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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813027/sulfonamide-linked-ciprofloxacin-sulfadiazine-and-amantadine-derivatives-as-a-novel-class-of-inhibitors-of-jack-bean-urease-synthesis-kinetic-mechanism-and-molecular-docking
#1
Pervaiz Ali Channar, Aamer Saeed, Fernando Albericio, Fayaz Ali Larik, Qamar Abbas, Mubashir Hassan, Hussain Raza, Sung-Yum Seo
Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC50 = 0...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812753/cyanide-vs-azide-magnetic-arm-wrestling-mn-ii-nb-iv-and-mn-ii-mo-iv-magnetic-coordination-polymers-with-mixed-bridging
#2
Gabriela Handzlik, Marcin Kozieł, Anna Olejniczak, Barbara Sieklucka, Dawid Pinkowicz
Two magnetic coordination polymers with mixed cyanide-azide bridging based on octacyanoniobate(iv) and octacyanomolybdate(iv) are reported: {(NH4)[(H2O)Mn(II)-(μ-N3)-Mn(II)(H2O)][M(IV)(CN)8]·3H2O}n Mn2MN3 (M = Nb or Mo). Cyanide ligands form the 3-D framework of Mn2MN3, while azide ligands connect two Mn(II) centres together. Both CN(-) and N3(-) are known in magnetochemistry for their marked magnetic coupling abilities which in the case of Mn2NbN3 lead to competitive antiferromagnetic interactions within the Nb(IV)-CN-Mn(II) and Mn(II)-N3-Mn(II) structural motifs...
August 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812740/higher-order-interactions-capture-unexplained-complexity-in-diverse-communities
#3
Margaret M Mayfield, Daniel B Stouffer
Natural communities are well known to be maintained by many complex processes. Despite this, the practical aspects of studying them often require some simplification, such as the widespread assumption that direct, additive competition captures the important details about how interactions between species impact community diversity. More complex non-additive 'higher-order' interactions are assumed to be negligible or absent. Notably, these assumptions are poorly supported and have major consequences for the accuracy with which patterns of natural diversity are modelled and explained...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812721/predicting-evolution
#4
Michael Lässig, Ville Mustonen, Aleksandra M Walczak
The face of evolutionary biology is changing: from reconstructing and analysing the past to predicting future evolutionary processes. Recent developments include prediction of reproducible patterns in parallel evolution experiments, forecasting the future of individual populations using data from their past, and controlled manipulation of evolutionary dynamics. Here we undertake a synthesis of central concepts for evolutionary predictions, based on examples of microbial and viral systems, cancer cell populations, and immune receptor repertoires...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812687/community-structure-follows-simple-assembly-rules-in-microbial-microcosms
#5
Jonathan Friedman, Logan M Higgins, Jeff Gore
Microorganisms typically form diverse communities of interacting species, whose activities have tremendous impact on the plants, animals and humans they associate with. The ability to predict the structure of these complex communities is crucial to understanding and managing them. Here, we propose a simple, qualitative assembly rule that predicts community structure from the outcomes of competitions between small sets of species, and experimentally assess its predictive power using synthetic microbial communities composed of up to eight soil bacterial species...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812653/adaptation-of-phytoplankton-to-a-decade-of-experimental-warming-linked-to-increased-photosynthesis
#6
C-Elisa Schaum, Samuel Barton, Elvire Bestion, Angus Buckling, Bernardo Garcia-Carreras, Paula Lopez, Chris Lowe, Samraat Pawar, Nicholas Smirnoff, Mark Trimmer, Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
Phytoplankton photosynthesis is a critical flux in the carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 40% of the carbon dioxide fixed globally on an annual basis and fuelling the productivity of aquatic food webs. However, rapid evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to warming remain largely unexplored, particularly outside the laboratory, where multiple selection pressures can modify adaptation to environmental change. Here, we use a decade-long experiment in outdoor mesocosms to investigate mechanisms of adaptation to warming (+4 °C above ambient temperature) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in naturally assembled communities...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812643/a-submarine-volcanic-eruption-leads-to-a-novel-microbial-habitat
#7
Roberto Danovaro, Miquel Canals, Michael Tangherlini, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cristina Gambi, Galderic Lastras, David Amblas, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Jaime Frigola, Antoni M Calafat, Rut Pedrosa-Pàmies, Jesus Rivera, Xavier Rayo, Cinzia Corinaldesi
Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812634/optimization-of-lag-phase-shapes-the-evolution-of-a-bacterial-enzyme
#8
Bharat V Adkar, Michael Manhart, Sanchari Bhattacharyya, Jian Tian, Michael Musharbash, Eugene I Shakhnovich
Mutations provide the variation that drives evolution, yet their effects on fitness remain poorly understood. Here we explore how mutations in the essential enzyme adenylate kinase (Adk) of Escherichia coli affect multiple phases of population growth. We introduce a biophysical fitness landscape for these phases, showing how they depend on molecular and cellular properties of Adk. We find that Adk catalytic capacity in the cell (the product of activity and abundance) is the major determinant of mutational fitness effects...
April 28, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812633/diversity-begets-diversity-in-competition-for-space
#9
Daniel S Maynard, Mark A Bradford, Daniel L Lindner, Linda T A van Diepen, Serita D Frey, Jessie A Glaeser, Thomas W Crowther
Competition can profoundly affect biodiversity patterns by determining whether similar species are likely to coexist. When species compete directly for space, competitive ability differences should theoretically promote trait and phylogenetic clustering, provided that niche differences are otherwise minimal. Yet many sessile communities exhibit high biodiversity despite minimal reliance on niche differentiation. A potential explanation is that intransitive competition ('rock-paper-scissors' competition) not only promotes species richness but also fosters coexistence among highly dissimilar species with different competitive strategies...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812626/dispersal-governs-the-reorganization-of-ecological-networks-under-environmental-change
#10
Patrick L Thompson, Andrew Gonzalez
Ecological networks, such as food webs, mutualist webs and host-parasite webs, are reorganizing as species abundances and spatial distributions shift in response to environmental change. Current theoretical expectations for how this reorganization will occur are available for competition or for parts of interaction networks, but these may not extend to more complex networks. Here we use metacommunity theory to develop new expectations for how complex networks will reorganize under environmental change, and show that dispersal is crucial for determining the degree to which networks will retain their composition and structure...
May 8, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812621/erratum-competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812552/competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#12
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
The increasing availability of genotype-phenotype maps for different combinations of mutations has empowered evolutionary biologists with the tools to interrogate the predictability of adaptive evolution, especially in the context of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Large microbial populations are known to generate competing beneficial mutations, but determining how these mutations contribute to the adaptive trajectories that are most likely to be followed remains a challenge. Despite a recognition that there may also be competition between successive alleles on the same trajectory, prior studies have not fully considered how this impacts adaptation rates along, or likelihood of following, individual trajectories...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812449/balancing-performance-based-expectations-with-a-holistic-perspective-on-coaching-a-qualitative-study-of-swedish-women-s-national-football-team-coaches-practice-experiences
#13
Eva-Carin Lindgren, Natalie Barker-Ruchti
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women's national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals. METHOD: To consider coaches' negotiations, we drew on Noddings' concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women's national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of "ethics of care" and the empirical data...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812396/the-influence-of-lower-limb-prostheses-technology-on-paracanoeing-time-trial-performance
#14
Shelley Ellis, Andrew Callaway, Bryce Dyer
Within the Paracanoeing discipline, it is important to ensure that appropriate control is achieved by a paddler with a disability. However, this Paralympic Games discipline has seen very little attention to date. The aims of this study were to understand the kinematic impact to a paracanoeist when not utilizing the use of a prosthetic lower-limb. A kayaker with a uni-lateral transfemoral amputation completed several 200 m maximal efforts both with and without their prosthesis. When the prosthetic limb was removed, there were significant differences found in stroke rate, stroke speed, stroke length and overall power output...
August 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812018/effects-of-fungicides-on-rat-s-neurosteroid-synthetic-enzymes
#15
Xiuwei Shen, Fan Chen, Lanlan Chen, Ying Su, Ping Huang, Ren-Shan Ge
Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors may interfere with nervous system's activity. Fungicides such as tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin have antifungal activities and are used to prevent fungal infections in agricultural plants. In the present study, we studied effects of tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin on rat's neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 (5α-Red1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2). Rat's 5α-Red1, 3α-HSD, and RDH2 were cloned and expressed in COS-1 cells, and effects of these fungicides on them were measured...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811883/effect-of-habitat-degradation-on-competition-carrying-capacity-and-species-assemblage-stability
#16
Edoardo Calizza, Maria Letizia Costantini, Giulio Careddu, Loreto Rossi
Changes in species' trophic niches due to habitat degradation can affect intra- and interspecific competition, with implications for biodiversity persistence. Difficulties of measuring species' interactions in the field limit our comprehension of competition outcomes along disturbance gradients. Thus, information on how habitat degradation can destabilize food webs is scarce, hindering predictions regarding responses of multispecies systems to environmental changes. Seagrass ecosystems are undergoing degradation...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811879/growth-and-fecundity-of-fertile-miscanthus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-giganteus-powercane-compared-to-feral-and-ornamental-miscanthus-sinensis-in-a-common-garden-experiment-implications-for-invasion
#17
Maria N Miriti, Tahir Ibrahim, Destiny Palik, Catherine Bonin, Emily Heaton, Evans Mutegi, Allison A Snow
Perennial grasses are promising candidates for bioenergy crops, but species that can escape cultivation and establish self-sustaining naturalized populations (feral) may have the potential to become invasive. Fertile Miscanthus × giganteus, known as "PowerCane," is a new potential biofuel crop. Its parent species are ornamental, non-native Miscanthus species that establish feral populations and are sometimes invasive in the USA. As a first step toward assessing the potential for "PowerCane" to become invasive, we documented its growth and fecundity relative to one of its parent species (Miscanthus sinensis) in competition with native and invasive grasses in common garden experiments located in Columbus, Ohio and Ames, Iowa, within the targeted range of biofuel cultivation...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811750/availability-of-a-sports-dietitian-may-lead-to-improved-performance-and-recovery-of-ncaa-division-i-baseball-athletes
#18
Michael V Hull, Jonathan Neddo, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver, Mike Greenwood, Margaret T Jones
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to survey dietary habits (DH) and nutrient timing (NT) practices of baseball student-athletes (mean ± SD; 20.7 ± 1.4 yr.) from three NCAA Division I institutions, and examine the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) in regard to nutrition practices. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and Pearson X(2) analyses were run. Responses on 10 DH and 5 NT items differed (p ≤ 0.10) between athletes who sought dietary planning from a SD (n = 36) versus those who consulted a strength and conditioning coach (SCC, n = 42)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811702/precision-medicine-in-need-of-guidance-and-surveillance
#19
EDITORIAL
Jian-Zhen Lin, Jun-Yu Long, An-Qiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Hai-Tao Zhao
Precision medicine, currently a hotspot in mainstream medicine, has been strongly promoted in recent years. With rapid technological development, such as next-generation sequencing, and fierce competition in molecular targeted drug exploitation, precision medicine represents an advance in science and technology; it also fulfills needs in public health care. The clinical translation and application of precision medicine - especially in the prevention and treatment of tumors - is far from satisfactory; however, the aims of precision medicine deserve approval...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811484/sea-of-majorana-fermions-from-pseudo-scalar-superconducting-order-in-three-dimensional-dirac-materials
#20
Morteza Salehi, S A Jafari
We suggest that spin-singlet pseudo-scalar s-wave superconducting pairing creates a two dimensional sea of Majorana fermions on the surface of three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS). This pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter Δ5, in competition with scalar Dirac mass m, leads to a topological phase transition due to band inversion. We find that a perfect Andreev-Klein reflection is guaranteed by presence of anomalous Andreev reflection along with the conventional one. This effect manifests itself in a resonant peak of the differential conductance...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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