keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

chimpanzee

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772028/randomized-phase-i-trial-hiv-core-003-depletion-of-serum-amyloid-p-component-and-immunogenicity-of-dna-vaccination-against-hiv-1
#1
Nicola J Borthwick, Thirusha Lane, Nathifa Moyo, Alison Crook, Jung Min Shim, Ian Baines, Edmund G Wee, Philip N Hawkins, Julian D Gillmore, Tomáš Hanke, Mark B Pepys
BACKGROUND: The failure of DNA vaccination in humans, in contrast to its efficacy in some species, is unexplained. Observational and interventional experimental evidence suggests that DNA immunogenicity may be prevented by binding of human serum amyloid P component (SAP). SAP is the single normal DNA binding protein in human plasma. The drug (R)-1-[6-[(R)-2-carboxypyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (CPHPC, miridesap), developed for treatment of systemic amyloidosis and Alzheimer's disease, depletes circulating SAP by 95-99%...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#2
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756650/stillbirth-rates-across-three-ape-species-in-accredited-american-zoos
#3
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754743/the-effect-of-ontogeny-on-estimates-of-knm-wt-15000-s-adult-body-size
#4
Deborah L Cunningham, Ronda R Graves, Daniel J Wescott, Robert C McCarthy
The Homo erectus specimen KNM-WT 15000 has played a critical role in our understanding of body size evolution. New interpretations suggest that KNM-WT 15000 had a younger age-at-death and a more rapid ontogenetic trajectory than previously suggested. Recent fossil discoveries and new interpretations suggest a wide range of body size and shape variation in H. erectus. Based on these new insights, we argue that KNM-WT 15000's adult stature and body mass could have been much smaller than has been traditionally presented in the literature...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739891/quantitative-assessment-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-humans-relative-to-nonhuman-primates
#5
Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser, Todd M Preuss, James K Rilling, David C Van Essen
Humans have the largest cerebral cortex among primates. The question of whether association cortex, particularly prefrontal cortex (PFC), is disproportionately larger in humans compared with nonhuman primates is controversial: Some studies report that human PFC is relatively larger, whereas others report a more uniform PFC scaling. We address this controversy using MRI-derived cortical surfaces of many individual humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. We present two parcellation-based PFC delineations based on cytoarchitecture and function and show that a previously used morphological surrogate (cortex anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum) substantially underestimates PFC extent, especially in humans...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737530/neuromandibular-integration-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-implications-for-dental-and-mandibular-reduction-in-homo
#6
Alessio Veneziano, Carlo Meloro, Joel D Irish, Chris Stringer, Antonio Profico, Isabelle De Groote
OBJECTIVES: Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728620/author-correction-potential-damaging-mutation-in-lrp5-from-genome-sequencing-of-the-first-reported-chimpanzee-with-the-chiari-malformation
#7
Manuel Solis-Moruno, Marc de Manuel, Jessica Hernandez-Rodriguez, Claudia Fontsere, Alba Gomara-Castaño, Cristina Valsera-Naranjo, Dietmar Crailsheim, Arcadi Navarro, Miquel Llorente, Laura Riera, Olga Feliu-Olleta, Tomas Marques-Bonet
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#8
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721698/intuitive-optics-what-great-apes-infer-from-mirrors-and-shadows
#9
Christoph J Völter, Josep Call
There is ongoing debate about the extent to which nonhuman animals, like humans, can go beyond first-order perceptual information to abstract structural information from their environment. To provide more empirical evidence regarding this question, we examined what type of information great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans) gain from optical effects such as shadows and mirror images. In an initial experiment, we investigated whether apes would use mirror images and shadows to locate hidden food. We found that all examined ape species used these cues to find the food...
May 2, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720670/first-anatomical-network-analysis-of-fore-and-hindlimb-musculoskeletal-modularity-in-bonobos-common-chimpanzees-and-humans
#10
Rui Diogo, Julia L Molnar, Campbell Rolian, Borja Esteve-Altava
Studies of morphological integration and modularity, and of anatomical complexity in human evolution typically focus on skeletal tissues. Here we provide the first network analysis of the musculoskeletal anatomy of both the fore- and hindlimbs of the two species of chimpanzee and humans. Contra long-accepted ideas, network analysis reveals that the hindlimb displays a pattern opposite to that of the forelimb: Pan big toe is typically seen as more independently mobile, but humans are actually the ones that have a separate module exclusively related to its movements...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707637/guns-germs-and-trees-determine-density-and-distribution-of-gorillas-and-chimpanzees-in-western-equatorial-africa
#11
Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, Elizabeth A Williamson, Stephen Blake, Emma J Stokes, Rostand Aba'a, Gaspard Abitsi, Anthony Agbor, Ruffin D Ambahe, Parfait C Bakabana, Martha Bechem, Antoine Berlemont, Bruno Bokoto de Semboli, Patrick R Boundja, Nicolas Bout, Thomas Breuer, Genevieve Campbell, Pauwel De Wachter, Marc Ella Akou, Fidel Esono Mba, Anna T C Feistner, Bernard Fosso, Roger Fotso, David Greer, Clement Inkamba-Nkulu, Calixte F Iyenguet, Kathryn J Jeffery, Max Kokangoye, Hjalmar S Kühl, Stephanie Latour, Bola Madzoke, Calixte Makoumbou, Guy-Aimé F Malanda, Richard Malonga, Victor Mbolo, David B Morgan, Prosper Motsaba, Gabin Moukala, Brice S Mowawa, Mizuki Murai, Christian Ndzai, Tomoaki Nishihara, Zacharie Nzooh, Lilian Pintea, Amy Pokempner, Hugo J Rainey, Tim Rayden, Heidi Ruffler, Crickette M Sanz, Angelique Todd, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Ashley Vosper, Ymke Warren, David S Wilkie
We present a range-wide assessment of sympatric western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and central chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes using the largest survey data set ever assembled for these taxa: 59 sites in five countries surveyed between 2003 and 2013, totaling 61,000 person-days of fieldwork. We used spatial modeling to investigate major drivers of great ape distribution and population trends. We predicted density across each taxon's geographic range, allowing us to estimate overall abundance: 361,900 gorillas and 128,700 chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa-substantially higher than previous estimates...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704094/fake-snakes-uncover-chimpanzees-mind-reading-ability
#12
Satoshi Hirata
Crockford et al. (2017, Science Advances, 3(11), e1701742) conducted experimental studies in the wild in Africa to investigate the ability of chimpanzees to understand the mental states of other conspecific individuals. Their findings suggest that chimpanzees understand whether or not other individuals are aware of dangers, and they behave differently according to their understanding about the mental states of other individuals.
April 27, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695243/complex-evolution-of-the-gstm-gene-family-involves-sharing-of-gstm1-deletion-polymorphism-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#13
M Saitou, Y Satta, O Gokcumen, T Ishida
BACKGROUND: The common deletion of the glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) gene in humans has been shown to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism and associated with bladder cancer. However, the evolution of this deletion has not been investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we conducted comparative analyses of primate genomes. We demonstrated that the GSTM gene family has evolved through multiple structural variations, involving gene duplications, losses, large inversions and gene conversions...
April 25, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694358/the-goal-of-ape-pointing
#14
Marta Halina, Katja Liebal, Michael Tomasello
Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their interactions with humans. However, the precise function of this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We investigated these two possibilities here by examining how the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685793/correlates-of-protection-against-siv-mac251-infection-in-rhesus-macaques-immunized-with-chimpanzee-derived-adenovirus-vectors
#15
Steven Tuyishime, Larissa H Haut, Raj K Kurupati, James M Billingsley, Diane Carnathan, Sailaja Gangahara, Tiffany M Styles, ZhiQuan Xiang, Yan Li, Malte Zopfs, Qin Liu, XiangYang Zhou, Mark G Lewis, Rama R Amara, Steven Bosinger, Guido Silvestri, Hildegund C J Ertl
We report on prime-boost vaccine regimens with two simian adenovirus (Ad) vectors (SAdV) or two human serotype Ad vectors (HAdV) expressing Gag and gp160 of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 tested in HAdV-seropositive rhesus macaques (RMs) repeatedly challenged rectally with low doses of SIVmac251. Both vaccine regimens reduced set point and peak viral loads (PVL) and accelerated viral clearance. In SAdV-vaccinated controller genotype RMs resistance against infection correlated with levels of envelope (Env)-specific antibody (Ab) titers...
March 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685749/the-costs-of-living-at-the-edge-seasonal-stress-in-wild-savanna-dwelling-chimpanzees
#16
Erin G Wessling, Hjalmar S Kühl, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner, Jill D Pruetz
Adaptations associated with shifting from a predominately forested habitat to a more open environment are considered a crucial step in hominin evolution. Understanding how chimpanzees, one of our closest-living relatives, are exposed to the selection pressures associated with living in a relatively sparse, hot, and dry environment can inform us about the relative importance of potential environmental stressors involved in adaptations to drier environments. We investigated the extent to which chimpanzees living in an extreme savanna habitat experience seasonal variability in either energy balance or thermoregulation (dehydration and heat exposure), as well as whether these potential environmental constraints are taxing to chimpanzee individuals...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681126/structural-and-molecular-study-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-modern-humans-homo-sapiens-and-common-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#17
J M Potau, A Casado, M de Diego, N Ciurana, J Arias-Martorell, G Bello-Hellegouarch, M Barbosa, F J de Paz, J F Pastor, A Pérez-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675871/an-evaluation-of-video-cameras-for-collecting-observational-data-on-sanctuary-housed-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#18
Bethany K Hansen, Amy L Fultz, Lydia M Hopper, Stephen R Ross
Video cameras are increasingly being used to monitor captive animals in zoo, laboratory, and agricultural settings. This technology may also be useful in sanctuaries with large and/or complex enclosures. However, the cost of camera equipment and a lack of formal evaluations regarding the use of cameras in sanctuary settings make it challenging for facilities to decide whether and how to implement this technology. To address this, we evaluated the feasibility of using a video camera system to monitor chimpanzees at Chimp Haven...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672586/selection-on-the-regulation-of-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#19
Kang Seon Lee, Paramita Chatterjee, Eun-Young Choi, Min Kyung Sung, Jaeho Oh, Hyejung Won, Seong-Min Park, Youn-Jae Kim, Soojin V Yi, Jung Kyoon Choi
Adrenergic α2C receptor (ADRA2C) is an inhibitory modulator of the sympathetic nervous system. Knockout mice for this gene show physiological and behavioural alterations that are associated with the fight-or-flight response. There is evidence of positive selection on the regulation of this gene during chicken domestication. Here, we find that the neuronal expression of ADRA2C is lower in human and chimpanzee than in other primates. On the basis of three-dimensional chromatin structure, we identified a cis-regulatory region whose DNA sequences have been significantly accelerated in human and chimpanzee...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671394/higher-order-partial-least-squares-for-predicting-gene-expression-levels-from-chromatin-states
#20
Shiquan Sun, Xifang Sun, Yan Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extensive studies have shown that gene expression levels are strongly affected by chromatin mark combinations via at least two mechanisms, i.e., activation or repression. But their combinatorial patterns are still unclear. To further understand the relationship between histone modifications and gene expression levels, here in this paper, we introduce a purely geometric higher-order representation, tensor (also called multidimensional array), which might borrow more unknown interactions in chromatin states to predicting gene expression levels...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
keyword
keyword
42845
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"