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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528334/hormones-and-human-and-nonhuman-primate-growth
#1
Robin Miriam Bernstein
The aim of this paper was to review information pertaining to the hormonal regulation of nonhuman primate growth, with specific focus on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and adrenal androgens. Hormones of the GH-IGF axis are consistently associated with measures of growth - linear, weight, or both - during the growth period; in adulthood, concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and GH-binding protein are not associated with any measures of size. Comparing patterns of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) may be especially relevant for understanding whether the childhood stage of growth and development is unique to humans and perhaps other apes...
May 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#2
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526292/australopithecus-sediba-and-the-emergence-of-homo-questionable-evidence-from-the-cranium-of-the-juvenile-holotype-mh-1
#3
William H Kimbel, Yoel Rak
Malapa Hominin (MH) 1, an immature individual whose second permanent molars had recently reached occlusion at the time of death, is the holotype of Australopithecus sediba, a 2-myr-old South African taxon that has been hypothesized to link phylogenetically australopith-grade hominins to the Homo clade. Given the existence of 2.8 myr-old fossils of Homo in eastern Africa, this hypothesis implies a ghost lineage spanning at least 800 kyr. An alternative hypothesis posits a unique relationship between A. sediba and Australopithecus africanus, which predates the Malapa hominins in southern Africa and whose phylogenetic relationships remain ambiguous...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523858/clinical-signs-diagnostics-and-successful-treatment-of-a-myocarditis-in-an-adult-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#4
Martine van Zijll Langhout, Marno Wolters, Katalin M Horvath, Harold Thiesbrummel, Paul Smits, Hester van Bolhuis, Victor van der Hulst, Robert Riezebos
A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was presented with lethargic behaviour. Echocardiography and abnormal cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers revealed a myocarditis. The animal fully recovered after prolonged treatment with losartan and carvedilol. This is the first report of the diagnosis and successful treatment of myocarditis in this species.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508047/kin-based-cultural-transmission-of-tool-use-in-wild-chimpanzees
#5
Noemie Lamon, Christof Neumann, Thibaud Gruber, Klaus Zuberbühler
Current research on animal culture has focused strongly on cataloging the diversity of socially transmitted behaviors and on the social learning mechanisms that sustain their spread. Comparably less is known about the persistence of cultural behavior following innovation in groups of wild animals. We present observational data and a field experiment designed to address this question in a wild chimpanzee community, capitalizing on a novel tool behavior, moss-sponging, which appeared naturally in the community in 2011...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503367/etiology-of-triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#6
Robert D Latzman, Christopher J Patrick, Hani J Freeman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
The current study undertook analyses of genealogical data from a sample of 178 socially-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with well-documented pedigrees, to clarify the etiologic bases of triarchic psychopathy dimensions and the influence of early social rearing experiences. Whereas biometric analyses for the full sample indicated significant heritability for the boldness dimension of psychopathy only, heritability estimates varied by early rearing, with all three triarchic dimensions showing significant heritabilities among mother-reared but not nursery-reared apes...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500340/both-haemagglutinin-specific-antibody-and-t-cell-responses-induced-by-a-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vaccine-confer-protection-against-influenza-h7n9-viral-challenge
#7
Xiang Wang, Weihui Fu, Songhua Yuan, Xi Yang, Yufeng Song, Lulu Liu, Yudan Chi, Tao Cheng, Man Xing, Yan Zhang, Chao Zhang, Yong Yang, Caihong Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Sidong Xiong, Jianqing Xu, Dongming Zhou
Since 2013, the outbreak or sporadic infection of a new reassortant H7N9 influenza virus in China has resulted in hundreds of deaths and thousands of illnesses. An H7N9 vaccine is urgently needed, as a licensed human vaccine against H7N9 influenza is currently not available. Here, we developed a recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine, AdC68-H7HA, by cloning the H7N9 haemagglutinin (HA) gene into the chimpanzee adenoviral vector AdC68. The efficacy of AdC68-H7HA was evaluated in mice as well as guinea pigs. For comparison, an H7N9 DNA vaccine based on HA was also generated and tested in mice and guinea pigs...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495649/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-novel-primate-bocaparvoviruses-from-wild-western-lowland-gorillas-of-moukalaba-doudou-national-park-gabon
#8
Chimene Nze-Nkogue, Masayuki Horie, Shiho Fujita, Eiji Inoue, Etienne-François Akomo-Okoue, Makoto Ozawa, Alfred Ngomanda, Juichi Yamagiwa, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara
Bocaparvoviruses have been studied extensively owing to their ability to cause respiratory illness or gastroenteritis in humans. Some bocaparvoviruses have been detected in non-human primates (gorillas and chimpanzees), but the diversity and evolution of these viruses are not fully understood. In this study, we collected 107 fecal samples from wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park in Gabon to investigate the presence of bocaparvoviruses. Using a combination of pan-bocaparvovirus PCR and individual identification by microsatellite genotyping, we found that two samples from two apparently healthy infant gorillas were positive for bocaparvovirus...
May 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489076/hla-dp-84gly-constitutively-presents-endogenous-peptides-generated-by-the-class-i-antigen-processing-pathway
#9
Yuki Yamashita, Mark Anczurowski, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Makito Tanaka, Yuki Kagoya, Ankit Sinha, Kenji Chamoto, Toshiki Ochi, Tingxi Guo, Kayoko Saso, Marcus O Butler, Mark D Minden, Thomas Kislinger, Naoto Hirano
Classical antigen processing leads to the presentation of antigenic peptides derived from endogenous and exogenous sources for MHC class I and class II molecules, respectively. Here we show that, unlike other class II molecules, prevalent HLA-DP molecules with β-chains encoding Gly84 (DP(84Gly)) constitutively present endogenous peptides. DP(84Gly) does not bind invariant chain (Ii) via the class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) region, nor does it present CLIP. However, Ii does facilitate the transport of DP(84Gly) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the endosomal/lysosomal pathway by transiently binding DP(84Gly) via a non-CLIP region(s) in a pH-sensitive manner...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487026/the-role-of-the-placenta-in-the-initiation-of-spiral-artery-remodelling-in-an-early-pregnant-chimpanzee-uterus
#10
L Vercruysse, A M Carter, R Pijnenborg
INTRODUCTION: In this study we evaluated the full extent of placental bed changes (centre to periphery) in a pregnant chimpanzee uterus, kept at the Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. According to placental size the specimen was equivalent to an 8 weeks pregnant human uterus. METHODS: Histological sections from central to peripheral tissue blocks of the placental bed were stained to reveal the presence of trophoblast, endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and elastic laminae...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483675/effector-cd8-t-cell-derived-interleukin-10-enhances-acute-liver-immunopathology
#11
Jessica Fioravanti, Pietro Di Lucia, Diletta Magini, Federica Moalli, Carolina Boni, Alexandre Pierre Benechet, Valeria Fumagalli, Donato Inverso, Andrea Vecchi, Amleto Fiocchi, Stefan Wieland, Robert Purcell, Carlo Ferrari, Francis V Chisari, Luca G Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Besides secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and effector molecules, effector CD8(+) T cells that arise upon acute infection with certain viruses have been shown to produce the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and, therefore, contain immunopathology. Whether the same occurs during acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the role that IL-10 might play in liver disease is currently unknown. METHODS: This study involved mouse models of acute HBV pathogenesis, as well as chimpanzees and patients acutely infected with HBV...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481946/a-sequence-in-the-loop-domain-of-hepatitis-c-virus-e2-protein-identified-in-silico-as-crucial-for-the-selective-binding-to-human-cd81
#12
Chun-Chun Chang, Hao-Jen Hsu, Jui-Hung Yen, Shih-Yen Lo, Je-Wen Liou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a species-specific pathogenic virus that infects only humans and chimpanzees. Previous studies have indicated that interactions between the HCV E2 protein and CD81 on host cells are required for HCV infection. To determine the crucial factors for species-specific interactions at the molecular level, this study employed in silico molecular docking involving molecular dynamic simulations of the binding of HCV E2 onto human and rat CD81s. In vitro experiments including surface plasmon resonance measurements and cellular binding assays were applied for simple validations of the in silico results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480137/-unwilling-versus-unable-tonkean-macaques-understanding-of-human-goal-directed-actions
#13
Charlotte Canteloup, Hélène Meunier
The present study investigated the understanding of goal-directed actions in Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) using the unwilling versus unable paradigm, previously used in several species. Subjects were tested in three experimental conditions that varied according to the goal-directed actions of a human actor. In the "unwilling" condition, the actor was capable of giving the subject food but unwilling to do it; in the "unable" condition, she was willing to give food but was unable to do it because of a physical barrier; and in the "distracted" condition, she was occupied by manipulating a pebble instead of food...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473646/genetic-factors-and-oro-facial-motor-learning-selectively-influence-variability-in-central-sulcus-morphology-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#14
William D Hopkins, Oliver Coulon, Adrien Meguerditchian, Michelle Autrey, Kendall Davidek, Lindsay Mahovetz, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been shown to learn the use of novel attention-getting (AG) sounds to capture the attention of humans as a means of requesting or drawing their attention to a desired object or food. There are significant individual differences in the use of AG sounds by chimpanzees and here we examined whether changes in cortical organization of the central sulcus were associated with AG sound production. MRI scans were collected from 240 chimpanzees, including 122 that reliably produced AG sounds and 118 that did not...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464365/extraction-of-honey-from-underground-bee-nests-by-central-african-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-troglodytes-in-loango-national-park-gabon-techniques-and-individual-differences
#15
Vittoria Estienne, Colleen Stephens, Christophe Boesch
A detailed analysis of tool use behaviors can disclose the underlying cognitive traits of the users. We investigated the technique used by wild chimpanzees to extract the underground nests of stingless bees (Meliplebeia lendliana), which represent a hard-to-reach resource given their highly undetectable location. Using remote-sensor camera trap footage, we analyzed 151 visits to 50 different bee nests by 18 adult chimpanzees of both sexes. We quantified the degree of complexity and flexibility of this technique by looking at the behavioral repertoire and at its structural organization...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464269/the-postcranial-skeletal-maturation-of-australopithecus-sediba
#16
Noel Cameron, Barry Bogin, Debra Bolter, Lee R Berger
OBJECTIVES: In 2008, an immature hominin defined as the holotype of the new species Australopithecus sediba was discovered at the 1.9 million year old Malapa site in South Africa. The specimen (MH1) includes substantial post-cranial skeletal material, and provides a unique opportunity to assess its skeletal maturation. METHODS: Skeletal maturity indicators observed on the proximal and distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal radius, third metacarpal, ilium and ischium, proximal femur and calcaneus were used to assess the maturity of each bone in comparison to references for modern humans and for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461219/divergent-lactate-dehydrogenase-isoenzyme-profile-in-cellular-compartments-of-primate-forebrain-structures
#17
Tetyana Duka, Zachary Collins, Sarah M Anderson, Mary Ann Raghanti, John J Ely, Patrick R Hof, Derek E Wildman, Morris Goodman, Lawrence I Grossman, Chet C Sherwood
The compartmentalization and association of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with specific cellular structures (e.g., synaptosomal, sarcoplasmic or mitochondrial) may play an important role in brain energy metabolism. Our previous research revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction shifted toward the aerobic isoforms (LDH-B) among the large-brained haplorhine primates compared to strepsirrhines. Here, we further analyzed the subcellular localization of LDH in primate forebrain structures using quantitative Western blotting and ELISA...
April 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458095/the-shrinking-human-gut-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Andrew H Moeller
Mammals harbor complex assemblages of gut bacteria that are deeply integrated with their hosts' digestive, immune, and neuroendocrine systems. Recent work has revealed that there has been a substantial loss of gut bacterial diversity from humans since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. This bacterial depauperation began in humanity's ancient evolutionary past and has accelerated in recent years with the advent of modern lifestyles. Today, humans living in industrialized societies harbor the lowest levels of gut bacterial diversity of any primate for which metagenomic data are available, a condition that may increase risk of infections, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic syndrome...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454037/agricultural-expansion-as-risk-to-endangered-wildlife-pesticide-exposure-in-wild-chimpanzees-and-baboons-displaying-facial-dysplasia
#19
Sabrina Krief, Philippe Berny, Francis Gumisiriza, Régine Gross, Barbara Demeneix, Jean Baptiste Fini, Colin A Chapman, Lauren J Chapman, Andrew Seguya, John Wasswa
Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447043/comparative-genomics-of-human-stem-cell-factor-scf
#20
Moein Dehbashi, Elahe Kamali, Sadeq Vallian
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a critical protein with key roles in the cell such as hematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. In the present study a comparative analysis on nucleotide sequences of SCF was performed in Humanoids using bioinformatics tools including NCBI-BLAST, MEGA6, and JBrowse. Our analysis of nucleotide sequences to find closely evolved organisms with high similarity by NCBI-BLAST tools and MEGA6 showed that human and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were placed into the same cluster. By using JBrowse, we found that SCF in Neanderthal had a single copy number similar to modern human and partly conserved nucleotide sequences...
March 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
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