized by a high amount of flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, may represent a potential nutraceutical approach to cognitive dysfunction. The present study was aimed to explore the efficacy of bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) supplementation on cognitive/executive functioning in a sample of patients with schizophrenia receiving second-generation antipsychotics...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576546/d2-d3-dopamine-receptor-binding-with-f-18-fallypride-correlates-of-executive-function-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Nora S Vyas, Monte S Buchsbaum, Douglas S Lehrer, Brian M Merrill, Alex DeCastro, Nicholas A Doninger, Bradley T Christian, Jogeshwar Mukherjee
Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for different tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels with frontal and temporal neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559877/poor-executive-functions-among-children-with-moderate-into-severe-asthma-evidence-from-wcst-performance
#13
Haitham Taha
Executive functions (EFs) measures of 27 asthmatic children, with general learning difficulties, were tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), and were compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children with general learning difficulties. The results revealed that the asthmatic group has poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the perseverative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor EFs could be associated with the learning difficulties of asthmatic children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552783/cognitive-persistence-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-measure-from-the-wisconsin-card-sorting-test
#14
Susan Teubner-Rhodes, Kenneth I Vaden, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has long been used as a neuropsychological assessment of executive function abilities, in particular, cognitive flexibility or "set-shifting". Recent advances in scoring the task have helped to isolate specific WCST performance metrics that index set-shifting abilities and have improved our understanding of how prefrontal and parietal cortex contribute to set-shifting. We present evidence that the ability to overcome task difficulty to achieve a goal, or "cognitive persistence", is another important prefrontal function that is characterized by the WCST and that can be differentiated from efficient set-shifting...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539999/assessment-of-executive-functions-in-methamphetamine-addicted-individuals-emphasis-on-duration-of-addiction-and-abstinence
#15
Majid Farhadian, Malahat Akbarfahimi, Peyman Hassani Abharian, Seyedeh Golaleh Hosseini, Susan Shokri
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have conducted on impairments of executive functions in individuals with methamphetamine addiction; however, only a few have investigated the relationship between executive functions and duration of addiction or abstinence. This study was designed to assess the executive functions in methamphetamine-addicted individuals in relation to the duration of addiction or abstinence. METHODS: A total of 161 subjects aged between 20 and 45 years were categorized into three subgroups: currently abusing (n=41), abstinent (n=60), and control healthy individuals (n=60)...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539952/executive-dysfunction-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-anterior-cingulate-based-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#16
Je-Yeon Yun, Joon Hwan Jang, Wi Hoon Jung, Na Young Shin, Sung Nyun Kim, Jae Yeon Hwang, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunction might be an important determinant for response to pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and could be sustained independently of symptom relief. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been indicated as a potential neural correlate of executive functioning in OCD. The present study examined the brain-executive function relationships in OCD from the ACC-based resting state functional connectivity networks (rs-FCNs), which reflect information processing mechanisms during task performance...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536500/the-impact-of-single-session-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-posterior-superior-temporal-sulcus-on-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Hsing-Chang Ni, June Hung, Chen-Te Wu, Yu-Yu Wu, Chee-Jen Chang, Rou-Shayn Chen, Ying-Zu Huang
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years) completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation) in a randomized order with a 1-week interval...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533147/diversities-of-behavioral-traits-and-neuropsychological-function-in-different-substance-addiction
#18
Hui-Yi Wang, Tzong-Shi Wang, Yi-Chyan Chen
OBJECTIVE: There are various temperaments and personality characters that modulate the development of substance addiction. The pharmacological properties of substances would alter the homeostasis of brain function and influence the neuropsychological performance through different neurotransmissions which then facilitate diverse emotional and behavioral responses. Our goal is to assess the interaction between personality characteristics, neuropsychological performances and Stroop interference in alcoholics, heroin and amphetamine dependent persons...
May 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529366/wisconsin-card-sorting-test-performance-impairment-in-schizophrenia-an-indian-study-report
#19
Shailja Singh, Tapas Kumar Aich, Raju Bhattarai
AIM: The present study attempted to find out the relationship between positive and negative clinical symptoms and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance in a group of schizophrenia patients. METHODOLOGY: Fifty schizophrenia patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) by a trained psychiatrist (TKA) and two groups, each of 25 positive symptom and 25 negative symptom schizophrenia patients were formed. On these fifty patients with schizophrenia and 15 normal control groups, WCST measures were applied by a clinical psychologist (SS) who remained blind to the PANSS score...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494819/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-clustering-and-switching-analyses-in-verbal-fluency-test
#20
Iván Galtier, Antonieta Nieto, Jesús N Lorenzo, José Barroso
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment is common in non-demented Parkinson disease patients (PD-MCI) and is considered as a risk factor for dementia. Executive dysfunction has been widely described in PD and the Verbal Fluency Tests (VFT) are often used for executive function assessment in this pathology. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) published guidelines for PD-MCI diagnosis in 2012. However, no investigation has focused on the qualitative analysis of VFT in PD-MCI. The aim of this work was to study the clustering and switching strategies in VFT in PD-MCI patients...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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