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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812318/the-development-and-flexibility-of-gaze-alternations-in-bonobos-and-chimpanzees
#1
Kelsey Lucca, Evan L MacLean, Brian Hare
Infants' early gaze alternations are one of their first steps towards a sophisticated understanding of the social world. This ability, to gaze alternate between an object of interest and another individual also attending to that object, has been considered foundational to the development of many complex social-cognitive abilities, such as theory of mind and language. However, to understand the evolution of these abilities, it is important to identify whether and how gaze alternations are used and develop in our closest living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810237/tooth-wear-inclination-in-great-ape-molars
#2
Jordan Knight-Sadler, Luca Fiorenza
Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets...
August 16, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#3
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795255/learning-the-rules-of-the-rock-paper-scissors-game-chimpanzees-versus-children
#4
Jie Gao, Yanjie Su, Masaki Tomonaga, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
The present study aimed to investigate whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could learn a transverse pattern by being trained in the rules of the rock-paper-scissors game in which "paper" beats "rock," "rock" beats "scissors," and "scissors" beats "paper." Additionally, this study compared the learning processes between chimpanzees and children. Seven chimpanzees were tested using a computer-controlled task. They were trained to choose the stronger of two options according to the game rules. The chimpanzees first engaged in the paper-rock sessions until they reached the learning criterion...
August 10, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792942/hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody-induced-by-simian-adenovirus-and-poxvirus-mva-vectored-bg505-native-like-envelope-trimers
#5
Silvia Capucci, Edmund G Wee, Torben Schiffner, Celia C LaBranche, Nicola Borthwick, Albert Cupo, Jonathan Dodd, Hansi Dean, Quentin Sattentau, David Montefiori, Per J Klasse, Rogier W Sanders, John P Moore, Tomáš Hanke
Rabbits and monkeys immunized with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) native-like BG505 SOSIP.664 (BG505s) glycoprotein trimers are known to induce antibodies that can neutralize the autologous tier-2 virus. Here, we assessed the induction of HIV-1 trimer binding and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres when BG505s trimers were also delivered by non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus and non-replicating poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine vectors. First, we showed that approximately two-thirds and one-third of the trimers secreted from the ChAdOx1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791199/studying-primate-cognition-in-a-social-setting-to-improve-validity-and-welfare-a-literature-review-highlighting-successful-approaches
#6
Katherine A Cronin, Sarah L Jacobson, Kristin E Bonnie, Lydia M Hopper
BACKGROUND: Studying animal cognition in a social setting is associated with practical and statistical challenges. However, conducting cognitive research without disturbing species-typical social groups can increase ecological validity, minimize distress, and improve animal welfare. Here, we review the existing literature on cognitive research run with primates in a social setting in order to determine how widespread such testing is and highlight approaches that may guide future research planning...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774409/animal-models-of-hbv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Maura Dandri, Joerg Petersen
The mechanisms determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and pathogenesis are not fully elucidated, but appear to be multi-factorial. Current medication to repress viral replication is available; however, the unique replication strategies employed by HBV enable the virus to persist within the infected hepatocytes. Consequently, cure is rarely achieved. Progresses in HBV research and preclinical testing of antiviral agents have been limited by the narrow species- and tissue-tropism of the virus, the paucity of infection models available and the restrictions imposed by the use of chimpanzees, the only animals fully susceptible to HBV infection...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770842/persistent-anthrax-as-a-major-driver-of-wildlife-mortality-in-a-tropical-rainforest
#8
Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek, Hjalmar Kuehl, Kathrin Nowak, Roger Mundry, Anthony Agbor, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Anja Blankenburg, Gregory Brazolla, Katherine Corogenes, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Tobias Deschner, Paula Dieguez, Karsten Dierks, Ariane Düx, Susann Dupke, Henk Eshuis, Pierre Formenty, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Annemarie Goedmakers, Jan F Gogarten, Anne-Céline Granjon, Scott McGraw, Roland Grunow, John Hart, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, John Kiang, Kevin Langergraber, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Siv Aina Leendertz, Floraine Léguillon, Vera Leinert, Therese Löhrich, Sergio Marrocoli, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Amelia Meier, Kevin Merkel, Sonja Metzger, Mizuki Murai, Svenja Niedorf, Hélène De Nys, Andreas Sachse, Joost van Schijndel, Ulla Thiesen, Els Ton, Doris Wu, Lothar H Wieler, Christophe Boesch, Silke R Klee, Roman M Wittig, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H Leendertz
Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769746/triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-investigating-associations-with-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-receptor-1a-gene
#9
Robert D Latzman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164), the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768256/estimation-of-fst-and-the-impact-of-de-novo-mutation
#10
Daniel Shriner, Guanjie Chen, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi
OBJECTIVES: Wright defined FST as a measure of genetic differentiation. Cockerham developed an estimator of FST based on binary indicators in an ANOVA framework. Here, we address 2 issues regarding the estimation of FST. First, we derive a new estimator of FST based on the ANOVA framework using the doubly truncated normal distribution as an approximation of the binomial distribution to estimate variances. Second, we consider the impact of de novo mutation on FST estimation. METHODS: We compare our estimator to Weir and Cockerham's estimator via computer simulation...
August 3, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763511/correction-the-malagarasi-river-does-not-form-an-absolute-barrier-to-chimpanzee-movement-in-western-tanzania
#11
Alex K Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Lilian Pintea, Yingying Li, Miguel A Ramirez, Dorothy E Loy, Patricia A Crystal, Gerald H Learn, Leslie A Knapp, Paul M Sharp, Beatrice H Hahn
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058965.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760768/evolution-of-male-strategies-with-sex-ratio-dependent-pay-offs-connecting-pair-bonds-with-grandmothering
#12
Sara L Loo, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
Men's provisioning of mates and offspring has been central to ideas about human evolution because paternal provisioning is absent in our closest evolutionary cousins, the great apes, and is widely assumed to result in pair bonding, which distinguishes us from them. Yet mathematical modelling has shown that paternal care does not readily spread in populations where competition for multiple mates is the common male strategy. Here we add to models that point to the mating sex ratio as an explanation for pairing as pay-offs to mate guarding rise with a male-biased sex ratio...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749288/blood-product-transfusions-in-great-apes-a-retrospective-review-of-12-cases
#13
Alicia Hahn, Ginger Sturgeon, Joseph Rossi
Although the administration of blood and blood products can be lifesaving, transfusions in exotic species are less common because of the lack of knowledge of a species' blood groups, the availability of species-specific donors, and possible adverse effects. Recently, blood groups were elucidated in great apes; however, few reports have been published regarding actual transfusion situations in these species. This information is critical because poorly executed transfusions can compromise already weakened patients or result in the death of the recipient...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748130/isolation-and-identification-of-bifidobacterium-species-from-feces-of-captive-chimpanzees
#14
Ryohei Nomoto, Shintaro Takano, Kosei Tanaka, Yuji Tsujikawa, Hiroshi Kusunoki, Ro Osawa
Recently, gut-dwelling bifidobacteria from chimpanzees, which are phylogenetically close to humans and have feeding habits similar to humans, have been frequently investigated. Given this, we speculated that like humans, chimpanzees would have a unique diversity of bifidobacteria. We herein describe a taxonomically novel member of bifidobacteria isolated from fecal samples of captive chimpanzees. Bifidobacteria were detected in all fecal samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A Bifidobacterium pseudolongum-like species, which could not be detected using B...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746777/functionality-of-intrinsic-disorder-in-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-its-receptors
#15
Vladimir N Uversky, Nawal Abd El-Baky, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Amira Sabry, Ehab H Mattar, Alexey V Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine that exerts potent cytotoxic effects on solid tumor cells, while not affecting their normal counterparts. It is also known that TNF-α exerts many of its biological functions via interaction with specific receptors. To understand the potential roles of intrinsic disorder in the functioning of this important cytokine, we explored the peculiarities of intrinsic disorder distribution in human TNF-α and its homologues from various species, ranging from zebrafish to chimpanzee...
July 26, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741898/development-of-a-new-structural-class-of-broadly-acting-hcv-non-nucleoside-inhibitors-leading-to-the-discovery-of-mk-8876
#16
Casey C McComas, Anandan Palani, Wei Chang, M Katharine Holloway, Charles A Lesburg, Peng Li, Nigel Liverton, Peter T Meinke, David B Olsen, Xuanjia Peng, Richard M Soll, Ajay Ummat, Jie Wu, Jin Wu, Nicolas Zorn, Steven W Ludmerer
Studies directed at developing a broadly acting non-nucleoside inhibitor of HCV NS5B led to the discovery of a novel structural class of 5-aryl benzofurans that simultaneously interact with both the palm I and palm II binding regions. An initial candidate was potent in vitro against HCV GT1a and GT1b replicons, and induced multi-log reductions in HCV viral load when orally dosed to chronic GT1 infected chimpanzees. However, in vitro potency losses against clinically relevant GT1a variants prompted a further effort to develop compounds with sustained potency across a broader array of HCV genotypes and mutants...
July 25, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739927/culture-extends-the-scope-of-evolutionary-biology-in-the-great-apes
#17
Andrew Whiten
Discoveries about the cultures and cultural capacities of the great apes have played a leading role in the recognition emerging in recent decades that cultural inheritance can be a significant factor in the lives not only of humans but also of nonhuman animals. This prominence derives in part from these primates being those with whom we share the most recent common ancestry, thus offering clues to the origins of our own thoroughgoing reliance on cumulative cultural achievements. In addition, the intense research focus on these species has spawned an unprecedented diversity of complementary methodological approaches, the results of which suggest that cultural phenomena pervade the lives of these apes, with potentially major implications for their broader evolutionary biology...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739161/automated-face-recognition-of-rhesus-macaques
#18
Claire L Witham
BACKGROUND: Rhesus macaques are widely used in biomedical research. Automated behavior monitoring can be useful in various studies (including neuroscience), as well as having applications to animal welfare but current technology lags behind that developed for other species. One difficulty facing developers is the reliable identification of individual macaques within a group especially as pair- and group-housing of macaques becomes standard. Current published methods require either implantation or wearing of a tracking device...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733113/a-heterologous-prime-boost-ebola-virus-vaccine-regimen-induces-durable-neutralizing-antibody-response-and-prevents-ebola-virus-like-particle-entry-in-mice
#19
Tan Chen, Dapeng Li, Yufeng Song, Xi Yang, Qingwei Liu, Xia Jin, Dongming Zhou, Zhong Huang
Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of the most virulent pathogens known to humans. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in the protection against EBOV infections. Thus, an EBOV vaccine capable of inducing a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response is highly desirable. We report here that a heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen can elicit durable EBOV-neutralizing antibody response in mice. A chimpanzee serotype 7 adenovirus expressing EBOV GP (denoted AdC7-GP) was generated and used for priming. A truncated version of EBOV GP1 protein (denoted GP1t) was produced at high levels in Drosophila S2 cells and used for boosting...
July 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731824/evolutionary-scenarios-and-primate-natural-history
#20
Harry W Greene
Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data...
August 2017: American Naturalist
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