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comparative psychology

Michael F Regner, Naomi Saenz, Keeran Maharajh, Dorothy J Yamamoto, Brianne Mohl, Korey Wylie, Jason Tregellas, Jody Tanabe
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that compared to healthy controls, long-term abstinent substance dependent individuals (SDI) will differ in their effective connectivity between large-scale brain networks and demonstrate increased directional information from executive control to interoception-, reward-, and habit-related networks. In addition, using graph theory to compare network efficiencies we predicted decreased small-worldness in SDI compared to controls. METHODS: 50 SDI and 50 controls of similar sex and age completed psychological surveys and resting state fMRI...
2016: PloS One
Thanh Tam Tran, Joel Adams-Bedford, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
INTRODUCTION: Injury and psychological distress are public health priorities because of their high occurrence in the population. This study examines the longitudinal effects of injury characteristics on psychological distress. METHODS: Study participants were enrolled distance learning Thai adults (N = 42,785 at 2013 follow-up) residing nationwide. We analysed 2009 and 2013 data. Injury questions included injury prevalence, causes and levels of severity. Distress was measured using the standard Kessler-6...
2016: PloS One
Brian E Lacy, Michael D Crowell, Carole Mathis, David Bauer, Leslie J Heinberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastroparesis (GP) patients suffer from recurrent symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The impact of GP on quality of life (QoL), health care utilization and daily activities is not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Part 1: 398 adult patients (≥18 y) with documented GP (symptoms >6 mo) were surveyed to assess QoL and pain using the Short Form 36 and McGill pain questionnaires. Part 2: 491 adult GP patients were surveyed to evaluate employment status, work and daily activities, medication use, physician visits, diagnostic testing, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations related to their GP symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Sungwoo Lim, Valerie Meausoone, Christina Norman, Carol Quinlan, Cynthia R Driver
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood-level factors such as ethnic densities and social cohesion have been negatively associated with psychological distress among Latino Americans. Yet, existing evidence is based on either specific neighborhood factors or particular Latino subgroups. The objective of the study was to assess difference in psychological distress between each of four Latino subgroups (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Mexicans, other Latinos) and non-Latino white adults in New York City, and quantify total neighborhood-level influence on these differences...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
M Renovanz, A-K Hickmann, J Coburger, K Kohlmann, M Janko, A-K Reuter, N Keric, M Nadji-Ohl, J König, S Singer, A Giese, M Hechtner
Neuro-oncological patients experience high symptom and psychosocial burden. The aim was to test feasibility and practicability of the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form (SCNS-SF34-G) and the SCNS-Screening Tool (SCNS-ST9) to assess supportive care needs of neuro-oncological patients in clinical routine. A total of 173 patients, most with a primary diagnosis of high-grade glioma (81%), were assessed first using SCNS-SF34-G in comparison to two well-established patient-reported outcome measures, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQC30 + QLQ-BN20) and Distress Thermometer (DT)...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Adewumi Adediran, Modu Baba Kagu, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Aliyu Ahmadu Babadoko, Dapus Obadiah Damulak, Sunday Ocheni, Marcus Inyama Asuquo
Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution's research and ethics committee...
2016: Bone Marrow Research
Kiyotaka Yanagihara, Yoshiharu Kinugasa, Kinya Shirota, Yoshiaki Inoue, Hiroshige Ishii, Fumiyo Tsunoda, Masaaki Iwata, Shinobu Sugihara, Shinya Takeda, Masayuki Hirai, Asao Mimura, Masahiko Kato, Kazuhiro Yamamoto
AIMS: Inadequate self-care management is a leading cause of re-hospitalization in patients with heart failure (HF). Psychological factors such as some ego functions interfere with self-care behaviour modification, leading to poor outcomes in patients with several chronic diseases. However, characteristics of ego states in patients with repeated hospitalization for HF remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study enrolled 40 HF outpatients with previous history of HF hospitalization and receiving self-care management...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Gorka Ortego, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Victor Doménech-García, Pedro Berjano, Lucia Bertozzi, Pablo Herrero
PURPOSE: To systematically review and analyze the research evidence linking stress or anxiety to chronic nonspecific neck-arm pain (NSNAP) in adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and The Cochrane library database from their inception to July 2015. Two authors independently conducted the searches, extracted data, and completed methodological quality assessments. The methodological quality of the cohort and case-control studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, whilst the quality of the Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was evaluated using the PEDro scale...
November 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Sonia Johnson, Luke Sheridan Rains, Steven Marwaha, John Strang, Thomas Craig, Tim Weaver, Paul McCrone, Michael King, David Fowler, Stephen Pilling, Louise Marston, Rumana Z Omar, Meghan Craig, Mark Hinton
BACKGROUND: Around 35-45 % of people in contact with services for a first episode of psychosis are using cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with delays in remission, poorer clinical outcomes, significant increases in the risk of relapse, and lower engagement in work or education. While there is a clear need for effective interventions, so far only very limited benefits have been achieved from psychological interventions. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention in which specified desired behavioural change is reinforced through financial rewards...
October 22, 2016: Trials
Aideen Maguire, John Moriarty, Dermot O'Reilly, Mark McCann
PURPOSE: Educational attainment has been shown to be positively associated with mental health and a potential buffer to stressful events. One stressful life event likely to affect everyone in their lifetime is bereavement. This paper assesses the effect of educational attainment on mental health post-bereavement. METHODS: By utilising large administrative datasets, linking Census returns to death records and prescribed medication data, we analysed the bereavement exposure of 208,332 individuals aged 25-74 years...
October 21, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Rodrigo Antonio Rocha da Cruz Adry, Lucas Crociati Meguins, Sebastião Carlos da Silva Júnior, Carlos Umberto Pereira, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho, Lúcia Helena Neves Marques
BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common disease found in an epilepsy surgery series. Early age of onset, a history of febrile convulsions, epileptiform discharges on EEG, duration of epilepsy, number of generalized seizures and severity of psychiatric disorders are possible prognostic factors in patients with MTS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the clinical, semiotic, psychological, electrophysiological and neuroradiological researches and relate their findings to the prognosis of patients with MTS who underwent anteromedial temporal lobectomy (ATL)...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
S C Agasi-Idenburg, M S Y Thong, C J A Punt, M M Stuiver, N K Aaronson
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most frequently reported symptoms in cancer survivors. To be able to optimally treat CRF, knowledge of symptoms that interact with CRF is helpful. During aging, changes occur in body composition with progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes causing a decline of adaptive capacity. Therefore, symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment might coexist in different symptom clusters in older cancer survivors, compared to younger survivors...
October 21, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Hanna F Skjåkødegård, Yngvild S Danielsen, Mette Morken, Sara-Rebekka F Linde, Rachel P Kolko, Katherine N Balantekin, Denise E Wilfley, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the FABO-study is to evaluate the effect of family-based behavioral social facilitation treatment (FBSFT), designed to target children's family and social support networks to enhance weight loss outcomes, compared to the standard treatment (treatment as usual, TAU) given to children and adolescents with obesity in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which families (n = 120) are recruited from the children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) referred to the Obesity Outpatient Clinic (OOC), Haukeland University Hospital, Norway...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Joshua F Wiley, Bei Bei, Julienne E Bower, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) represents cumulative wear-and-tear on the body and is operationalized as a multisystem index of biomarkers. Allostatic load is associated with morbidities and mortality, leading to a growing body of literature that uses AL as an outcome in its own right. Psychosocial resources (PSRs), such as mastery and social support, may influence health outcomes in part via AL, and the current review seeks to characterize the relations between PSRs and AL. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for studies examining the relation between PSR(s) and AL in humans...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Nirbhay N Singh, Giulio E Lancioni, Bryan T Karazsia, Jeffrey Chan, Alan S W Winton
Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Training-as-Usual (TAU) for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Rachel H Farr
Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families)...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Vahideh Lajevardi, Afsaneh Ghayoumi, Robabeh Abedini, Hamed Hosseini, Azadeh Goodarzi, Zahra Akbari, Kosar Hedayat
BACKGROUND: Melasma's high prevalence and profound psychological impact on patients necessitate efficacious, economical, and safe therapeutic interventions. Adjunctive therapies such as tranexamic acid (TA) can enhance the therapeutic effect of standard treatments like hydroquinone 4% cream (HQ). OBJECTIVE: To conduct an assessor- and analyst-blinded, parallel, superiority, randomized controlled trial to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TA plus HQ vs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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