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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324014/variation-in-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-in-primates
#1
Peter Rotwein
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a multifunctional peptide that is involved in a wide range of physiological and patho-physiological processes in many animal species, ranging from somatic growth in children to metabolism, and tissue regeneration and repair in adults. The IGF1 gene is under multifactorial regulation in the few species in which it has been studied, with major control being exerted by growth hormone (GH) through a gene expression pathway involving inducible binding of the STAT5b transcription factor to dispersed enhancer elements...
January 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323346/-giving-and-responding-differences-in-gestural-communication-between-nonhuman-great-ape-mothers-and-infants
#2
Christel Schneider, Katja Liebal, Josep Call
In the first comparative analysis of its kind, we investigated gesture behavior and response patterns in 25 captive ape mother-infant dyads (six bonobos, eight chimpanzees, three gorillas, and eight orangutans). We examined (i) how frequently mothers and infants gestured to each other and to other group members; and (ii) to what extent infants and mothers responded to the gestural attempts of others. Our findings confirmed the hypothesis that bonobo mothers were more proactive in their gesturing to their infants than the other species...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#3
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318292/from-play-to-proficiency-the-ontogeny-of-stone-tool-use-in-coastal-foraging-long-tailed-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-from-a-comparative-perception-action-perspective
#4
Amanda W Y Tan
Macaques crack shellfish in coastal environments with specialized stone-hammering techniques. I provide the first examination of skill development from 866 object-manipulation and 7,400 tool-use bouts, collected over 15 months, using longitudinal analyses of infants' object manipulation (N = 7) and cross-sectional comparisons of manipulative and tool-use behavior (N = 69). I adopt a Perception-action approach, examining how the emergence of actions on objects relate to the spatial-relational and percussive challenges of tool use...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317555/the-cervical-spine-of-australopithecus-sediba
#5
Marc R Meyer, Scott A Williams, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#6
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297184/the-human-pelvis-variation-in-structure-and-function-during-gait
#7
Cara L Lewis, Natalie M Laudicina, Anne Khuu, Kari L Loverro
The shift to habitual bipedalism 4-6 million years ago in the hominin lineage created a morphologically and functionally different human pelvis compared to our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. Evolutionary changes to the shape of the pelvis were necessary for the transition to habitual bipedalism in humans. These changes in the bony anatomy resulted in an altered role of muscle function, influencing bipedal gait. Additionally, there are normal sex-specific variations in the pelvis as well as abnormal variations in the acetabulum...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297174/development-of-modular-organization-in-the-chimpanzee-pelvis
#8
Alik Huseynov, Marcia S Ponce de León, Christoph P E Zollikofer
The bony pelvis of primates is a composite structure serving a variety of functions, and exhibiting a complex pattern of modularity and integration. Still little is known, however, about how patterns of modularity and integration arise, and how they change throughout ontogeny. Here we study the ontogeny of modularity and integration in developmental and functional units of the pelvis of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. We use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to quantify pelvic shape change from late fetal stages to adulthood, and to track changes in patterns of covariation within and among pelvic regions...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293756/the-40th-anniversary-of-the-ai-project-the-commemorative-gift-is-a-silk-scarf-painted-by-ai-the-chimpanzee
#9
EDITORIAL
Tetsuro Matsuzawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287121/tool-use-for-corpse-cleaning-in-chimpanzees
#10
Edwin J C van Leeuwen, Katherine A Cronin, Daniel B M Haun
For the first time, chimpanzees have been observed using tools to clean the corpse of a deceased group member. A female chimpanzee sat down at the dead body of a young male, selected a firm stem of grass, and started to intently remove debris from his teeth. This report contributes novel behaviour to the chimpanzee's ethogram, and highlights how crucial information for reconstructing the evolutionary origins of human mortuary practices may be missed by refraining from developing adequate observation techniques to capture non-human animals' death responses...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280584/skin-temperature-changes-in-wild-chimpanzees-upon-hearing-vocalizations-of-conspecifics
#11
Guillaume Dezecache, Klaus Zuberbühler, Marina Davila-Ross, Christoph D Dahl
A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a significant temperature decrease over the nose after exposure to conspecifics' vocalizations, whereas we found a corresponding increase for ear temperature...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280546/chimpanzees-breed-with-genetically-dissimilar-mates
#12
Kara K Walker, Rebecca S Rudicell, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Emily Wroblewski, Anne E Pusey
Inbreeding adversely affects fitness, whereas heterozygosity often augments it. Therefore, mechanisms to avoid inbreeding and increase genetic distance between mates should be advantageous in species where adult relatives reside together. Here we investigate mate choice for genetic dissimilarity in chimpanzees, a species in which many females avoid inbreeding through dispersal, but where promiscuous mating and sexual coercion can limit choice when related adults reside together. We take advantage of incomplete female dispersal in Gombe National Park, Tanzania to compare mate choice for genetic dissimilarity among immigrant and natal females in two communities using pairwise relatedness measures in 135 genotyped chimpanzees...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279731/precuneus-proportions-and-cortical-folding-a-morphometric-evaluation-on-a-racially-diverse-human-sample
#13
Emiliano Bruner, Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Xu Chen, James K Rilling
Recent analyses have suggested that the size and proportions of the precuneus are remarkably variable among adult humans, representing a major source of geometrical difference in midsagittal brain morphology. The same area also represents the main midsagittal brain difference between humans and chimpanzees, being more expanded in our species. Enlargement of the upper parietal surface is a specific feature of Homo sapiens, when compared with other fossil hominids, suggesting the involvement of these cortical areas in recent modern human evolution...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277549/the-final-oral-ebola-vaccine-trial-on-captive-chimpanzees
#14
Peter D Walsh, Drishya Kurup, Dana L Hasselschwert, Christoph Wirblich, Jason E Goetzmann, Matthias J Schnell
Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275093/immune-protection-against-reinfection-with-nonprimate-hepacivirus
#15
Stephanie Pfaender, Stephanie Walter, Elena Grabski, Daniel Todt, Janina Bruening, Inés Romero-Brey, Theresa Gather, Richard J P Brown, Kerstin Hahn, Christina Puff, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Florian Hansmann, Alexander Postel, Paul Becher, Volker Thiel, Ulrich Kalinke, Bettina Wagner, Ralf Bartenschlager, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Karsten Feige, Thomas Pietschmann, Jessika M V Cavalleri, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays a restricted host species tropism and only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible to infection. A robust immunocompetent animal model is still lacking, hampering mechanistic analysis of virus pathogenesis, immune control, and prophylactic vaccine development. The closest homolog of HCV is the equine nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV), which shares similar features with HCV and thus represents an animal model to study hepacivirus infections in their natural hosts. We aimed to dissect equine immune responses after experimental NPHV infection and conducted challenge experiments to investigate immune protection against secondary NPHV infections...
March 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272409/reward-type-and-behavioural-patterns-predict-dogs-success-in-a-delay-of-gratification-paradigm
#16
Désirée Brucks, Matteo Soliani, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Inhibiting an immediate behaviour in favour of an alternative but more advantageous behaviour has been linked to individual success in life, especially in humans. Dogs, which have been living in the human environment for thousands of years, are exposed to daily situations that require inhibition different in context from other non-domesticated species. One task regularly used to study inhibitory control is the delay of gratification task, which requires individuals to choose between an immediate option of lower value and a delayed option of higher value...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267880/an-empirical-evaluation-of-camera-trapping-and-spatially-explicit-capture-recapture-models-for-estimating-chimpanzee-density
#17
Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner, Eric J Howe, Pierre Drapeau, Hjalmar S Kühl
Empirical validations of survey methods for estimating animal densities are rare, despite the fact that only an application to a population of known density can demonstrate their reliability under field conditions and constraints. Here, we present a field validation of camera trapping in combination with spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for enumerating chimpanzee populations. We used 83 camera traps to sample a habituated community of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known community and territory size in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and estimated community size and density using spatially explicit capture-recapture models...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266565/preclinical-evaluation-of-multi-antigenic-hcv-dna-vaccine-for-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Hyojin Lee, Moonsup Jeong, Jooyeon Oh, Youngran Cho, Xuefei Shen, John Stone, Jian Yan, Zachary Rothkopf, Amir S Khan, Byung Mun Cho, Young K Park, David B Weiner, Woo-Chan Son, Joel N Maslow
Direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is costly and does not protect from re-infection. For human and chimpanzees, recovery from acute HCV infection correlates with host CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. DNA plasmids targeting the HCV non-structural antigens NS3, NS4, and NS5, were previously reported to induce robust and sustained T cell responses in mice and primates. These plasmids were combined with a plasmid encoding cytokine IL-28B, together named as VGX-6150. The dose-dependent T cell response and safety of VGX-6150 administered intramuscularly and followed by electroporation was assessed in mice...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265767/the-y-chromosomes-of-the-great-apes
#19
REVIEW
Pille Hallast, Mark A Jobling
The great apes (orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and humans) descended from a common ancestor around 13 million years ago, and since then their sex chromosomes have followed very different evolutionary paths. While great-ape X chromosomes are highly conserved, their Y chromosomes, reflecting the general lability and degeneration of this male-specific part of the genome since its early mammalian origin, have evolved rapidly both between and within species. Understanding great-ape Y chromosome structure, gene content and diversity would provide a valuable evolutionary context for the human Y, and would also illuminate sex-biased behaviours, and the effects of the evolutionary pressures exerted by different mating strategies on this male-specific part of the genome...
March 6, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265118/risk-alleles-of-genes-with-monoallelic-expression-are-enriched-in-gain-of-function-variants-and-depleted-in-loss-of-function-variants-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#20
V Savova, S Vinogradova, D Pruss, A A Gimelbrant, L A Weiss
Over 3000 human genes can be expressed from a single allele in one cell, and from the other allele-or both-in neighboring cells. Little is known about the consequences of this epigenetic phenomenon, monoallelic expression (MAE). We hypothesized that MAE increases expression variability, with a potential impact on human disease. Here, we use a chromatin signature to infer MAE for genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines and human fetal brain tissue. We confirm that across clones MAE status correlates with expression level, and that in human tissue data sets, MAE genes show increased expression variability...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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