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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941620/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-heterologous-prime-boost-immunization-with-viral-vectored-malaria-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-matrix-m%C3%A2
#1
Navin Venkatraman, Nicholas Anagnostou, Carly Bliss, Georgina Bowyer, Danny Wright, Karin Lövgren-Bengtsson, Rachel Roberts, Ian Poulton, Alison Lawrie, Katie Ewer, Adrian V S Hill
The use of viral vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens to induce potent T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity is a promising vaccination strategy in the fight against malaria. We conducted an open-label, first-in-human, controlled Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Matrix-M adjuvanted vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63) prime followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost eight weeks later, both encoding the malaria ME-TRAP antigenic sequence (a multiple epitope string fused to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein)...
September 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937342/do-chimeras-have-minds
#2
Benjamin Capps
Suppose that a colleague proposed a fantastic experiment: to introduce human stem cells into a neonatal mouse so that its entire brain developed into "human-like" neuronal structures. The colleague claimed it would still be a mouse, and that its chimeric brain would be nothing like a "human" one. It would not, as a result, have a moral status beyond its nonhuman animal origins. Thus, the "human neuron mouse" would allow scientists to tinker with human-like neurology in ways that would be precluded if it were a human being, and that would promise to lead to substantial understanding of the destructive and incurable brain diseases that befall humanity...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934219/low-antibody-prevalence-against-bacillus-cereus-biovar-anthracis-in-ta%C3%A3-national-park-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-indicates-high-rate-of-lethal-infections-in-wildlife
#3
Fee Zimmermann, Susanne M Köhler, Kathrin Nowak, Susann Dupke, Anne Barduhn, Ariane Düx, Alexander Lang, Hélène M De Nys, Jan F Gogarten, Roland Grunow, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Roman M Wittig, Silke R Klee, Fabian H Leendertz
Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) is a member of the B. cereus group which carries both B. anthracis virulence plasmids, causes anthrax-like disease in various wildlife species and was described in several sub-Saharan African rainforests. Long-term monitoring of carcasses in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, revealed continuous wildlife mortality due to Bcbva in a broad range of mammalian species. While non-lethal anthrax infections in wildlife have been described for B. anthracis, nothing is known about the odds of survival following an anthrax infection caused by Bcbva...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920777/heart-rate-and-indirect-blood-pressure-responses-to-four-different-field-anesthetic-protocols-in-wild-born-captive-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#4
Rebeca Atencia, Eric J Stöhr, Aimee L Drane, Mike Stembridge, Glyn Howatson, Pablo Rodriguez Lopez Del Rio, Yedra Feltrer, Babila Tafon, Sharon Redrobe, Bruce Peck, Jaclyn Eng, Steve Unwin, Carlos R Sanchez, Rob E Shave
Limited data are available on hemodynamic responses to anesthetic protocols in wild-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Accordingly, this study characterized the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses to four anesthetic protocols in 176 clinically healthy, wild-born chimpanzees undergoing routine health assessments. Animals were anesthetized with medetomidine-ketamine (MK) (n = 101), tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (n = 30), tiletamine-zolazepam-medetomidine (TZM) (n = 24), or medetomidine-ketamine (maintained with isoflurane) (MKI) (n = 21)...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919002/x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-in-a-chimpanzee-due-to-an-abcd1-mutation-reported-in-multiple-unrelated-humans
#5
Julian Curiel, Steven Jeffrey Steinberg, Sarah Bright, Ann Snowden, Ann B Moser, Florian Eichler, Holly A Dubbs, Joseph G Hacia, John J Ely, Jocelyn Bezner, Alisa Gean, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder leading to the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 mutations lead to a variety of phenotypes, including cerebral X-ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in affected males and 80% of carrier females. There is no definite genotype-phenotype correlation with intrafamilial variability. Cerebral X-ALD typically presents in childhood, but can also present in juveniles and adults...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903821/age-and-sex-associated-differences-in-phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#6
Pramod N Nehete, Elizabeth R Magden, Bharti P Nehete, Lawrence E Williams, Christian R Abee, K Jagannadha Sastry
Chimpanzees are the closest phylogenetic relatives to humans, sharing more than 98% genetic sequence identity. These genetic similarities prompted the belief that chimpanzees can serve as an ideal model for human disease conditions and vaccine development. However, in light of the recent NIH decision to phase out biomedical research in chimpanzees and retire NIH-supported chimpanzees, data from the present study will continue to provide value for the care of aged and sick chimpanzees located in zoos, sanctuaries, and primate centers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888720/aged-chimpanzees-exhibit-pathologic-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Melissa K Edler, Chet C Sherwood, Richard S Meindl, William D Hopkins, John J Ely, Joseph M Erwin, Elliott J Mufson, Patrick R Hof, Mary Ann Raghanti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a uniquely human brain disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) into extracellular plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) made from intracellular, abnormally phosphorylated tau, and selective neuronal loss. We analyzed a large group of aged chimpanzees (n = 20, age 37-62 years) for evidence of Aβ and tau lesions in brain regions affected by AD in humans. Aβ was observed in plaques and blood vessels, and tau lesions were found in the form of pretangles, NFT, and tau-immunoreactive neuritic clusters...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883523/information-seeking-about-tool-properties-in-great-apes
#8
Manuel Bohn, Matthias Allritz, Josep Call, Christoph J Völter
Evidence suggests that great apes engage in metacognitive information seeking for food items. To support the claim that a domain-general cognitive process underlies ape metacognition one needs to show that selective information seeking extends to non-food items. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) either had to determine the location of a desired food item or a property of a non-food item (length of a tool). We manipulated whether subjects received prior information about the item's location or property...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882580/lotus-birth-a-holistic-approach-on-physiological-cord-clamping
#9
Laura A Zinsser
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been extensively researched. DCC means: waiting at least one minute after birth before clamping and cutting the cord or till the pulsation has stopped. With physiological clamping and cutting (PCC) the clamping and cutting can happen at the earliest after the pulsation has stopped. With a Lotus birth, no clamping and cutting of the cord is done. A woman called Clair Lotus Day imitated the holistic approach of PCC from an anthropoid ape in 1974...
September 4, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878955/chimpanzees-recognize-their-own-delayed-self-image
#10
Satoshi Hirata, Kohki Fuwa, Masako Myowa
Unlike mirror self-recognition, recognizing one's own image in delayed video footage may indicate the presence of a concept of self that extends across time and space. While humans typically show this ability around 4 years of age, it is unknown whether this capacity is found in non-human animals. In this study, chimpanzees performed a modified version of the mark test to investigate whether chimpanzees could remove stickers placed on the face and head while watching live and delayed video images. The results showed that three of five chimpanzees consistently removed the mark in delayed-viewing conditions, while they removed the stickers much less frequently in control video conditions which lacked a link to their current state...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874268/do-juveniles-help-or-hinder-influence-of-juvenile-offspring-on-maternal-behavior-and-reproductive-outcomes-in-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#11
Margaret A Stanton, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Anne E Pusey, Carson M Murray
Compared to great apes, humans maintain a relatively rapid reproductive pace despite long periods of dependency. This seemingly contradictory set of traits is made possible by weaning offspring before nutritional independence and alloparents who help provide care. In traditional societies, this help may be provided to mothers in part by their juvenile offspring who carry, supervise, or provision younger siblings. In contrast to humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are nutritionally independent after weaning, yet juveniles continue to travel with their mother and younger sibling for an additional 4-5 years...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872656/comparison-of-hand-use-and-forelimb-posture-during-vertical-climbing-in-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#12
Johanna Neufuss, Martha M Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Studies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865772/expression-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-mrna-transcripts-in-the-temporalis-muscle-of-common-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#13
Neus Ciurana, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Aroa Casado, Elisabeth Cuesta, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Josep Maria Potau
PURPOSE: The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the primate that is phylogenetically most closely related to humans (Homo sapiens). In order to shed light on the anatomy and function of the temporalis muscle in the chimpanzee, we have analyzed the expression patterns of the mRNA transcripts of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in different parts of the muscle. BASIC PROCEDURES: We dissected the superficial, deep and sphenomandibularis portions of the temporalis muscle in five adult P...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855415/dental-development-in-homo-naledi
#14
Zachary Cofran, Christopher S Walker
Humans' prolonged somatic development and life history are unique among primates, yet their evolutionary origins remain unclear. Dental development has been used as a proxy to reconstruct life history evolution in the hominin clade and indicates a recent emergence of the human developmental pattern. Here, we analyse tooth formation and eruption in two developing dentitions of Homo naledi, a late-surviving, morphologically mosaic hominin species. Deciduous dental development is more similar to humans than to chimpanzees, probably reflecting hominin symplesiomorphy rather than bearing life history significance...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855259/the-mobile-element-locator-tool-melt-population-scale-mobile-element-discovery-and-biology
#15
Eugene J Gardner, Vincent K Lam, Daniel N Harris, Nelson T Chuang, Emma C Scott, William S Pittard, Ryan E Mills, Scott E Devine
Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ~25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases, and clinical genomics. Here, we describe the Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT), which was developed as part of the 1000 Genomes Project to perform MEI discovery on a population scale...
August 30, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851632/effects-of-sex-and-early-rearing-condition-on-adult-behavior-health-and-well-being-in-captive-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#16
Andrea W Clay, Kim A Bard, Mollie A Bloomsmith
Scientific evaluation of management strategies for captive species is part of the establishment of best practices for animal welfare. Here we report the effects of sex, rearing, and a sex-by-rearing interaction on adult, captive chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) behavior, health, well-being, personality, and orientation towards humans based on multiple methods (observation, animal records, and surveys). Chimpanzees raised in three conditions, mother-reared (MR), standard nursery (ST) and an experimental nursery (RC), were assessed approximately 20 years after their differential rearing experiences concluded...
August 26, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846694/analysis-of-62-hybrid-assembled-human-y-chromosomes-exposes-rapid-structural-changes-and-high-rates-of-gene-conversion
#17
Laurits Skov, Mikkel Heide Schierup
The human Y-chromosome does not recombine across its male-specific part and is therefore an excellent marker of human migrations. It also plays an important role in male fertility. However, its evolution is difficult to fully understand because of repetitive sequences, inverted repeats and the potentially large role of gene conversion. Here we perform an evolutionary analysis of 62 Y-chromosomes of Danish descent sequenced using a wide range of library insert sizes and high coverage, thus allowing large regions of these chromosomes to be well assembled...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839349/the-role-of-defensins-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Barcley T Pace, Andrew A Lackner, Edith Porter, Bapi Pahar
Profound loss of CD4(+) T cells, progressive impairment of the immune system, inflammation, and sustained immune activation are the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Innate immune responses respond immediately from the day of HIV infection, and a thorough understanding of the interaction between several innate immune cells and HIV-1 is essential to determine to what extent those cells play a crucial role in controlling HIV-1 in vivo. Defensins, divided into the three subfamilies α-, β-, and θ-defensins based on structure and disulfide linkages, comprise a critical component of the innate immune response and exhibit anti-HIV-1 activities and immunomodulatory capabilities...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835562/social-disappointment-explains-chimpanzees-behaviour-in-the-inequity-aversion-task
#19
Jan M Engelmann, Jeremy B Clift, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
Chimpanzees' refusal of less-preferred food when an experimenter has previously provided preferred food to a conspecific has been taken as evidence for a sense of fairness. Here, we present a novel hypothesis-the social disappointment hypothesis-according to which food refusals express chimpanzees' disappointment in the human experimenter for not rewarding them as well as they could have. We tested this hypothesis using a two-by-two design in which food was either distributed by an experimenter or a machine and with a partner present or absent...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835550/perception-of-the-average-size-of-multiple-objects-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#20
Tomoko Imura, Fumito Kawakami, Nobu Shirai, Masaki Tomonaga
Humans can extract statistical information, such as the average size of a group of objects or the general emotion of faces in a crowd without paying attention to any individual object or face. To determine whether summary perception is unique to humans, we investigated the evolutional origins of this ability by assessing whether chimpanzees, which are closely related to humans, can also determine the average size of multiple visual objects. Five chimpanzees and 18 humans were able to choose the array in which the average size was larger, when presented with a pair of arrays, each containing 12 circles of different or the same sizes...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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