keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

comparative psychology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241289/-radiology-in-the-light-of-evolutionary-cognitive-theory
#1
Paul Gelinsky
An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240907/primary-care-for-refugees-and-newly-arrived-migrants-in-europe-a-qualitative-study-on-health-needs-barriers-and-wishes
#2
Tessa van Loenen, Maria van den Muijsenbergh, Marrigje Hofmeester, Christopher Dowrick, Nadja van Ginneken, Enkeleint Aggelos Mechili, Agapi Angelaki, Dean Ajdukovic, Helena Bakic, Danica Rotar Pavlic, Erika Zelko, Kathryn Hoffmann, Elena Jirovsky, Elisabeth Sophie Mayrhuber, Michel Dückers, Trudy Mooren, Juul Gouweloos-Trines, László Kolozsvári, Imre Rurik, Christos Lionis
Background: In order to provide effective primary care for refugees and to develop interventions tailored to them, we must know their needs. Little is known of the health needs and experiences of recently arrived refugees and other migrants throughout their journey through Europe. We aimed to gain insight into their health needs, barriers in access and wishes regarding primary health care. Methods: In the spring of 2016, we conducted a qualitative, comparative case study in seven EU countries in a centre of first arrival, two transit centres, two intermediate-stay centres and two longer-stay centres using a Participatory Learning and Action research methodology...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240805/poly-victimization-in-a-norwegian-adolescent-population-prevalence-social-and-psychological-profile-and-detrimental-effects
#3
Svein Mossige, Lihong Huang
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). METHODS: Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239648/the-influence-of-reward-quality-and-quantity-and-spatial-proximity-on-the-responses-to-inequity-and-contrast-in-capuchin-monkeys-cebus-sapajus-apella
#4
Catherine F Talbot, Audrey E Parrish, Julia Watzek, Jennifer L Essler, Kelly L Leverett, Annika Paukner, Sarah F Brosnan
Recent evidence within the field of comparative psychology has demonstrated that small differences in procedure may lead to significant differences in outcome. Therefore, failing to fully explore the impact of different contexts on a behavior limits our ability to fully understand that behavior. A behavior that has exhibited substantial variation, both within and across studies, is animals' responses to violations of their expectations, either when expectations were based on another's outcome (inequity) or one's previous outcome (contrast)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238651/management-of-treatment-resistant-panic-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Giampaolo Perna, Daniela Caldirola
Purpose of Review: Purpose of Review Management of treatment-resistant (TR) panic disorder (PD) is an unresolved issue. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of previous findings, an updated (2015-2017) systematic review of pharmacological/non-pharmacological studies, and our personal perspective on this topic. Recent Findings: Recent Findings We found a very limited number of recent findings. Quetiapine extended-release augmentation has not been found to be beneficial, in comparison to placebo, in non-responders to previously recommended pharmacotherapy...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238491/the-effect-of-training-interventions-on-the-psychological-factors-of-oral-health-in-pregnant-women
#6
Katayon Bakhtiar, Kasra Gharouni, Behnam Gharouni, Fereshteh Zamani Alavijeh, Mohammad Almasian, Maryam Bakhtiar, Fatemeh Bastami
Background and aim: Oral health is crucial for high-risk pregnant women in order to preserve their health and the health of their infants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the impact of training programs on the behavior of pregnant mothers concerning oral health in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is an educational experimental study carried out in 2015 on 164 pregnant women referring to health centers in the city of Khorramabad who were randomly divided into two groups (each n=82)...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238421/anchoring-vignettes-in-eq-5d-5l-questionnaire-validation-of-a-new-instrument
#7
Danila Azzolina, Clara Minto, Stefania Boschetto, Matteo Martinato, Barbara Bauce, Sabino Iliceto, Dario Gregori
Background: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an indicator of patient's physical, psychological and social life. HRQoL is influenced by experience, beliefs, perceptions and expectations, and measures subjective perspective of the patient himself. EQ-5D-5L and SF-12 questionnaires are validated instruments useful to measure HRQoL, increasingly administered in electronic formats. Objective: The main purpose is to evaluate the feasibility of anchoring vignettes for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, with the aim to improve intergroup comparability of responses among different subjects...
2017: Open Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238389/the-role-of-physical-activity-on-mood-state-and-functional-skills-of-elderly-women
#8
Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Vinicius Dias Rodrigues, Carlos Campos, Flávia Paes, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Geraldo A Maranhão-Neto, Sergio Machado
Introduction: Ageing is associated with several physical, psychological and behavioral changes. These changes are closely related with global health and functional capacity in the elderly. Mood disturbances are common among the elderly and may significantly increase apathy, resulting in decreased habitual physical activity levels. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the mood state and functional motor capacities of elderly women engaged in a public physical activity program in Brazil and compare them with physically inactive elderly...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238256/the-influence-of-a-pacesetter-on-psychological-responses-and-pacing-behavior-during-a-1600-m-run
#9
Christopher L Fullerton, Andrew M Lane, Tracey J Devonport
This study compared the effects of following a pacer versus following a self-paced plan on psychological responses and pacing behavior in well-trained distance runners. Pacing in the present study was individually tailored where each participant developed a personal strategy to ensure their goal time was achieved. We expected that following a pacer would associate with goal achievement, higher pre-run confidence, positive emotions and lower perceived exertion during performance. In a mixed-design repeated-measures study, nineteen well-trained runners completed two 1600m running time trials...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238177/the-mediating-role-of-psychological-symptoms-on-falls-risk-among-older-adults-with-osteoarthritis
#10
Sumaiyah Mat, Chin Teck Ng, Farhana Fadzil, Faizatul Izza Rozalli, Maw Pin Tan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fear of falling (FoF) and psychological symptoms in explaining the relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) symptom severity and falls. Individuals aged ≥65 years with ≥2 falls or ≥1 injurious fall over the past 12 months were included in the falls group, while volunteers aged ≥65 years with no history of falls over 12 months were recruited as controls. The presence of lower extremity OA was determined radiologically and clinically. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238095/increased-psychological-distress-among-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-is-associated-with-central-neuropathic-pain-rather-than-the-injury-characteristics
#11
Hila Gruener, Gabi Zeilig, Yocheved Laufer, Nava Blumen, Ruth Defrin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is common after spinal cord injury (SCI). The psychological impact of CNP is not clear. Previous studies reported depression and pain catastrophizing among patients with SCI and CNP; however, the lack of control groups prevented discerning whether these were attributed to CNP or to the SCI itself. The aim was to examine the psychological distress among individuals with SCI with and without CNP and controls to evaluate its impact and possible source...
December 14, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237989/the-characteristics-of-non-respondents-and-respondents-of-a-mental-health-survey-among-evacuees-in-a-disaster-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#12
Naoko Horikoshi, Hajime Iwasa, Seiji Yasumura, Masaharu Maeda
The Fukushima Medical University conducted a mental health care program for evacuees after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, the mental health status of non-respondents has not been considered for surveys using questionnaires. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of non-respondents and respondents. The target population of the survey (FY2011-2013) is people living in the nationally designated evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture. Among these, the participants were 967 people (20 years or older)...
December 12, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237848/looking-for-unity-in-diversity-human-cooperative-childcare-in-comparative-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Judith M Burkart, Carel van Schaik, Michael Griesser
Humans engage in cooperative childcare, which includes some elements not found in other animals, such as the presence of post-reproductive helpers, extensive food sharing among adults and a pervasive sexual division of labour. In animals, cooperative offspring care has typically been studied in two different contexts. The first mainly involves helpers contributing care in cooperatively breeding family groups; the second context is allomaternal care in species usually not categorized as cooperative breeders (e...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237196/-young-academics-in-neuropsychological-disciplines-factors-affecting-career-aspiration-in-psychiatry-neurology-and-psychosomatic-medicine
#14
Susanne Lange-Kasch, Janine Wirkner, Richard Kasch, Harald J Freyberger, Steffen Fleßa, Harry Merk, Thomas Klauer
Objective Students with specialization preferences in psychiatry, neurology, or psychosomatic medicine were retrospectively compared with regard to aspects of motivation to choose medicine as their field of study. Methods To identify early predictors of specialization preferences, a nationwide online survey was conducted with 9079 medical students. The statements of those with a preference for neurology, psychiatry, or psychosomatic medicine were evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Prospective neurologists were motivated by scientific interest variables and less by the aspects of life management...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236043/stress-induced-endocrine-and-immune-dysfunctions-in-caregivers-of-people-with-eating-disorders
#15
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caregivers have to cope repeatedly with acute stressors in their daily lives, and this is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system. Such disturbances could contribute to the development of health problems in informal caregivers of people with chronic illnesses, such as eating disorders (EDs). The main objective of this study was to examine endocrine (salivary cortisol levels (Csal)), immune (immunoglobulin-A (IgA)), and psychological (anxiety, mood, and anger feelings) responses to an acute psychological stressor in a sample of informal caregivers of individuals with EDs compared to a sample of non-caregivers...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235701/relation-of-child-caregiver-and-environmental-characteristics-to-childhood-injury-in-an-urban-aboriginal-cohort-in-new-south-wales-australia
#16
Katherine Thurber, Leonie Burgess, Kathleen Falster, Emily Banks, Holger Möller, Rebecca Ivers, Chris Cowell, Vivian Isaac, Deanna Kalucy, Peter Fernando, Cheryl Woodall, Kathleen Clapham
OBJECTIVE: Despite being disproportionately affected by injury, little is known about factors associated with injury in Aboriginal children. We investigated factors associated with injury among urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: We examined characteristics of caregiver-reported child injury, and calculated prevalence ratios of 'ever-injury' by child, family, and environmental factors...
December 13, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235070/predpsych-a-toolbox-for-predictive-machine-learning-based-approach-in-experimental-psychology-research
#17
Atesh Koul, Cristina Becchio, Andrea Cavallo
Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning-based predictive methods for analyzing quantitative behavioral data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible implementation. The aim of current work was to build an open-source R toolbox - "PredPsych" - that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a user-friendly, R toolbox based on machine-learning predictive algorithms...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234424/anxiolytic-effect-of-citrus-aurantium-l-in-crack-users
#18
Gabriel Chaves Neto, João Euclides Fernandes Braga, Mateus Feitosa Alves, Liana Clébia de Morais Pordeus, Sócrates Golzio Dos Santos, Marcus Tullius Scotti, Reinaldo N Almeida, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz
The objective of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of the essential oil (EO) of Citrus aurantium L. in patients experiencing crack withdrawal. This was developed with internal users in therapeutic communities in Paraíba, Brazil. The test population consisted of 51 volunteers, subdivided into three groups. To elicit anxiety, the Simulated Public Speaking (SPS) method was used. Physiological measures were assessed at specific phases during the experiment using appropriate equipment. Psychological measures of anxiety were assessed using the Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (IDATE) and the Analog Smoke Scale (HAS)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233119/psychological-wellbeing-and-physical-activity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-compared-to-healthy-controls
#19
Laura Mählmann, Markus Gerber, Raoul I Furlano, Corinne Legeret, Nadeem Kalak, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report impairments in daily activities, social interactions and coping. Findings regarding psychological functioning are inconsistent, while limited information is available on objectively assessed physical activity (PA). The aims of the present study were therefore to compare anthropometric dimensions, blood values, psychological functioning and PA of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls. METHODS: Forty-seven children and adolescents took part in the study...
December 12, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233097/individualized-support-for-informal-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-effectiveness-of-the-german-adaptation-of-reach-ii
#20
Martin Berwig, Stephanie Heinrich, Jenny Spahlholz, Nina Hallensleben, Elmar Brähler, Hermann-Josef Gertz
BACKGROUND: Individualized, outreach and structured multicomponent interventions are a promising intervention approach to relieve the burden of informal caregivers of people with dementia. In this study, we adapted and evaluated a multicomponent intervention (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II, REACH II), which was developed in the USA, to the German health-care system. Therefore the project is called the German adaptation of REACH II (in German: Deutsche Adaptation der REACH II, DE-REACH)...
December 12, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
keyword
keyword
42847
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"