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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346930/enzymes-in-human-milk
#1
David C Dallas, J Bruce German
Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346871/synthesis-in-vitro-evaluation-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-novel-amide-linked-triazolyl-glycoconjugates-as-new-inhibitors-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#2
Shyam Ji Gupta, Samrat Dutta, Rahul L Gajbhiye, Parasuraman Jaisankar, Asish Kumar Sen
A series of N-substituted amide linked triazolyl β-d-glucopyranoside derivatives (4a-l) were synthesized and their in vitro inhibitory activity against yeast α-glucosidase enzyme [EC.3.2.1.20] was assessed. Compounds 4e (IC50=156.06μM), 4f (IC50=147.94μM), 4k (IC50=127.71μM) and 4l (IC50=121.33μM) were identified as the most potent inhibitors for α-glucosidase as compared to acarbose (IC50=130.98μM) under the same in vitro experimental conditions. Kinetic study showed that both 4e and 4f inhibit the enzyme in a competitive manner with p-nitrophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside as substrate...
March 18, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346833/arthroscopic-hip-surgery-in-the-elite-athlete-comparison-of-female-and-male-competitive-athletes
#3
Kotaro R Shibata, Shuichi Matsuda, Marc R Safran
BACKGROUND: Few studies have published the results of hip arthroscopic surgery in elite athletes and none studying a significant number of elite female athletes. PURPOSE: (1) To compare sex-based differences in the ability to return to prior competitive sports activity after arthroscopic hip surgery. (2) To compare sex-based differences in the type of sports activity, diagnosis, and treatment in athletes requiring hip arthroscopic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346789/resolving-ultrafast-photoinduced-deactivations-in-water-solvated-pyrimidine-nucleosides
#4
Ana J Pepino, Javier Segarra-Martí, Artur Nenov, Roberto Improta, Marco Garavelli
For the first time, ultrafast deactivations of photo-excited water-solvated pyrimidine nucleosides are mapped employing hybrid QM(CASPT2)/MM(AMBER) optimizations that account for explicit solvation, sugar effects and dynamically correlated potential energy surfaces. Low energy S1/S0 ring-puckering and ring-opening conical intersections (CIs) are suggested to drive the ballistic coherent sub-ps (<200fs) decays observed in each pyrimidine, the energetics controlling this processes correlating with the lifetimes observed...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346751/d-fructose-modification-enhanced-internalization-of-mixed-micelles-in-breast-cancer-cells-via-glut5-transporters
#5
Xu Zhou, Xianyan Qin, Tao Gong, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Yao Fu
d-Fructose modified poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG-Fru) diblock amphiphile is synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry, which self-assembles with D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) into PCL-PEG-Fru/TPGS mixed micelles (PPF MM). It has been proven that glucose transporter (GLUT)5 is overexpressed in MCF-7 cells other than L929 cells. In this study, PPF MM exhibit a significantly higher uptake efficiency than fructose-free PCL-PEG-N3 /TPGS mixed micelles in both 2D MCF-7 cells and 3D tumor spheroids...
March 27, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346736/loss-of-predator-species-not-intermediate-consumers-triggers-rapid-and-dramatic-extinction-cascades
#6
Ian Donohue, Owen L Petchey, Sonia Kéfi, Alexandre Génin, Andrew L Jackson, Qiang Yang, Nessa E O'Connor
Ecological networks are tightly interconnected, such that loss of a single species can trigger additional species extinctions. Theory predicts that such secondary extinctions are driven primarily by loss of species from intermediate or basal trophic levels. In contrast, most cases of secondary extinctions from natural systems have been attributed to loss of entire top trophic levels. Here, we show that loss of single predator species in isolation can, irrespective of their identity or the presence of other predators, trigger rapid secondary extinction cascades in natural communities far exceeding those generally predicted by theory...
March 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346724/acclimation-of-bloom-forming-and-perennial-seaweeds-to-elevated-pco2-conserved-across-levels-of-environmental-complexity
#7
Dong Xu, C-Elisa Schaum, Fan Lin, Ke Sun, James R Munroe, Xiao W Zhang, Xiao Fan, Lin H Teng, Yi T Wang, Zhi Z Zhuang, Nai H Ye
Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom-forming/non-bloom-forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an in-door mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO2 levels ranging from 400 μatm to 2000 μatm...
March 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346603/residency-program-directors-interview-methods-and-satisfaction-with-resident-selection-across-multiple-specialties
#8
Tonya VanOrder, Wayne Robbins, Eric Zemper
CONTEXT: Competition for postdoctoral training positions is at an all-time high, and residency program directors continue to have little direction when it comes to structuring an effective interview process. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a relationship existed between interview methods used and program director satisfaction with resident selection decisions and whether programs that used methods designed to assess candidate personal characteristics were more satisfied with their decisions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346204/restructuring-the-art-of-health-by-pharmacists-formulation-designs-with-oral-vehicles-teaching-pharmacy-students
#9
Rita Benischek
Compounding pharmacists, responsible for appropriate preparation of medications, coordinate with other professionals to reach optimal therapeutic options for patients. This review summarizes proprietary oral vehicles or suspensions focusing on available information or updated data from suppliers. Research has advanced methods with revised applications, cutting-edge safety considerations, beyond-use dating provisions for technical assistance, and evidence to review and teach pharmacy students the opportunities in the choices of an oral vehicle...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346133/creating-a-climate-that-catalyses-healthcare-innovation-in-the-united-kingdom-learning-lessons-from-international-innovators
#10
Kathrin Cresswell, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. METHODS: We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346095/identification-by-high-throughput-screening-of-pseudomonas-acyl-coenzyme-a-synthetase-inhibitors
#11
Lorenzo Turcano, Daniela Visaggio, Emanuela Frangipani, Antonino Missineo, Matteo Andreini, Sergio Altamura, Paolo Visca, Alberto Bresciani
Pseudomonas infections are common among hospitalized, immunocompromised, and chronic lung disease patients. These infections are recalcitrant to common antibacterial therapies due to inherent antibiotic resistance. To meet the need of new anti- Pseudomonas drugs, a sensitive, homogenous, and robust assay was developed with the aim of identifying inhibitors of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSs) from Pseudomonas. Given the importance of fatty acids for in vivo nutrition of Pseudomonas, such inhibitors might have the potential to reduce the bacterial fitness during infection...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345943/the-role-of-predictability-in-cooperative-and-competitive-joint-action
#12
Scott Glover, Peter Dixon
Predictability may be an important component of cooperative action, or it may arise as a by-product of involuntary entrainment with another's behavior. Further, differences previously observed in cooperative versus competitive actions may represent a fundamental distinction between behaviors with opposite goals, or they may simply reflect the output of different physical actions. The role of predictability in cooperative versus competitive behavior was directly tested using a joint sequential button-pressing task in which Participant 1 (P1) pressed a key followed by P2 pressing a key...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345900/fluorescence-and-radio-labeling-of-lys-4-nle-17-30-hpp-yields-molecular-tools-for-the-npy-y4-receptor
#13
Stefanie Dukorn, Timo Littmann, Max Keller, Kilian Konrad Kuhn, Chiara Cabrele, Paul Baumeister, Günther Bernhardt, Armin Buschauer
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y4 receptor (Y4R) is involved in energy homeostasis and considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of obesity. Only a few molecular tools, i. e., radiolabeled and fluorescent ligands, for the investigation of the Y4R were reported. Previously, [Lys(4)]hPP proved to be an appropriate full-length PP analog to prepare a fluorescent ligand by derivatization at the ε-amino group. To preclude oxidation upon long-term storage, we replaced the two methionine residues in [Lys(4)]hPP by norleucine and prepared the corresponding [(3)H]propionylated ([(3)H]12) and cyanine labeled (13) peptides, which were characterized and compared with a set of reference compounds in binding (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors) and functional (luciferase gene reporter, β-arrestin-1, -2) Y4R assays...
March 27, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345653/temporally-dependent-pollinator-competition-and-facilitation-with-mass-flowering-crops-affects-yield-in-co-blooming-crops
#14
Heather Grab, Eleanor J Blitzer, Bryan Danforth, Greg Loeb, Katja Poveda
One of the greatest challenges in sustainable agricultural production is managing ecosystem services, such as pollination, in ways that maximize crop yields. Most efforts to increase services by wild pollinators focus on management of natural habitats surrounding farms or non-crop habitats within farms. However, mass flowering crops create resource pulses that may be important determinants of pollinator dynamics. Mass bloom attracts pollinators and it is unclear how this affects the pollination and yields of other co-blooming crops...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345584/terahertz-and-mid-infrared-plasmons-in-three-dimensional-nanoporous-graphene
#15
Fausto D'Apuzzo, Alba R Piacenti, Flavio Giorgianni, Marta Autore, Mariangela Cestelli Guidi, Augusto Marcelli, Ulrich Schade, Yoshikazu Ito, Mingwei Chen, Stefano Lupi
Two-dimensional (2D) graphene emerged as an outstanding material for plasmonic and photonic applications due to its charge-density tunability, high electron mobility, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Recently, novel fabrication processes have realised a three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous configuration of high-quality monolayer graphene which provides a third dimension to this material. In this work, we investigate the optical behaviour of nanoporous graphene by means of terahertz and infrared spectroscopy...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345378/probing-the-behavior-of-bovine-serum-albumin-upon-binding-to-atenolol-insights-from-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-approaches
#16
Tuo-Ying Jiang, Kai-Li Zhou, Yan-Yue Lou, Dong-Qi Pan, Jie-Hua Shi
Molecular interaction of atenolol, a selective β1 receptor antagonist with the major carrier protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was investigated under imitated physiological conditions (pH 7.4) by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and molecular modeling studies. The steady-state fluorescence spectra manifested that static type, due to formation of the atenolol-BSA complex, was the dominant mechanism for fluorescence quenching...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345344/unravelling-and-quantifying-the-nmr-invisible-metabolites-interacting-with-human-serum-albumin-by-binding-competition-and-t2-relaxation-based-decomposition-analysis
#17
Ruben Barrilero, Noelia Ramirez, Joan Carles Vallvé, Delia Taverner, Rocío Fuertes, Núria Amigó, Xavier Correig
Quantitative profiling of low-molecular-weight metabolites (LMWM) by 1H-NMR is routinely used in high-throughput serum metabolomics. First, the protein background is attenuated using a T2 filter, then the LMWM signals are resolved by line-shape fitting. However, protein binding modifies the motional properties of LMWM and their signal partially attenuates with the T2 filter, along with the protein background. Consequently, the quantified LMWM signal does not reflect the total concentration in serum but the non-binding part...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345338/study-of-arylamine-substituted-porphyrins-as-hole-transporting-materials-in-high-performance-perovskite-solar-cells
#18
Song Chen, Peng Liu, Yong Hua, Yuanyuan Li, Lars Kloo, Xingzhu Wang, Beng S Ong, Wai-Kwok Wong, Xunjin Zhu
To develop new hole transporting materials (HTMs) for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis{4-[N,N-di(4-methoxylphenyl)amino-phenyl]}- porphyrin has been prepared in gram scale through the direct condensation of pyrrole and 4-[bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]benzaldehyde. Its Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibit excellent thermal and electrochemical stability, specifically, high hole mobility and very favorable energetics for hole extraction that render them a new class of HTMs in organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs)...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345256/physician-competition-in-the-era-of-accountable-care-organizations
#19
Michael R Richards, Catherine T Smith, Amy J Graves, Melinda B Buntin, Matthew J Resnick
OBJECTIVE: To calculate physician concentration levels for all U.S. markets using detailed data on integration and accountable care organization (ACO) participation. DATA SOURCE: 2015 SK&A office-based physician survey linked to all commercial and public payer ACOs. STUDY DESIGN: We construct three separate Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) measures and plot their distributions. We then investigate how prevailing levels of concentration change when incorporating more detailed organizational features into the HHI measure...
March 27, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345200/all-roads-lead-to-weediness-patterns-of-genomic-divergence-reveal-extensive-recurrent-weedy-rice-origins-from-south-asian-oryza
#20
Zhongyun Huang, Nelson D Young, Michael Reagon, Katie E Hyma, Kenneth M Olsen, Yulin Jia, Ana L Caicedo
Weedy rice (Oryza spp.), a weedy relative of cultivated rice (O. sativa), infests and persists in cultivated rice fields worldwide. Many weedy rice populations have evolved similar adaptive traits, considered part of the "agricultural weed syndrome," making this an ideal model to study the genetic basis of parallel evolution. Understanding parallel evolution hinges on accurate knowledge of the genetic background and origins of existing weedy rice groups. Using population structure analyses of South Asian and US weedy rice, we show that weeds in South Asia have highly heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, with ancestry contributions both from cultivated varieties (aus and indica) and wild rice...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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