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Anamika Patel, Peng Yang, Matthew Tinkham, Mihika Pradhan, Ming-An Sun, Yixuan Wang, Don Hoang, Gernot Wolf, John R Horton, Xing Zhang, Todd Macfarlan, Xiaodong Cheng
Tandem zinc finger (ZF) proteins are the largest and most rapidly diverging family of DNA-binding transcription regulators in mammals. ZFP568 represses a transcript of placental-specific insulin like growth factor 2 (Igf2-P0) in mice. ZFP568 binds a 24-base pair sequence-specific element upstream of Igf2-P0 via the eleven-ZF array. Both DNA and protein conformations deviate from the conventional one finger-three bases recognition, with individual ZFs contacting 2, 3, or 4 bases and recognizing thymine on the opposite strand...
March 13, 2018: Cell
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
John L M Law, Michael Logan, Jason Wong, Juthika Kundu, Darren Hockman, Amir Landi, Chao Chen, Kevin Crawford, Mark Wininger, Janelle Johnson, Catalina Mesa Prince, Elzbieta Dudek, Ninad Mehta, D Lorne Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
Current evidence supports a protective role for virus neutralizing antibodies in immunity against HCV infection. Many cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been identified. These antibodies have been shown to protect or clear infection in animal models. Previous clinical trials have shown a gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce antibodies that neutralize the in vitro infectivity of all the major HCVcc genotypes around the world. However, cross-neutralization appeared to favour certain genotypes with significant but lower neutralization against others...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Diana S Samuel, Sandra Nauwelaerts, Jeroen M G Stevens, Tracy L Kivell
Evolution of the human hand has undergone a transition from use during locomotion to use primarily for manipulation. Previous comparative morphological and biomechanical studies have focused on potential changes in manipulative abilities during human hand evolution, but few have focused on functional signals for arboreal locomotion. Here, we provide this comparative context though the first analysis of hand loading in captive bonobos during arboreal locomotion. We quantify pressure experienced by the fingers, palm and thumb in bonobos during vertical locomotion, suspension and arboreal knuckle-walking...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Dean Falk, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marcia Ponce de León, Katerina Semendeferi, José Luis Alatorre Warren, William D Hopkins
The only direct source of information about hominin brain evolution comes from the fossil record of endocranial casts (endocasts) that reproduce details of the external morphology of the brain imprinted on the walls of the braincase during life. Surface traces of sulci that separate the brain's convolutions (gyri) are reproduced sporadically on early hominin endocasts. Paleoneurologists rely heavily on published descriptions of sulci on brains of great apes, especially chimpanzees (humans' phylogenetically closest living relatives), to guide their identifications of sulci on ape-sized hominin endocasts...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Klára Vlčková, Jakub Kreisinger, Barbora Pafčo, Dagmar Čížková, Nikki Tagg, Adrian B Hehl, David Modrý
Understanding the complex Entamoeba communities in the mammalian intestine has been, to date, complicated by the lack of a suitable approach for molecular detection of multiple variants co-occurring in mixed infections. Here, we report on the application of a high throughput sequencing approach based on partial 18S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We describe, to our knowledge for the first time, the Entamoeba communities in humans, free-ranging western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees living in at the Dja Faunal Reserve in Cameroon...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jesse Robbins, Becca Franks, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Many scientists studying animal welfare appear to hold a hedonistic concept of welfare -whereby welfare is ultimately reducible to an animal's subjective experience. The substantial advances in assessing animal's subjective experience have enabled us to take a step back to consider whether such indicators are all one needs to know if one is interested in the welfare of an individual. To investigate this claim, we randomly assigned participants (n = 502) to read one of four vignettes describing a hypothetical chimpanzee and asked them to make judgments about the animal's welfare...
2018: PloS One
Maegan Fitzgerald, Robert Coulson, A Michelle Lawing, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Kathelijne Koops
Tropical forests and the biodiversity within them are rapidly declining in the face of increasing human populations. Resource management and conservation of endangered species requires an understanding of how species perceive and respond to their environments. Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an appropriate tool for identifying conservation areas of concern and importance. In this study, SDM was used to identify areas of suitable chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) habitat within the Greater Nimba Landscape, Guinea, West Africa...
March 9, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
L Coughlan, S Sridhar, R Payne, M Edmans, A Milicic, N Venkatraman, B Lugonja, L Clifton, C Qi, P M Folegatti, A M Lawrie, R Roberts, H de Graaf, P Sukhtankar, S N Faust, D J M Lewis, T Lambe, Avs Hill, S C Gilbert
BACKGROUND: T-cell responses against highly conserved influenza antigens have been previously associated with protection. However, these immune responses are poorly maintained following recovery from influenza infection and are not boosted by inactivated influenza vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of two viral vectored vaccines, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 expressing conserved influenza virus antigens, nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein-1 (M1)...
February 15, 2018: EBioMedicine
Nicholas R Meyerson, Cody J Warren, Daniel A S A Vieira, Felipe Diaz-Griferro, Sara L Sawyer
HIV-1 arose as the result of spillover of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from great apes in Africa, namely from chimpanzees and gorillas. Chimpanzees and gorillas were, themselves, infected with SIV after virus spillover from African monkeys. During spillover events, SIV is thought to require adaptation to the new host species. The host barriers that drive viral adaptation have predominantly been attributed to restriction factors, rather than cofactors (host proteins exploited to promote viral replication)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Andrew J Gall, June E Olds, Arno Wünschmann, Laura E Selmic, James Rasmussen, Anne D Lewis
Reproductive lesions have been described in various nonhuman primate species, including rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis), baboons ( Papio spp.), squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus), and chimpanzees ( Pan spp.); however, there are few publications describing reproductive disease and pathology in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata). A retrospective evaluation of postmortem reports for two captive M. fuscata populations housed within zoos from 1982 through 2015 was completed, comparing reproductive diseases diagnosed by gross pathology and histopathology...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Giada Cordoni, Ivan Norscia, Maria Bobbio, Elisabetta Palagi
Play behaviour reinforces social affiliation in several primate species, including humans. Via a comparative approach, we tested the hypothesis that play dynamics in a group of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are different from those in a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a reflection of their difference in social affiliation and agonistic support. We selected one group of lowland gorillas and one of chimpanzees, hosted at the ZooParc de Beauval (France), managed in a similar way and living in similar enclosures...
2018: PloS One
Marissa H Petrou
In this paper, I discuss the development and use of images employed by the Dresden Royal Museum for Zoology, Anthropology and Ethnography to resolve debates about how to use visual representation as a means of making ethnographic knowledge. Through experimentation with techniques of visual representation, the founding director, A.B. Meyer (1840-1911), proposed a historical, non-essentialist approach to understanding racial and cultural difference. Director Meyer's approach was inspired by the new knowledge he had gained through field research in Asia-Pacific as well as new forms of imaging that made highly detailed representations of objects possible...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Matthew R McLennan
With data accumulating from a growing pool of chimpanzee field studies, new behaviors as well as novel variants on common behaviors continue to be described. Nest construction is a universal behavior in wild great apes. Among chimpanzee populations, reported variation in nest building behavior mostly reflects environmental constraints. Despite the ubiquity of nest making by chimpanzees, only ground nesting has been recognized as a behavioral variant, potentially determined by both environmental and social factors...
March 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Wei-Na Guo, Bin Zhu, Ling Ai, Dong-Liang Yang, Bao-Ju Wang
Even with an effective vaccine, an estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Current antiviral therapies, including interferon and nucleot(s)ide analogues, rarely cure chronic hepatitis B. Animal models are very crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and developing new therapeutic drugs or strategies. HBV can only infect humans and chimpanzees, with the use of chimpanzees in HBV research strongly restricted. Thus, most advances in HBV research have been gained using mouse models with HBV replication or infection or models with HBV-related hepadnaviral infection...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Timothy D Weaver, Philipp Gunz
Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between taxa to the variation and covariation found within taxa...
March 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Kunitaka Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Iyori, Andrew M Blagborough, Ahmed M Salman, Pawan Dulal, Katarzyna A Sala, Daisuke S Yamamoto, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Sumi Biswas, Tatsuya Yoshii, Yenni Yusuf, Masaharu Tokoro, Adrian V S Hill, Shigeto Yoshida
With the increasing prevalence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites, a highly efficacious and durable vaccine for malaria is urgently required. We have developed an experimental virus-vectored vaccine platform based on an envelope-modified baculovirus dual-expression system (emBDES). Here, we show a conceptually new vaccine platform based on an adenovirus-prime/emBDES-boost heterologous immunization regimen expressing the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). A human adenovirus 5-prime/emBDES-boost heterologous immunization regimen consistently achieved higher sterile protection against transgenic P...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandra Nicklasson, Desirée Sjöström, Mats Amundin, Daniel Roth, Laura Teresa Hernandez Salazar, Matthias Laska
Primates have been found to differ widely in their taste perception and studies suggest that a co-evolution between plant species bearing a certain taste substance and primate species feeding on these plants may contribute to such between-species differences. Considering that only platyrrhine primates, but not catarrhine or prosimian primates, share an evolutionary history with the neotropical plant Stevia rebaudiana , we assessed whether members of these three primate taxa differ in their ability to perceive and/or in their sensitivity to its two quantitatively predominant sweet-tasting substances...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Kirsty E Graham, Catherine Hobaiter, James Ounsley, Takeshi Furuichi, Richard W Byrne
Cross-species comparison of great ape gesturing has so far been limited to the physical form of gestures in the repertoire, without questioning whether gestures share the same meanings. Researchers have recently catalogued the meanings of chimpanzee gestures, but little is known about the gesture meanings of our other closest living relative, the bonobo. The bonobo gestural repertoire overlaps by approximately 90% with that of the chimpanzee, but such overlap might not extend to meanings. Here, we first determine the meanings of bonobo gestures by analysing the outcomes of gesturing that apparently satisfy the signaller...
February 2018: PLoS Biology
Gerard Saucier
Major routes to identifying individual differences (in diverse species) include studies of behaviour patterns as represented in language and neurophysiology. But results from these approaches appear not to converge on some major dimensions. Identifying dimensions of human variation least applicable to non-human species may help to partition human-specific individual differences of recent evolutionary origin from those shared across species. Human culture includes learned, enforced social-norm systems that are symbolically reinforced and referenced in displays signalling adherence...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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