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polyketide synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#1
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817927/identification-of-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-from-metagenomic-libraries-using-pptase-complementation-in-a-streptomyces-host
#2
J Kipchirchir Bitok, Christophe Lemetre, Melinda A Ternei, Sean F Brady
The majority of environmental bacteria are not readily cultured in the lab, leaving the natural products they make inaccessible using culture-dependent discovery methods. Cloning and heterologous expression of DNA extracted from environmental samples (environmental DNA, eDNA) provides a means of circumventing this discovery bottleneck. To facilitate the identification of clones containing biosynthetic gene clusters, we developed a model heterologous expression reporter strain Streptomyces albus::bpsA ΔPPTase...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809958/a-cre1-regulated-cluster-is-responsible-for-light-dependent-production-of-dihydrotrichotetronin-in-trichoderma-reesei
#3
Alberto Alonso Monroy, Eva Stappler, Andre Schuster, Michael Sulyok, Monika Schmoll
Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803260/microbial-volatile-compounds-alter-the-soil-microbial-community
#4
Jun Yuan, Mengli Zhao, Rong Li, Qiwei Huang, Waseem Raza, Christopher Rensing, Qirong Shen
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil bacteria are likely to have an important role in the interactions among soil microorganisms. However, their effects on the soil microbial community have not been extensively studied. In this study, the effect of bacterial VOCs generated by growing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 on modified MS medium on soil microbial community was evaluated. B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 was able to produce 48 volatile compounds as determined by solid-phase microextraction-GC/MS. MiSeq sequencing data showed that bacterial VOCs could alter the composition of both soil bacterial and soil fungal communities and could decrease the alpha-diversity of the soil microbial community...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783252/the-polyketide-synthase-ospks2-is-essential-for-pollen-exine-and-ubisch-body-patterning-in-rice
#5
Xiaolei Zhu, Jing Yu, Jianxin Shi, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Sagit Meir, Asaph Aharoni, Dawei Xu, Dabing Zhang, Wanqi Liang
Lipid and phenolic metabolism are important for pollen exine formation. In Arabidopsis, polyketide synthases (PKSs) are essential for both sporopollenin biosynthesis and exine formation. Here, we characterized the role of a polyketide synthase (OsPKS2) in male reproduction of rice (Oryza sativa). Recombinant OsPKS2 catalyzed the condensation of fatty acyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to generate triketide and tetraketide α-pyrones, the main components of pollen exine. Indeed, the ospks2 mutant had defective exine patterning and was male sterile...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774961/identification-and-characterization-of-a-bacterial-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-catalyzing-the-3-nitration-of-tyrosine-in-rufomycin-biosynthesis
#6
Hiroya Tomita, Yohei Katsuyama, Hiromichi Minami, Yasuo Ohnishi
Rufomycin is a circular heptapeptide with anti-mycobacterial activity and is produced by Streptomyces atratus ATCC 14046. Its structure contains three non-proteinogenic amino acids, N-dimethylallyltryptophan, trans-2-crotylglycine, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NTyr). Although the rufomycin structure was already reported in the 1960s, its biosynthesis, including 3-NTyr generation, remains unclear. To elucidate the rufomycin biosynthetic pathway, we assembled a draft genome sequence of S. atratus and identified the rufomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (ruf cluster), consisting of 20 ORFs (rufA-rufT)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762637/suppressing-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-is-not-a-breakthrough-if-not-useful
#7
Jonathan Gressel, Guy Polturak
Liver-affecting, carcinogenic aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. are a major problem, especially in the humid developing world where storage conditions are often optimal for the fungi. Peanuts and maize have been transformed with RNAi constructs targeting Aspergillus flavus polyketide-synthase, an early key enzyme in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Aflatoxin biosynthesis was suppressed in developing immature grain, less so in late maturing grain, and it is doubtful that the technology will be effective in near dry mature grain...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755294/vdpks1-is-required-for-melanin-formation-and-virulence-in-a-cotton-wilt-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae
#8
Ting Zhang, Bosen Zhang, Chenlei Hua, Pei Meng, Sheng Wang, Zhirong Chen, Yejuan Du, Feng Gao, Jiafeng Huang
Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt disease in a broad range of hosts. This pathogen survives for many years in soil in the form of melanized microsclerotia. To investigate the melanin synthesis in V. dahliae, we identified a polyketide synthase gene in V. dahliae, namely VdPKS1. PKS1 is known to involve in the dihydroxynaphthalene melanin synthesis pathway in many fungi. We found that VdPKS1 was required for melanin formation but not for microsclerotial production in V...
July 26, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754205/the-g%C3%AE-1-camp-signaling-pathway-controls-conidiation-development-and-secondary-metabolism-in-the-taxol-producing-fungus-pestalotiopsis-microspora
#9
Xi Yu, Heng Liu, Xueliang Niu, Oren Akhberdi, Dongsheng Wei, Dan Wang, Xudong Zhu
G-protein-mediated signaling pathways regulate fungal morphogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. In this study, we report a gene, pgα1, that putatively encodes the α-subunit of a group I G protein in Pestalotiopsis microspora NK17, which is known to produce various secondary metabolites, including the antitumor drug taxol and pestalotiollide B (PB). Mutants of pgα1 showed retarded vegetative growth, aging of the mycelium, premature conidiation, deformed conidia, significantly increased melanin production, and a sharp decrease in PB production...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753290/ralstonins-a-and-b-lipopeptides-with-chlamydospore-inducing-and-phytotoxic-activities-from-the-plant-pathogen-ralstonia-solanacearum
#10
Yuta Murai, Shoko Mori, Hiroyuki Konno, Yasufumi Hikichi, Kenji Kai
Ralstonia solanacearum has an orphan hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. We herein isolate its products (named ralstonins A and B) from R. solanacearum and elucidate their structures and biological activities. Ralstonins are unusual lipodepsipeptides composed of 11 amino acids (containing unique amino acids such as β-hydroxytyrosine and dehydroalanine) and a 3-amino-2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, and their production is controlled by quorum sensing, a mechanism of bacterial cell-cell communication...
July 28, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729856/biological-significance-of-marine-actinobacteria-of-east-coast-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#11
Alapati Kavitha, Handanahal S Savithri
An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#12
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719729/synthesis-of-c-glucosylated-octaketide-anthraquinones-in-n-benthamiana-using-a-multispecies-based-biosynthetic-pathway
#13
Johan Andersen-Ranberg, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad, Majse Nafisi, Dan Staerk, Finn Okkels, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen, Birger Lindberg Møller, Rasmus John Normand Frandsen, Rubini Kannangara
Carminic acid is a C-glucosylated octaketide anthraquinone and the main constituent of the natural dye carmine (E120) possessing unique coloring, stability and solubility properties. Despite being used since ancient times, longstanding efforts to elucidate its route of biosynthesis have been unsuccessful. Herein is reported a novel combination of enzymes derived from a plant (Aloe arborescens, Aa), a bacterium (Streptomyces sp R1128, St), and an insect (Dactylopius coccus, Dc) that allows for the biosynthesis of the C-glucosylated anthraquinone, dcII, a precursor for carminic acid...
July 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712746/formation-of-an-angular-aromatic-polyketide-from-a-linear-anthrene-precursor-via-oxidative-rearrangement
#14
Guixi Gao, Xiangyang Liu, Min Xu, Yemin Wang, Fei Zhang, Lijun Xu, Jin Lv, Qingshan Long, Qianjin Kang, Hong-Yu Ou, Ying Wang, Jürgen Rohr, Zixin Deng, Ming Jiang, Shuangjun Lin, Meifeng Tao
Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a group of natural products synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs) that show diverse structures and biological activities. They are structurally subclassified into linear, angular, and discoid aromatic polyketides, the formation of which is commonly determined by the shaping and folding of the poly-β-keto intermediates under the concerted actions of the minimal PKSs, cyclases and ketoreductases. Murayaquinone, found in several streptomycetes, possesses an unusual tricyclic angular aromatic polyketide core containing a 9,10-phenanthraquinone...
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705395/targeted-disruption-of-the-polyketide-synthase-gene-pks15-affects-virulence-against-insects-and-phagocytic-survival-in-the-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#15
Wachiraporn Toopaang, Suranat Phonghanpot, Juntira Punya, Cheerapha Panyasiri, Kewarin Klamchao, Rudsamee Wasuwan, Chettida Srisuksam, Duangjai Sangsrakru, Chutima Sonthirod, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Morakot Tanticharoen, Alongkorn Amnuaykanjanasin
The reducing clade III polyketide synthase genes, including pks15, are highly conserved among entomopathogenic fungi. To examine the function of pks15, we used targeted disruption to investigate the impact of Beauveria bassiana pks15 on insect pathogenesis. Southern analysis verified that the Δpks15 mutant was disrupted by a single integration of the transformation cassette at the pks15 locus. The Δpks15 mutant had a slight reduction in radial growth, and it produced fewer spores. Our insect bioassays indicated the Δpks15 mutant to be significantly reduced in virulence against beet armyworms compared to wild type (WT), which could be partially accounted for by its markedly decreased ability to survive phagocytosis...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704687/antimicrobial-polyketide-furanoterpenoids-from-seaweed-associated-heterotrophic-bacterium-bacillus-subtilis-mtcc-10403
#16
Kajal Chakraborty, Bini Thilakan, Vamshi Krishna Raola
Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens...
July 10, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698520/the-polyketide-components-of-waxes-and-the-cer-cqu-gene-cluster-encoding-a-novel-polyketide-synthase-the-%C3%AE-diketone-synthase-dks
#17
REVIEW
Penny von Wettstein-Knowles
The primary function of the outermost, lipophilic layer of plant aerial surfaces, called the cuticle, is preventing non-stomatal water loss. Its exterior surface is often decorated with wax crystals, imparting a blue-grey color. Identification of the barley Cer-c, -q and -u genes forming the 101 kb Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase-the β-diketone synthase (DKS), a lipase/carboxyl transferase, and a P450 hydroxylase, respectively, establishes a new, major pathway for the synthesis of plant waxes...
July 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696720/bacterial-production-of-a-pederin-analogue-by-a-free-living-marine-alphaproteobacterium
#18
Carmen Schleissner, Librada M Cañedo, Pilar Rodríguez, Cristina Crespo, Paz Zúñiga, Ana Peñalver, Fernando de la Calle, Carmen Cuevas
The polyketide pederin family are cytotoxic compounds isolated from insects, lichen, and marine sponges. During the past decade, different uncultivable bacteria symbionts have been proposed as the real producers of these compounds, such as those found in insects, lichen, and marine sponges, and their trans-AT polyketide synthase gene clusters have been identified. Herein we report the isolation and biological activities of a new analogue of the pederin family, compound 1, from the culture of a marine heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium, Labrenzia sp...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695854/the-putative-polyketide-cyclase-msmeg_0129-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis
#19
Shuping Zheng, Ying Zhou, Joy Fleming, Yafeng Zhou, Wei Liu, Lijun Bi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0164 has previously been identified as a human T-cell antigen that induces significant production of IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. M. smegmatis MSMEG_0129 shares 59% sequence identity with Rv0164. Based on sequence alignment, both proteins are predicted to be members of the cyclase/dehydrase family, which is part of a large group of enzymes referred to as type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). In biosynthetic pathways mediated by type II PKSs, cyclases catalyze the conversion of linear poly-β-ketones to cyclized intermediates...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694866/strategies-in-megasynthase-engineering-fatty-acid-synthases-fas-as-model-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Manuel Fischer, Martin Grininger
Megasynthases are large multienzyme proteins that produce a plethora of important natural compounds by catalyzing the successive condensation and modification of precursor units. Within the class of megasynthases, polyketide synthases (PKS) are responsible for the production of a large spectrum of bioactive polyketides (PK), which have frequently found their way into therapeutic applications. Rational engineering approaches have been performed during the last 25 years that seek to employ the "assembly-line synthetic concept" of megasynthases in order to deliver new bioactive compounds...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
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