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Joseph J Ryan, David S Kreiner, Laura Glass Umfleet, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Allison Myers-Fabian
We examined relationships between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in two clinical samples. The mean pattern produced by 42 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the same, GAI > CPI. This pattern occurred in 61.9% and 78.7% of the protocols of patients with MS or TBI, respectively. The MS sample earned a significantly larger CPI mean than did patients with TBI...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Yi-Jen Wu, Philip Tseng, Han-Wei Huang, Jon-Fan Hu, Chi-Hung Juan, Kuei-Sen Hsu, Chou-Ching Lin
Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM) capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixteen DPN patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) for baseline cognitive assessment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Peter Bright, Emily Hale, Vikki Jayne Gooch, Thomas Myhill, Ian van der Linde
Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982 ; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991 ) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997 , and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART...
September 14, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Ewa Bulzacka, John E Meyers, Laurent Boyer, Tifenn Le Gloahec, Guillaume Fond, Andrei Szöke, Marion Leboyer, Franck Schürhoff
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the psychometric properties of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF) for WAIS-IV in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder. METHOD: Seventy patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the full version of the WAIS-IV. Four different versions of the Ward's SF were then calculated. The subtests used were: Similarities, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Information, Coding, Picture Completion, and Block Design (BD version) or Matrix Reasoning (MR version)...
September 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Dorota Buczylowska, Franz Petermann
Data from five subtests of the Executive Functions Module of the German Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) and all ten core subtests of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were used to examine the relationship between executive functions and intelligence in a comparison of two age groups: individuals aged 18-59 years and individuals aged 60-88 years. The NAB subtests Categories and Word Generation demonstrated a consistent correlation pattern for both age groups...
August 2, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Nicola Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards' criticism of the general population norms created for the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV. In her criticism, she states that the norms are not applicable for any groups in South Africa, based on the fact that the norms were not stratified according to quality of education. METHOD: A discussion of some of the key issues that impact on the creation of general population norms in the South African context is provided...
October 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
A B Shuttleworth-Edwards
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to address the issue of IQ testing within the multicultural context, with a focus on the adequacy of nationwide population-based norms vs. demographically stratified within-group norms for valid assessment purposes. Burgeoning cultural diversity worldwide creates a pressing need to cultivate culturally fair psychological assessment practices. METHOD: Commentary is provided to highlight sources of test-taking bias on tests of intellectual ability that may incur invalid placement and diagnostic decisions in multicultural settings...
October 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Jelte M Wicherts
OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive test batteries such as recent editions of the Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III/WAIS-IV) typically use nation-level population-based norms. The question is whether these batteries function in the same manner across different subgroups based on gender, age, educational background, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, mother tongue, or race. Here, the author argues that measurement invariance is a core issue in determining whether population-based norms are valid for different subgroups...
October 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Carlton S Gass, Laura Gutierrez
The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear...
June 7, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Thérèse M Chevalier, Garth Stewart, Monty Nelson, Robert J McInerney, Norman Brodie
It has been well documented that IQ scores calculated using Canadian norms are generally 2-5 points lower than those calculated using American norms on the Wechsler IQ scales. However, recent findings have demonstrated that the difference may be significantly larger for individuals with certain demographic characteristics, and this has prompted discussion about the appropriateness of using the Canadian normative system with a clinical population in Canada. This study compared the interpretive effects of applying the American and Canadian normative systems in a clinical sample...
August 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Laszlo A Erdodi, Christopher A Abeare, Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Bradley T Tyson, Brittany Kucharski, Brandon G Zuccato, Robert M Roth
Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (...
April 28, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Caroline Scheiber, Hsinyi Chen, Alan S Kaufman, Lawrence G Weiss
The most prominent pattern of cognitive change over the lifespan centers on the difference between patterns of maintained abilities on tests of crystallized knowledge and patterns of steady decline on tests of problem solving and processing speed. Whereas the maintained-vulnerable dichotomy is well established in the literature, questions remain about cognitive decline in problem solving when processing speed is controlled. This relationship has been examined in cross-sectional studies that typically used non-clinical tests with non-representative samples of adults...
April 14, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada, Boris Lucero, Verónica Iglesias, María Pía Muñoz, Eduardo Achú, Claudia Cornejo, Carlos Concha, Angela Grillo, Ana María Brito
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate organophosphate pesticide exposure and neuropsychological and motor performance in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in the Maule Region in Chile. METHOD: Analytic cross-sectional study in 93 exposed farm workers and 84 unexposed non-agricultural workers. A battery of four neuropsychological tests was administered together with a neuro-motor physical examination. RESULTS: On the Weschler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-IV), exposed agricultural workers exhibited poorer performance than non-agricultural workers in verbal comprehension (β=-3...
May 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Navaneetham J Sudarshan, Stephen C Bowden, Donald H Saklofske, Lawrence G Weiss
Assessment of measurement invariance across populations is essential for meaningful comparison of test scores, and is especially relevant where repeated measurements are required for educational assessment or clinical diagnosis. Establishing measurement invariance legitimizes the assumption that test scores reflect the same psychological trait in different populations or across different occasions. Examination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) U.S. standardization samples revealed that a first-order 5-factor measurement model was best fitting across 9 age groups from 16 years to 69 years...
February 11, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Geoffrey Davies, Adina Piovesana
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify, examine, and compare tests used to measure and assess verbal abstract reasoning (VAR). METHOD: Seven tests were identified through a systematic search of electronic databases, neuropsychological textbooks, and online catalogs. Clinical utility, normative data, and psychometric properties (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity) of current test versions were evaluated using recent studies...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Nicolette S Ingram, Jessica V Diakoumakos, Erin R Sinclair, Simon F Crowe
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated proactive and retroactive interference effects between the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using the flexible approach, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). METHOD: One hundred and eighty nonclinical participants were assigned to a four (visual interference, verbal interference, visual and verbal interference, vs. no interference) by two (retroactive vs. proactive) between-subjects design...
2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jason R Soble, Janice C Marceaux, Juliette Galindo, Jeffrey A Sordahl, Jonathan M Highsmith, Justin J F O'Rourke, David Andrés González, Edan A Critchfield, Karin J M McCoy
INTRODUCTION: Confrontation naming tests are a common neuropsychological method of assessing language and a critical diagnostic tool in identifying certain neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is limited literature examining the visual-perceptual demands of these tasks. This study investigated the effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on three confrontation naming tests, the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test, and Visual Naming Test (VNT) to elucidate the diverse cognitive functions underlying these tasks to assist with test selection procedures and increase diagnostic accuracy...
2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Erin Logue, David M Scarisbrick, Nicholas S Thaler, James J Mahoney, Cady K Block, Russell Adams, James Scott
OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to validate the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) against similar, well-established measures of attention and processing speed. Additionally, the sensitivity of the CPI and Attention Index of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and their ability to differentiate among clinical groups were compared. METHOD: The first objective was accomplished by calculating correlation coefficients between the CPI and similar attention and processing speed measures...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Loes van Aken, Paul T van der Heijden, William M van der Veld, Laureen Hermans, Roy P C Kessels, Jos I M Egger
The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has been guiding in the revision of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV). Especially the measurement of fluid reasoning (Gf) is improved. A total of five CHC abilities are included in the WAIS-IV subtests. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a five-factor model based on these CHC abilities is evaluated and compared with the four index scores in the Dutch-language version of the WAIS-IV. Both models demonstrate moderate fit, preference is given to the five-factor CHC model both on statistical and theoretical grounds...
September 30, 2015: Assessment
Francisco J Abad, Miguel A Sorrel, Francisco J Román, Roberto Colom
IQ summary scores may not involve equivalent psychological meaning for different educational levels. Ultimately, this relates to the distinction between constructs and measurements. Here, we explore this issue studying the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) for Spain. A representative sample of 743 individuals (374 females and 369 males) who completed the 15 subtests comprising this intelligence battery was considered. We analyzed (a) the best latent factor structure for modeling WAIS-IV subtest performance, (b) measurement invariance across educational levels, and (c) the relationships of educational level/attainment with latent factors, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and index factor scores...
August 2016: Psychological Assessment
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