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polyketide synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#1
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719729/synthesis-of-c-glucosylated-octaketide-anthraquinones-in-n-benthamiana-using-a-multispecies-based-biosynthetic-pathway
#2
Johan Andersen-Ranberg, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad, Majse Nafisi, Dan Staerk, Finn Okkels, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen, Birger Lindberg Møller, Rasmus John Normand Frandsen, Rubini Kannangara
Carminic acid is a C-glucosylated octaketide anthraquinone and the main constituent of the natural dye carmine (E120) possessing unique coloring, stability and solubility properties. Despite being used since ancient times, longstanding efforts to elucidate its route of biosynthesis have been unsuccessful. Herein is reported a novel combination of enzymes derived from a plant (Aloe arborescens, Aa), a bacterium (Streptomyces sp R1128, St), and an insect (Dactylopius coccus, Dc) that allows for the biosynthesis of the C-glucosylated anthraquinone, dcII, a precursor for carminic acid...
July 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712746/formation-of-an-angular-aromatic-polyketide-from-a-linear-anthrene-precursor-via-oxidative-rearrangement
#3
Guixi Gao, Xiangyang Liu, Min Xu, Yemin Wang, Fei Zhang, Lijun Xu, Jin Lv, Qingshan Long, Qianjin Kang, Hong-Yu Ou, Ying Wang, Jürgen Rohr, Zixin Deng, Ming Jiang, Shuangjun Lin, Meifeng Tao
Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a group of natural products synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs) that show diverse structures and biological activities. They are structurally subclassified into linear, angular, and discoid aromatic polyketides, the formation of which is commonly determined by the shaping and folding of the poly-β-keto intermediates under the concerted actions of the minimal PKSs, cyclases and ketoreductases. Murayaquinone, found in several streptomycetes, possesses an unusual tricyclic angular aromatic polyketide core containing a 9,10-phenanthraquinone...
July 6, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705395/targeted-disruption-of-the-polyketide-synthase-gene-pks15-affects-virulence-against-insects-and-phagocytic-survival-in-the-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#4
Wachiraporn Toopaang, Suranat Phonghanpot, Juntira Punya, Cheerapha Panyasiri, Kewarin Klamchao, Rudsamee Wasuwan, Chettida Srisuksam, Duangjai Sangsrakru, Chutima Sonthirod, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Morakot Tanticharoen, Alongkorn Amnuaykanjanasin
The reducing clade III polyketide synthase genes, including pks15, are highly conserved among entomopathogenic fungi. To examine the function of pks15, we used targeted disruption to investigate the impact of Beauveria bassiana pks15 on insect pathogenesis. Southern analysis verified that the Δpks15 mutant was disrupted by a single integration of the transformation cassette at the pks15 locus. The Δpks15 mutant had a slight reduction in radial growth, and it produced fewer spores. Our insect bioassays indicated the Δpks15 mutant to be significantly reduced in virulence against beet armyworms compared to wild type (WT), which could be partially accounted for by its markedly decreased ability to survive phagocytosis...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704687/antimicrobial-polyketide-furanoterpenoids-from-seaweed-associated-heterotrophic-bacterium-bacillus-subtilis-mtcc-10403
#5
Kajal Chakraborty, Bini Thilakan, Vamshi Krishna Raola
Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens...
July 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698520/the-polyketide-components-of-waxes-and-the-cer-cqu-gene-cluster-encoding-a-novel-polyketide-synthase-the-%C3%AE-diketone-synthase-dks
#6
REVIEW
Penny von Wettstein-Knowles
The primary function of the outermost, lipophilic layer of plant aerial surfaces, called the cuticle, is preventing non-stomatal water loss. Its exterior surface is often decorated with wax crystals, imparting a blue-grey color. Identification of the barley Cer-c, -q and -u genes forming the 101 kb Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase-the β-diketone synthase (DKS), a lipase/carboxyl transferase, and a P450 hydroxylase, respectively, establishes a new, major pathway for the synthesis of plant waxes...
July 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696720/bacterial-production-of-a-pederin-analogue-by-a-free-living-marine-alphaproteobacterium
#7
Carmen Schleissner, Librada M Cañedo, Pilar Rodríguez, Cristina Crespo, Paz Zúñiga, Ana Peñalver, Fernando de la Calle, Carmen Cuevas
The polyketide pederin family are cytotoxic compounds isolated from insects, lichen, and marine sponges. During the past decade, different uncultivable bacteria symbionts have been proposed as the real producers of these compounds, such as those found in insects, lichen, and marine sponges, and their trans-AT polyketide synthase gene clusters have been identified. Herein we report the isolation and biological activities of a new analogue of the pederin family, compound 1, from the culture of a marine heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium, Labrenzia sp...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695854/the-putative-polyketide-cyclase-msmeg_0129-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#8
Shuping Zheng, Ying Zhou, Joy Fleming, Yafeng Zhou, Wei Liu, Lijun Bi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0164 has previously been identified as a human T-cell antigen that induces significant production of IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. M. smegmatis MSMEG_0129 shares 59% sequence identity with Rv0164. Based on sequence alignment, both proteins are predicted to be members of the cyclase/dehydrase family, which is part of a large group of enzymes referred to as type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). In biosynthetic pathways mediated by type II PKSs, cyclases catalyze the conversion of linear poly-β-ketones to cyclized intermediates...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694866/strategies-in-megasynthase-engineering-fatty-acid-synthases-fas-as-model-proteins
#9
REVIEW
Manuel Fischer, Martin Grininger
Megasynthases are large multienzyme proteins that produce a plethora of important natural compounds by catalyzing the successive condensation and modification of precursor units. Within the class of megasynthases, polyketide synthases (PKS) are responsible for the production of a large spectrum of bioactive polyketides (PK), which have frequently found their way into therapeutic applications. Rational engineering approaches have been performed during the last 25 years that seek to employ the "assembly-line synthetic concept" of megasynthases in order to deliver new bioactive compounds...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690135/genome-editing-in-shiraia-bambusicola-using-crispr-cas9-system
#10
Huaxiang Deng, Ruijie Gao, Xiangru Liao, Yujie Cai
Shiraia bambusicola can produce a type of hypocrellin, which is applied in antibacterial, antitumoral, and antiviral areas. Studies on the hypocrellin pathway have not been confirmed due to the deficiency of suitable genetic methods We constructed a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9 system in Shiraia sp. SUPER-H168 and targeted a polyketide synthase (SbaPKS). No hypocrellin production was detected in the ΔSbaPKS mutant. Relative expression levels of SbaPKS and its adjacent genes were extremely down-regulated in the ΔSbaPKS mutant compared to those in the wild strain...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690133/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-velezensis-strain-gh1-13-reveals-agriculturally-beneficial-properties-and-a-unique-plasmid
#11
Sang Yoon Kim, Hajin Song, Mee Kyung Sang, Hang-Yeon Weon, Jaekyeong Song
The bacterial strain Bacillus velezensis GH1-13, isolated from rice paddy soil in Korea, has been shown to promote plant growth and have strong antagonistic activities against pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of GH1-13, revealing that it possesses a single 4,071,980-bp circular chromosome with 46.2% GC-content. The chromosome encodes 3,930 genes, and we have also identified a unique plasmid in the strain that encodes a further 104 genes (71,628bp and 31.7% GC-content). The genome was found to contain various enzyme-encoding operons, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis proteins, 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, various non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and several polyketide synthases...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690095/evolution-of-polyketide-synthesis-in-a-dothideomycete-forest-pathogen
#12
I Kutay Ozturk, Pranav Chettri, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Irene Barnes, Rebecca L McDougal, Geromy G Moore, Andre Sim, Rosie E Bradshaw
Fungal secondary metabolites have many important biological roles and some, like the toxic polyketide aflatoxin, have been intensively studied at the genetic level. Complete sets of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes can now be identified in fungal pathogens by whole genome sequencing and studied in order to predict the biosynthetic potential of those fungi. The pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum is predicted to have only three functional PKS genes, a small number for a hemibiotrophic fungus. One of these genes is required for production of dothistromin, a polyketide virulence factor related to aflatoxin, whose biosynthetic genes are dispersed across one chromosome rather than being clustered...
July 6, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685195/characterization-of-three-pathway-specific-regulators-for-high-production-of-monensin-in-streptomyces-cinnamonensis
#13
Zheng-Kun Tang, Xiao-Mei Li, Ai-Ping Pang, Chun-Yan Lin, Yue Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jianjun Qiao, Guang-Rong Zhao
Monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis and worldwide used as a coccidiostat and growth-promoting agent in the field of animal feeding. The monensin biosynthetic gene cluster (mon) has been reported. In this study, the potential functions of three putatively pathway-specific regulators (MonH, MonRI, and MonRII) were clarified. The results from gene inactivation, complementation, and overexpression showed that MonH, MonRI, and MonRII positively regulate monensin production...
July 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682630/elucidation-of-the-cryptic-methyl-group-epimerase-activity-of-dehydratase-domains-from-modular-polyketide-synthases-using-a-tandem-modules-epimerase-assay
#14
Xinqiang Xie, Ashish Garg, Chaitan Khosla, David E Cane
Dehydratase (DH) domains of cryptic function are often found in polyketide synthase (PKS) modules that produce epimerized (2S)-2-methyl-3-ketoacyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein) intermediates. A combination of tandem equilibrium isotope exchange (EIX) and a newly developed Tandem Modules Epimerase assay revealed the intrinsic epimerase activity of NanDH1 and NanDH5, from modules 1 and 5, respectively, of the nanchangmycin (1) PKS as well of NigDH1, from module 1 of the nigericin (3) PKS. Unexpectedly, all three epimerase-active DH domains were also found to possess intrinsic dehydratase activity, whereas the conventional DH domains, EryDH4, from module 4 of the erythromycin synthase, and NanDH2 from module 2 of the nanchangmycin synthase, were shown to have cryptic epimerase activity...
July 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679030/reversible-product-release-and-recapture-by-a-fungal-polyketide-synthase-using-a-carnitine-acyltransferase-domain
#15
Leibniz Hang, Man-Cheng Tang, Colin J B Harvey, Claire G Page, Jian Li, Yiu-Sun Hung, Nicholas Liu, Maureen E Hillenmeyer, Yi Tang
Fungal polyketides have significant biological activities, yet the biosynthesis by highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) remains enigmatic. An uncharacterized group of HRPKSs was found to contain a C-terminal domain with significant homology to carnitine O-acyltransferase (cAT). Characterization of one such HRPKS (Tv6-931) from Trichoderma virens showed that the cAT domain is capable of esterifying the polyketide product with polyalcohol nucleophiles. This process is readily reversible, as confirmed through the holo ACP-dependent transesterification of the released product...
June 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678294/correction-uncovering-the-structures-of-modular-polyketide-synthases
#16
Kira J Weissman
Correction for 'Uncovering the structures of modular polyketide synthases' by Kira J. Weissman, Nat. Prod. Rep., 2015, 32, 436-453.
July 5, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669536/development-of-a-novel-lead-that-targets-m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-polyketide-synthase-13
#17
Anup Aggarwal, Maloy K Parai, Nishant Shetty, Deeann Wallis, Lisa Woolhiser, Courtney Hastings, Noton K Dutta, Stacy Galaviz, Ramesh C Dhakal, Rupesh Shrestha, Shoko Wakabayashi, Chris Walpole, David Matthews, David Floyd, Paul Scullion, Jennifer Riley, Ola Epemolu, Suzanne Norval, Thomas Snavely, Gregory T Robertson, Eric J Rubin, Thomas R Ioerger, Frik A Sirgel, Ruben van der Merwe, Paul D van Helden, Peter Keller, Erik C Böttger, Petros C Karakousis, Anne J Lenaerts, James C Sacchettini
Widespread resistance to first-line TB drugs is a major problem that will likely only be resolved through the development of new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. We have used structure-guided methods to develop a lead molecule that targets the thioesterase activity of polyketide synthase Pks13, an essential enzyme that forms mycolic acids, required for the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our lead, TAM16, is a benzofuran class inhibitor of Pks13 with highly potent in vitro bactericidal activity against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant clinical isolates of M...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647529/-linking-secondary-metabolites-to-biosynthesis-genes-in-the-fungal-endophyte-cyanodermella-asteris-the-anti-cancer-bisanthraquinone-skyrin
#18
Linda Jahn, Thomas Schafhauser, Daniel Wibberg, Christian Rückert, Anika Winkler, Andreas Kulik, Tilmann Weber, Liane Flor, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Jörn Kalinowski, Jutta Ludwig-Müllera, Wolfgang Wohlleben
Fungal aromatic polyketides display a very diverse and widespread group of natural products. Due to their excellent light absorption properties and widely studied biological activities, they offer numerous application for food, textile and pharmaceutical industry. The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthases iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633821/enhanced-production-of-hypocrellin-a-by-ultrasound-stimulation-in-submerged-cultures-of-shiraia-bambusicola
#19
Chun Xiao Sun, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
Hypocrellin A (HA), a naturally occurring fungal perylenequinone, is widely used in clinic to treat skin diseases and developed as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent against cancers. In this study, a low intensity ultrasound (US, 0.28W/cm(2) at 40kHz) was conducted thrice of repeated US exposure (5-min) with an interval of 12h to stimulate HA production of Shiraia bambusicola after 72h of the initial submerged cultures. US not only increased the content of HA by 177.2% in mycelia, but stimulated the release of HA into the medium with the highest total production of HA (247...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625788/structural-and-functional-trends-in-dehydrating-bimodules-from-trans-acyltransferase-polyketide-synthases
#20
Drew T Wagner, Jia Zeng, Constance B Bailey, Darren C Gay, Fang Yuan, Hannah R Manion, Adrian T Keatinge-Clay
In an effort to uncover the structural motifs and biosynthetic logic of the relatively uncharacterized trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases, we have begun the dissection of the enigmatic dehydrating bimodules common in these enzymatic assembly lines. We report the 1.98 Å resolution structure of a ketoreductase (KR) from the first half of a type A dehydrating bimodule and the 2.22 Å resolution structure of a dehydratase (DH) from the second half of a type B dehydrating bimodule. The KR, from the third module of the bacillaene synthase, and the DH, from the tenth module of the difficidin synthase, possess features not observed in structurally characterized homologs...
July 5, 2017: Structure
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