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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229260/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-dhea-s-sex-and-age-in-zoo-housed-western-lowland-gorillas-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#1
Ashley N Edes
Among humans, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) declines with age and is hypothesized to be involved in somatic maintenance and healthy aging. Men have significantly higher DHEA-S than women, contradicting longer lifespans in the latter. Declines of DHEA-S with age also are observed in chimpanzees. In both chimpanzees and bonobos, males and females show no differences in DHEA-S production. Based on human and chimpanzee data, gorillas were predicted to show declining DHEA-S with age. Similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, it also was predicted DHEA-S would not be significantly different between males and females...
February 22, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220267/chimpanzee-down-syndrome-a-case-study-of-trisomy-22-in-a-captive-chimpanzee
#2
Satoshi Hirata, Hirohisa Hirai, Etsuko Nogami, Naruki Morimura, Toshifumi Udono
We report a case of chimpanzee trisomy 22 in a captive-born female. Because chromosome 22 in great apes is homologous to human chromosome 21, the present case is analogous to human trisomy 21, also called Down syndrome. The chimpanzee in the present case experienced retarded growth; infantile cataract and vision problems, including nystagmus, strabismus, and keratoconus; congenital atrial septal defect; and hypodontia. All of these symptoms are common in human Down syndrome. This case was the second reported case of trisomy 22 in the chimpanzee...
February 21, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220080/validation-of-a-method-for-the-assessment-of-urinary-neopterin-levels-to-monitor-health-status-in-non-human-primate-species
#3
Verena Behringer, Jeroen M G Stevens, Fabian H Leendertz, Gottfried Hohmann, Tobias Deschner
Determining individual health status is of great importance for a better understanding of life history trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, existing immunological methods are invasive and therefore not suitable for investigating health status in wild populations. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-invasive methods to assess the immune status of animals. Neopterin is involved in the cell-mediated pathway of the immune response (Th1-type), secreted during the activation of monocytes and macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210850/the-laminar-organization-of-the-motor-cortex-in-monodactylous-mammals-a-comparative-assessment-based-on-horse-chimpanzee-and-macaque
#4
Bruno Cozzi, Alberto De Giorgio, A Peruffo, S Montelli, M Panin, C Bombardi, A Grandis, A Pirone, P Zambenedetti, L Corain, Alberto Granato
The architecture of the neocortex classically consists of six layers, based on cytological criteria and on the layout of intra/interlaminar connections. Yet, the comparison of cortical cytoarchitectonic features across different species proves overwhelmingly difficult, due to the lack of a reliable model to analyze the connection patterns of neuronal ensembles forming the different layers. We first defined a set of suitable morphometric cell features, obtained in digitized Nissl-stained sections of the motor cortex of the horse, chimpanzee, and crab-eating macaque...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199322/keas-perform-similarly-to-chimpanzees-and-elephants-when-solving-collaborative-tasks
#5
Megan Heaney, Russell D Gray, Alex H Taylor
Cooperation between individuals is one of the defining features of our species. While other animals, such as chimpanzees, elephants, coral trout and rooks also exhibit cooperative behaviours, it is not clear if they think about cooperation in the same way as humans do. In this study we presented the kea, a parrot endemic to New Zealand, with a series of tasks designed to assess cooperative cognition. We found that keas were capable of working together, even when they had to wait for their partner for up to 65 seconds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179403/evaluation-of-pvceltos-as-a-pre-erythrocytic-p-vivax-vaccine
#6
Eduardo Alves, Ahmed M Salman, Fabiana Leoratti, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Martha Eva Viveros-Sandoval, Amar Lall, Aadil El-Turabi, Martin F Bachmann, Adrian V S Hill, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Four different vaccine platforms each targeting the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PvCelTOS) were generated and assessed for protective efficacy. These platforms consisted of a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector ChAd63-PvCelTOS (Ad); a recombinant MVA-PvCelTOS (MVA); a bacteriophage Qβ-PvCelTOS virus-like particle (VLP); and recombinant PvCelTOS protein expressed in eukaryotic HEK293T cells (protein). Inbred BALB/c and outbred CD-1 mice were immunized using the following prime/boost regimens: Ad-MVA, Ad-VLP and Ad-protein...
February 8, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174392/-heart-transplantation-allograft-and-xenograft
#7
Norihide Fukushima
Prior to starting clinical cardiac allotransplantation, cardiac xenotransplantation was performed in human in 1960s. In 1964, Hardy performed cardiac transplantation using a chimpanzee heart and Bailey performed cardiac transplantation using a baboon heart to an infant with hypoplastic left heart. The use of cyclosporine has greatly improved the outcome of clinical cardiac transplantation and cardiac allotransplantation became an established treatment strategy for the patients with end-stage heart failure. Although concordant cardiac xenotransplantation from a primate to a human may be successfully performed using current immunosuppressive regimen, a primate heart is not a good candidate for cardiac xenograft due to animal light issues and its size...
January 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171684/socially-transmitted-diffusion-of-a-novel-behavior-from-subordinate-chimpanzees
#8
Stuart K Watson, Lisa A Reamer, Mary Catherine Mareno, Gillian Vale, Rachel A Harrison, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing" models...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166180/therapeutic-vaccine-against-primate-papillomavirus-infections-of-the-cervix
#9
Emeline Ragonnaud, Anne-Marie C Andersson, Silmi Mariya, Anders G Pedersen, Robert D Burk, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Joko Pamungkas, Diah Iskandriati, Peter J Holst
Currently available prophylactic vaccines have no therapeutic efficacy for preexisting human papillomavirus (HPVs) infections, do not target all oncogenic HPVs and are insufficient to eliminate the burden of HPV induced cancer. We aim to develop an alternative HPV vaccine which is broadly effective and capable of clearing preexisting infection. In an initial attempt to develop a broadly reactive therapeutic vaccine, we designed a putative papillomavirus (PV) ancestor antigen (circulating sequence derived antigenic sequences E1E2-CDSE1E2) based on the conserved E1 and E2 protein sequences from existing oncogenic HPV strains...
February 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158622/changes-in-lipidome-composition-during-brain-development-in-humans-chimpanzees-and-macaque-monkeys
#10
Qian Li, Katarzyna Bozek, Chuan Xu, Yanan Guo, Jing Sun, Svante Pääbo, Chet C Sherwood, Patrick R Hof, John J Ely, Yan Li, Lothar Willmitzer, Patrick Giavalisco, Philipp Khaitovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154521/the-extraordinary-nature-of-barney-s-drumming-a-complementary-study-of-ordinary-noise-making-in-chimpanzees
#11
Valérie Dufour, Cristian Pasquaretta, Pierre Gayet, Elisabeth H M Sterck
In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was rhythmical, decontextualized, and well controlled by the chimpanzee. This type of performance raises questions about the origins of our musicality. Here we recorded spontaneously occurring events of sound production with objects in Barney's colony...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153096/hiv-1-conserved-mosaics-delivered-by-regimens-with-integration-deficient-dc-targeting-lentiviral-vector-induce-robust-t-cells
#12
Edmund G Wee, Beatrice Ondondo, Peter Berglund, Jacob Archer, Andrew J McMichael, David Baltimore, Jan H Ter Meulen, Tomáš Hanke
To be effective against HIV type 1 (HIV-1), vaccine-induced T cells must selectively target epitopes, which are functionally conserved (present in the majority of currently circulating and reactivated HIV-1 strains) and, at the same time, beneficial (responses to which are associated with better clinical status and control of HIV-1 replication), and rapidly reach protective frequencies upon exposure to the virus. Heterologous prime-boost regimens using virally vectored vaccines are currently the most promising vaccine strategies; nevertheless, induction of robust long-term memory remains challenging...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151937/conspiracy-beliefs-and-knowledge-about-hiv-origins-among-adolescents-in-soweto-south-africa
#13
Robert Hogg, Busisiwe Nkala, Janan Dietrich, Alexandra Collins, Kalysha Closson, Zishan Cui, Steve Kanters, Jason Chia, Bernard Barhafuma, Alexis Palmer, Angela Kaida, Glenda Gray, Cari Miller
PURPOSE: We examined adolescents' knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts. METHODS: Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit's Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148732/loss-of-cmah-during-human-evolution-primed-the-monocyte-macrophage-lineage-toward-a-more-inflammatory-and-phagocytic-state
#14
Jonathan J Okerblom, Flavio Schwarz, Josh Olson, William Fletes, Syed Raza Ali, Paul T Martin, Christopher K Glass, Victor Nizet, Ajit Varki
Humans and chimpanzees are more sensitive to endotoxin than are mice or monkeys, but any underlying differences in inflammatory physiology have not been fully described or understood. We studied innate immune responses in Cmah(-/-) mice, emulating human loss of the gene encoding production of Neu5Gc, a major cell surface sialic acid. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) loss occurred ∼2-3 million years ago, after the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, perhaps contributing to speciation of the genus HomoCmah(-/-) mice manifested a decreased survival in endotoxemia following bacterial LPS injection...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138076/evolution-of-local-mutation-rate-and-its-determinants
#15
Nadezhda V Terekhanova, Vladimir B Seplyarskiy, Ruslan A Soldatov, Georgii A Bazykin
MUTATION RATE VARIES ALONG THE HUMAN GENOME, AND PART OF THIS VARIATION IS EXPLAINABLE BY MEASURABLE LOCAL PROPERTIES OF THE DNA MOLECULE MOREOVER, MUTATION RATES DIFFER BETWEEN ORTHOLOGOUS GENOMIC REGIONS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES, BUT THE DRIVERS OF THIS CHANGE ARE UNCLEAR HERE, WE USE DATA ON HUMAN DIVERGENCE FROM CHIMPANZEE, HUMAN RARE POLYMORPHISM, AND HUMAN DE NOVO MUTATIONS TO PREDICT THE SUBSTITUTION RATE AT ORTHOLOGOUS REGIONS OF NON-HUMAN MAMMALS WE SHOW THE LOCAL MUTATION RATES ARE VERY SIMILAR BETWEEN HUMAN AND APES, IMPLYING THAT THEIR VARIATION HAS A STRONG UNDERLYING CRYPTIC COMPONENT NOT EXPLAINABLE BY THE KNOWN GENOMIC FEATURES MUTATION RATES BECOME PROGRESSIVELY LESS SIMILAR IN MORE DISTANT SPECIES, AND THESE CHANGES ARE PARTIALLY EXPLAINABLE BY CHANGES IN THE LOCAL GENOMIC FEATURES OF ORTHOLOGOUS REGIONS, MOST IMPORTANTLY, IN THE RECOMBINATION RATE HOWEVER, THEY ARE MUCH MORE RAPID, IMPLYING THAT THE CRYPTIC COMPONENT UNDERLYING THE MUTATION RATE IS MORE EPHEMERAL THAN THE KNOWN GENOMIC FEATURES THESE FINDINGS SHED LIGHT ON THE DETERMINANTS OF MUTATION RATE EVOLUTION...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137817/pharmacokinetics-of-the-novel-echinocandin-cd101-in-multiple-animal-species
#16
Voon Ong, Kenneth D James, Steven Smith, B Radha Krishnan
CD101 is a novel semi-synthetic echinocandin with antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp. The PK of CD101 administered intravenously to mice, rats, dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, and chimpanzees are presented. CD101 consistently exhibited very low clearance, modest volume of distribution, and long half-life across all species tested. In mouse, rat, dog, cynomolgus monkey, and chimpanzee, CD101 clearance [mL/min/kg] was 0.10, 0.47, 0.30, 0.41, and 0.06; Vss [mL/kg] was 206, 1390, not determined, 597, and 400; and t1/2 [h] was 25, 39, 53, 40, and 81, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135575/chimpanzees-process-structural-isomorphisms-across-sensory-modalities
#17
Andrea Ravignani, Ruth Sonnweber
Evolution has shaped animal brains to detect sensory regularities in environmental stimuli. In addition, many species map one-dimensional quantities across sensory modalities, such as conspecific faces to voices, or high-pitched sounds to bright light. If basic patterns like repetitions and identities are frequently perceived in different sensory modalities, it could be advantageous to detect cross-modal isomorphisms, i.e. develop modality-independent representations of structural features, exploitable in visual, tactile, and auditory processing...
January 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124727/patterns-in-gut-microbiota-similarity-associated-with-degree-of-sociality-among-sex-classes-of-a-neotropical-primate
#18
Katherine R Amato, Sarie Van Belle, Anthony Di Fiore, Alejandro Estrada, Rebecca Stumpf, Bryan White, Karen E Nelson, Rob Knight, Steven R Leigh
Studies of human and domestic animal models indicate that related individuals and those that spend the most time in physical contact typically have more similar gut microbial communities. However, few studies have examined these factors in wild mammals where complex social dynamics and a variety of interacting environmental factors may impact the patterns observed in controlled systems. Here, we explore the effect of host kinship and time spent in social contact on the gut microbiota of wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra)...
January 26, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122963/resurrecting-kir2dp1-a-key-intermediate-in-the-evolution-of-human-inhibitory-nk-cell-receptors-that-recognize-hla-c
#19
Hugo G Hilton, Jeroen H Blokhuis, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Paul J Norman, Peter Parham
KIR2DP1 is an inactive member of the human lineage III KIR family, which includes all HLA-C-specific receptor genes. The lethal, and only, defect in KIR2DP1 is a nucleotide deletion in codon 88. Fixed in modern humans, the deletion is also in archaic human genomes. KIR2DP1 is polymorphic, with dimorphism at specificity-determining position 44. By repairing the deletion, we resurrected 11 alleles of KIR2DP1(F) , the functional antecedent of KIR2DP1 We demonstrate how K44-KIR2DP1(F) with lysine 44 recognized C1(+)HLA-C, whereas T44-KIR2DP1(F) recognized C2(+)HLA-C...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121024/utility-of-osteon-circularity-for-determining-species-and-interpreting-load-history-in-primates-and-nonprimates
#20
Kendra E Keenan, Chad S Mears, John G Skedros
OBJECTIVES: Histomorphological analyses of bones are used to estimate an individual's chronological age, interpret a bone's load history, and differentiate species. Among various histomorphological characteristics that can influence mechanical properties of cortical bone, secondary osteon (Haversian system) population density and predominant collagen fiber orientation are particularly important. Cross-sectional shape characteristics of secondary osteons (On.Cr = osteon circularity, On...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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