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preterm cortical

Minhui Ouyang, Peiying Liu, Tina Jeon, Lina Chalak, Roy Heyne, Nancy K Rollins, Daniel J Licht, John A Detre, Timothy P L Roberts, Hanzhang Lu, Hao Huang
The human brain develops rapidly during 32-45 postmenstrual weeks (PMW), a critical stage characterized by dramatic increases of metabolic demand. The increasing metabolic demand can be inferred through measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), which might be coupled to regional metabolism in preterm brains. Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI is one of the few viable approaches for imaging regional CBF of preterm brains, but must be optimized for the extremely slow blood velocity unique in preterm brains...
December 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Elaine Fletcher, Jean Wade, Petrina A Georgala, Trudi L Gillespie, David J Price, Elizabeth Pilley, Julie-Clare Becher
BACKGROUND: The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7...
December 13, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
E J Meijer, H J Niemarkt, I P P C Raaijmakers, A M Mulder, C van Pul, P F F Wijn, P Andriessen
Brain connectivity is associated with axonal connections between brain structures. Our goal was to quantify the interhemispheric neuronal connectivity in healthy preterm infants by automated quantitative EEG time-correlation analysis. As with advancing postmenstrual age (PMA, gestational age  +  postnatal age) the neuronal connectivity between left and right hemisphere increases, we expect to observe changes in EEG time-correlation with age. Thirty-six appropriate-for-gestational age preterm infants (PMA between 27-37 weeks) and normal neurodevelopmental follow-up at 5 years of age were included...
December 2016: Physiological Measurement
Ândrea de Melo, Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio, Inaê Costa Rechia, Pricila Sleifer
Purpose: To measure the exogenous components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) in term and preterm newborns and compare them considering the variables latency and amplitude. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, prospective, comparative, contemporary study. One hundred twenty-seven newborns were evaluated; 96 of these were included in the study after analysis of the exams by three referees. Participants were divided into two groups: Term Group: 66 infants and Preterm Group: 30 neonates...
September 2016: CoDAS
Eliza Orasanu, Andrew Melbourne, Manuel Jorge Cardoso, Herve Lombaert, Giles S Kendall, Nicola J Robertson, Neil Marlow, Sebastien Ourselin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/brb3.488.].
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Umamaheswari Balakrishnan, Prakash Amboiram, Binu Ninan, Anupama Chandrasekar, Rajeswaran Rangasami
OBJECTIVES: To assess the spectrum of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities among preterm babies at term equivalent age using objective scoring and to study the association among MRI variables. METHODS: Ninety-four preterm babies born at ≤32 wk of gestation and / or birth weight ≤ 1500 g at term equivalent age who underwent cranial MRI between April 2011 and August 2012 and the MRI interpreted by experienced radiologists were studied. In 2014, the MRI was retrospectively re-interpreted by the same radiologists using an objective scoring system described by Kidokoro...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Nelly Padilla, Peter Fransson, Antonio Donaire, Francesc Figueras, Angela Arranz, Magdalena Sanz-Cortés, Violeta Tenorio, Núria Bargallo, Carme Junqué, Hugo Lagercrantz, Ulrika Ådén, Eduard Gratacós
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects brain development in preterm infants, but little is known about its effects on resting-state functional connectivity. We compared 20 preterm infants, born at <34 weeks of gestation with abnormal antenatal Doppler measurements and birth weights <10th percentile, with 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age and 20 term infants. They were scanned without sedation at 12 months of age and screened for autistic traits at 26 months...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Ramzi W Nahhas, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Palmar and plantar grasp are the foremost primitive neonatal reflexes and functions. Persistence of these reflexes in infancy is a sign of evolving cerebral palsy. Our aims were to establish measurement feasibility in a clinical setting and to characterize changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD) concentration in the bilateral frontoparietal cortex in unsedated neonates at the crib-side using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We hypothesized that bilateral concentration changes will occur upon somatic central and peripheral somatic stimulation...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
C Papini, T P White, A Montagna, P J Brittain, S Froudist-Walsh, J Kroll, V Karolis, A Simonelli, S C Williams, R M Murray, C Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with impairments in emotion regulation, social competence and communicative skills. However, the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying such impairments have not been systematically studied. Here we investigated the functional integrity of the amygdala connectivity network in relation to the ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions in VPT adults. METHOD: Thirty-six VPT-born adults and 38 age-matched controls were scanned at rest in a 3-T MRI scanner...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Govindaiah Vinukonda, Furong Hu, Rana Mehdizadeh, Preeti Dohare, Ali Kidwai, Ankit Juneja, Vineet Naran, Maria Kierstead, Rachit Chawla, Robert Kayton, Praveen Ballabh
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) leads to reduced myelination and astrogliosis of the white matter in premature infants. No therapeutic strategy exists to minimize white matter injury in survivors with IVH. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances myelination, astrogliosis, and neurologic recovery in animal models of white matter injury. Here, we hypothesized that recombinant human (rh) EGF treatment would enhance oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation, myelination, and neurological recovery in preterm rabbits with IVH...
November 2016: Glia
Dan Yao, Xingqiang Deng, Mingguang Wang
The growth processes involved early in gestation and further into the intricate signaling networks in the brain form the basis for rapid cortical electrical bursting patterns. This leads to the quantification of cortical activity from the electroencephalogram (EEG) in full- term hypoxic infants and preterm infants. The associated neurological sequelae in both populations are foregrounded by a summary into current epidemiology and common clinical practices. The present review article highlights recent advances in physics and neuroscience, which will help in development of reliable predictors of outcome for full-term and preterm neonates after birth...
July 21, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Joy E Olsen, Nisha C Brown, Abbey L Eeles, Christa Einspieler, Katherine J Lee, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental assessments and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age (TEA) predict developmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, the relationship between neurodevelopment prior to term and cerebral structure is currently unknown. AIMS: To examine the relationships between General Movements (GMs) assessed from birth to TEA and brain MRI at TEA in infants born <30weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
October 2016: Early Human Development
Karina J Kersbergen, François Leroy, Ivana Išgum, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Nathalie H P Claessens, Ingrid C van Haastert, Pim Moeskops, Clara Fischer, Jean-François Mangin, Max A Viergever, Jessica Dubois, Manon J N L Benders
Cortical folding mainly takes place in the third trimester of pregnancy and may therefore be influenced by preterm birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of specific cortical structures between early age (around 30weeks postmenstrual age) and term-equivalent age (TEA, around 40weeks postmenstrual age) in 71 extremely preterm infants, and to associate this to clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age. First, analysis showed that the central sulcus (CS), lateral fissure (LF) and insula (INS) were present at early MRI in all infants, whereas the other sulci (post-central sulcus [PCS], superior temporal sulcus [STS], superior [SFS] and inferior [IFS] frontal sulcus) were only seen in part of the infants...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Caroline Hartley, Fiona Moultrie, Deniz Gursul, Amy Hoskin, Eleri Adams, Richard Rogers, Rebeccah Slater
In adults, nociceptive reflexes and behavioral responses are modulated by a network of brain regions via descending projections to the spinal dorsal horn [1]. Coordinated responses to noxious inputs manifest from a balance of descending facilitation and inhibition. In contrast, young infants display exaggerated and uncoordinated limb reflexes [2]. Our understanding of nociceptive processing in the infant brain has been advanced by the use of electrophysiological and hemodynamic imaging [3-6]. From approximately 35 weeks' gestation, nociceptive-specific patterns of brain activity emerge [7], whereas prior to this, non-specific bursts of activity occur in response to noxious, tactile, visual, and auditory stimulation [7-10]...
August 8, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Brian B Monson, Peter J Anderson, Lillian G Matthews, Jeffrey J Neil, Kush Kapur, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Terrie E Inder
IMPORTANCE: Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. OBJECTIVES: To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Xiushuang Wu, Luqing Wei, Nan Wang, Zhangxue Hu, Li Wang, Juan Ma, Shuai Feng, Yue Cai, Xiaopeng Song, Yuan Shi
Little is known about the frequency features of spontaneous neural activity in the brains of moderate and late preterm (MLPT) newborns. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to investigate the frequency properties of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in 26 MLPT and 35 term newborns. Two frequency bands, slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), were analyzed. Our results showed widespread differences in ALFF between the two bands; differences occurred mainly in the primary sensory and motor cortices and to a lesser extent in association cortices and subcortical areas...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Eliza Orasanu, Andrew Melbourne, Manuel Jorge Cardoso, Herve Lomabert, Giles S Kendall, Nicola J Robertson, Neil Marlow, Sebastien Ourselin
INTRODUCTION: Infants born extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation) are at risk of significant neurodevelopmental sequelae. In these infants birth coincides with a period of rapid brain growth and development, when the brain is also vulnerable to a range of insults. Mapping these changes is crucial for identifying potential biomarkers to predict early impairment. METHODS: In this study we use surface-based spectral matching techniques to find an intrasubject longitudinal surface correspondence between the white-grey matter boundary at 30 and 40 weeks equivalent gestational age in nine extremely preterm born infants...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
Anca Liliana Cismaru, Laura Gui, Lana Vasung, Fleur Lejeune, Koviljka Barisnikov, Anita Truttmann, Cristina Borradori Tolsa, Petra S Hüppi
CONTEXT: Prematurely born children have a high risk of developmental and behavioral disabilities. Cerebral abnormalities at term age have been clearly linked with later behavior alterations, but existing studies did not focus on the amygdala. Moreover, studies of early amygdala development after premature birth in humans are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To compare amygdala volumes in very preterm infants at term equivalent age (TEA) and term born infants, and to relate premature infants' amygdala volumes with their performance on the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB) fear episode at 12 months...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Julien Pansiot, Hoa Pham, Jeremie Dalous, Didier Chevenne, Marina Colella, Leslie Schwendimann, Assia Fafouri, Jérôme Mairesse, Raffaella Moretti, Anne-Laure Schang, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Pierre Gressens, Olivier Baud
White-matter injury is the most common cause of the adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes observed in preterm infants. Only few options exist to prevent perinatal brain injury associated to preterm delivery. 17β-estradiol (E2) is the predominant estrogen in circulation and has been shown to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. However, while E2 has been found to modulate inflammation in adult models of brain damage, how estrogens influence glial cells response in the developing brain needs further investigations...
August 2016: Experimental Neurology
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