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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333058/acquisition-of-a-socially-learned-tool-use-sequence-in-chimpanzees-implications-for-cumulative-culture
#1
Gillian L Vale, Sarah J Davis, Susan P Lambeth, Steven J Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
Cumulative culture underpins humanity's enormous success as a species. Claims that other animals are incapable of cultural ratcheting are prevalent, but are founded on just a handful of empirical studies. Whether cumulative culture is unique to humans thus remains a controversial and understudied question that has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the evolution of this phenomenon. We investigated whether one of human's two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees, are capable of a degree of cultural ratcheting by exposing captive populations to a novel juice extraction task...
September 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331042/the-effects-of-social-context-and-food-abundance-on-chimpanzee-feeding-competition
#2
Rebecca Koomen, Esther Herrmann
Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330949/functional-morphology-of-mimetic-musculature-in-primates-how-social-variables-and-body-size-stack-up-to-phylogeny
#3
Anne M Burrows
Mammalian skeletal muscle is influenced by the functional demands placed upon it. Functional morphology of facial expression musculature, or mimetic musculature, is largely unknown. Recently, primate mimetic musculature has been shown to respond to demands associated with social factors. Body size has also been demonstrated to affect many aspects of primate functional morphology and evolutionary morphology. The present study was designed to further examine the role of social variables and body size in influencing the morphology of primate mimetic musculature using a broad phylogenetic range of primates, primates with varying body sizes, and those that exploit differing time of day activity cycles and social group sizes...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327389/multivariate-analysis-of-variations-in-intrinsic-foot-musculature-among-hominoids
#4
Motoharu Oishi, Naomichi Ogihara, Daisuke Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Hideki Endo, Yumi Une, Satoshi Soeta, Hajime Amasaki, Nobutsune Ichihara
Comparative analysis of the foot muscle architecture among extant great apes is important for understanding the evolution of the human foot and, hence, human habitual bipedal walking. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of a quantitative comparison of hominoid intrinsic foot muscle dimensions. In the present study, we quantitatively compared muscle dimensions of the hominoid foot by means of multivariate analysis. The foot muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of five chimpanzees, one bonobo, two gorillas, and six orangutans were obtained by our own dissections, and those of humans were taken from published accounts...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320499/precocious-development-of-self-awareness-in-dolphins
#5
Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss
Mirror-self recognition (MSR) is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314775/the-relationship-between-digit-independence-and-digital-sesamoids-in-humans-and-a-proposal-of-a-new-digital-sesamoid-evolutionary-hypothesis
#6
Kaissar Yammine
Digital sesamoids are found in the metapodial-phalangeal joints of most mammals and quadrupedal tetrapods, yet their functional significance is still unclear. During primate evolution, a slight decline in their frequency has been associated with brachiation in gibbons, followed by a quasi-complete absence in orangutans then a slight resurgence occurred in gorillas and chimpanzees. Simultaneously, forearm muscles showed a progressive division in hominoid evolution towards a more "individualistic" musculature yielding more mobility and independence to some fingers...
January 3, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#7
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300685/development-of-novel-vaccine-vectors-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors
#8
Jingao Guo, Moumita Mondal, Dongming Zhou
Adenoviral vector has been employed as one of the most efficient means against infectious diseases and cancer. It can be genetically modified and armed with foreign antigens to elicit specific antibody responses and T cell responses in hosts as well as engineered to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The chimpanzee adenovirus-based vector is one kind of novel vaccine carriers whose unique features and non-reactivity to pre-existing human adenovirus neutralizing antibodies makes it an outstanding candidate for vaccine research and development...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298888/rapid-cloning-of-novel-rhesus-adenoviral-vaccine-vectors
#9
Peter Abbink, Marinela Kirilova, Michael Boyd, Noe Mercado, Zhenfeng Li, Ramya Nityanandam, Ovini Nanayakkara, Rebecca Peterson, Rafael A Larocca, Malika Aid, Lawrence Tartaglia, Tinaye Mutetwa, Eryn Blass, David Jetton, Lori F Maxfield, Erica N Borducchi, Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh, Scott Handley, Guoyan Zhao, Herbert W Virgin, Menzo J Havenga, Dan H Barouch
Human and chimpanzee adenovirus vectors are being developed to circumvent pre-existing antibodies against common adenovirus vectors such as Ad5. However, baseline immunity to these vectors still exists in human populations. Traditional cloning of new adenovirus vaccine vectors is a long and cumbersome process that takes two months or more and that requires rare unique restriction enzyme sites. Here we describe a novel, restriction enzyme-independent method for rapid cloning of new adenovirus vaccine vectors that reduces the total cloning procedure to 1 week...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298885/recombinant-chimpanzee-adenovirus-vaccine-adc7-m-e-protects-against-zika-virus-infection-and-testis-damage
#10
Kun Xu, Yufeng Song, Lianpan Dai, Yongli Zhang, Xuancheng Lu, Yijia Xie, Hangjie Zhang, Tao Cheng, Qihui Wang, Qingrui Huang, Yuhai Bi, William J Liu, Wenjun Liu, Xiangdong Li, Chuan Qin, Yi Shi, Jinghua Yan, Dongming Zhou, George F Gao
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global health concern. ZIKV can persist in human semen and be transmitted by sexual contact, as well as by mosquitos as seen for classical arboviruses. We and others have previously demonstrated that ZIKV infection leads to testis damage and infertility in mouse models. So far, no prophylactics or therapeutics are available, therefore, vaccine development is urgently demanded. Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus has been explored as the preferred vaccine vector for many pathogens due to the low pre-existing immunity against the vector among the human population...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298306/dna-recovery-from-wild-chimpanzee-tools
#11
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291114/bystanders-intervene-to-impede-grooming-in-western-chimpanzees-and-sooty-mangabeys
#12
Alexander Mielke, Liran Samuni, Anna Preis, Jan F Gogarten, Catherine Crockford, Roman M Wittig
Grooming interactions benefit groomers, but may have negative consequences for bystanders. Grooming limits bystanders' grooming access and ensuing alliances could threaten the bystander's hierarchy rank or their previous investment in the groomers. To gain a competitive advantage, bystanders could intervene into a grooming bout to increase their own grooming access or to prevent the negative impact of others' grooming. We tested the impact of dominance rank and social relationships on grooming intervention likelihood and outcome in two sympatric primate species, Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys)...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291090/avoidance-of-biological-contaminants-through-sight-smell-and-touch-in-chimpanzees
#13
Cecile Sarabian, Barthelemy Ngoubangoye, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Avoiding biological contaminants is a well-known manifestation of the adaptive system of disgust. In theory, animals evolved with such a system to prevent pathogen and parasite infection. Bodily products are human-universal disgust elicitors, but whether they also elicit avoidance behaviour in non-human primates has yet to be tested. Here, we report experimental evidence that potential exposure to biological contaminants (faeces, blood, semen), as perceived via multiple sensory modalities (visual, olfactory, tactile), might influence feeding decisions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes)-our closest phylogenetic relatives...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291049/convergence-and-divergence-in-gesture-repertoires-as-an-adaptive-mechanism-for-social-bonding-in-primates
#14
Anna Ilona Roberts, Sam George Bradley Roberts
A key challenge for primates living in large, stable social groups is managing social relationships. Chimpanzee gestures may act as a time-efficient social bonding mechanism, and the presence (homogeneity) and absence (heterogeneity) of overlap in repertoires in particular may play an important role in social bonding. However, how homogeneity and heterogeneity in the gestural repertoire of primates relate to social interaction is poorly understood. We used social network analysis and generalized linear mixed modelling to examine this question in wild chimpanzees...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282580/savanna-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-verus-nesting-ecology-at-bagnomba-kedougou-senegal
#15
REVIEW
L Badji, P I Ndiaye, S M Lindshield, C T Ba, J D Pruetz
We studied the nesting behavior of the critically endangered West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). We assumed that the nesting data stemmed from a single, unhabituated community at the Bagnomba hill site in the savanna-woodlands of southeastern Senegal. The aim of this study was to examine chimpanzees' nesting habits in terms of the tree species utilized and sleeping nest heights. We recorded a total of 550 chimpanzee nests at Bagnomba between January 2015 and December 2015. The chimpanzees here made nests in particular tree species more often than others...
December 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281860/subchondral-bone-radiodensity-patterns-in-the-glenoid-fossa-of-ape-and-human-scapulae
#16
Biren A Patel, Joshua T Romanu, Kristian J Carlson
Regions of denser subchondral bone deep to a joint's articular surface indicate locations where the joint experiences relatively higher or more frequent compressive trans-articular forces than less dense regions. Human clinically-focused studies have hypothesized that regional variation of highest radiodensity (HiRD), acquired with computed tomography osteoabsorptiomety (CT-OAM), in the human glenoid fossa (GF) is specifically related to forces arising from everyday rotator cuff muscle function. We test this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between rotator cuff function and GF HiRD subchondral bone patterns in a broader comparative context...
December 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279379/two-types-of-aggression-in-human-evolution
#17
Richard W Wrangham
Two major types of aggression, proactive and reactive, are associated with contrasting expression, eliciting factors, neural pathways, development, and function. The distinction is useful for understanding the nature and evolution of human aggression. Compared with many primates, humans have a high propensity for proactive aggression, a trait shared with chimpanzees but not bonobos. By contrast, humans have a low propensity for reactive aggression compared with chimpanzees, and in this respect humans are more bonobo-like...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261800/species-specific-functions-of-epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-2-ebna2-reveal-dual-roles-for-initiation-and-maintenance-of-b-cell-immortalization
#18
Janine Mühe, Fred Wang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and related lymphocryptoviruses (LCV) from non-human primates infect B cells, transform their growth to facilitate life-long viral persistence in the host, and contribute to B cell oncogenesis. Co-evolution of LCV with their primate hosts has led to species-specificity so that LCVs preferentially immortalize B cells from their natural host in vitro. We investigated whether the master regulator of transcription, EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), is involved in LCV species-specificity. Using recombinant EBVs, we show that EBNA2 orthologues of LCV isolated from chimpanzees, baboons, cynomolgus or rhesus macaques (rhLCV) cannot replace EBV EBNA2 for the immortalization of human B cells...
December 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259726/does-toxoplasma-infection-increase-sexual-masochism-and-submissiveness-yes-and-no
#19
Jaroslav Flegr
The parasite Toxoplasma needs to get from its intermediate hosts, e.g. rodents, to its definitive hosts, cats, by predation. To increase the probability of this occurrence, Toxoplasma manipulates the behavior of its hosts, for example, by the demethylation of promoters of certain genes in the host's amygdala. After this modification, the stimuli that normally activate fear-related circuits, e.g., the smell of a cat in mice, or smell of leopards in chimpanzees, start to additionally co-activate sexual arousal-related circuits in the infected animals...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259021/evolutionary-expansion-of-dna-hypomethylation-in-the-mammalian-germline-genome
#20
Jianghan Qu, Emily Hodges, Antoine Molaro, Pascal Gagneux, Matthew D Dean, Gregory J Hannon, Andrew D Smith
DNA methylation in the germline is among the most important factors influencing the evolution of mammalian genomes. Yet little is known about its evolutionary rate or the fraction of the methylome that has undergone change. We compared whole-genome, single-CpG DNA methylation profiles in sperm of seven species: human, chimpanzee, gorilla, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat and dog, to investigate epigenomic evolution. We developed a phylo-epigenetic model for DNA methylation that accommodates the correlation of states at neighboring sites and allows for inference of ancestral states...
December 19, 2017: Genome Research
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