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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908311/longitudinal-study-of-neonatal-brain-tissue-volumes-in-preterm-infants-and-their-ability-to-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#1
REVIEW
L Gui, S Loukas, F Lazeyras, P S Hüppi, D E Meskaldji, C Borradori Tolsa
Premature birth has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the relation between such outcomes and brain growth in the neonatal period has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigates longitudinal brain development between birth and term-equivalent age (TEA) by quantitative imaging in a cohort of premature infants born between 26 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA), to provide insight into the relation of brain growth with later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 84 prematurely born infants acquired shortly after birth and TEA were automatically segmented into cortical gray matter (CGM), unmyelinated white matter (UWM), subcortical gray matter (SGM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901788/somatotopic-mapping-of-the-developing-sensorimotor-cortex-in-the-preterm-human-brain
#2
S Dall'Orso, J Steinweg, A G Allievi, A D Edwards, E Burdet, T Arichi
In the mature mammalian brain, the primary somatosensory and motor cortices are known to be spatially organized such that neural activity relating to specific body parts can be somatopically mapped onto an anatomical "homunculus". This organization creates an internal body representation which is fundamental for precise motor control, spatial awareness and social interaction. Although it is unknown when this organization develops in humans, animal studies suggest that it may emerge even before the time of normal birth...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876271/regional-microstructural-organization-of-the-cerebral-cortex-is-affected-by-preterm-birth
#3
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Marie Brossard-Racine, Marni Jacobs, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Objectives: To compare regional cerebral cortical microstructural organization between preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns, and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on cerebral cortical micro-organization in the preterm cohort. Study design: We prospectively enrolled very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) at birth<32 weeks; birthweight<1500 g) and healthy full-term controls. Using non-invasive 3T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, we quantified regional micro-organization in ten cerebral cortical areas: medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, motor/somatosensory/auditory/visual cortex...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874549/impaired-organization-of-gabaergic-neurons-following-prenatal-hypoxia
#4
Haya Nisimov, Ayelet Orenbuch, Samuel J Pleasure, Hava M Golan
Several conditions related to the intrauterine environment are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions in later life. In humans, approximately 2% of infants are exposed to perinatal hypoxia-ischemia or prolonged anoxic insult, a condition to which very low birth weight preterm infants exhibit the highest susceptibility. Analyses of postmortem tissue link some presentations of these conditions to changes in GABA pathway functionality in the brains of affected subjects. Using animal models of early-life hypoxia-ischemia, losses of particular interneuron populations were reported...
June 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802969/different-patterns-of-cortical-maturation-before-and-after-38-weeks-gestational-age-demonstrated-by-diffusion-mri-in-vivo
#5
REVIEW
Dafnis Batalle, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Antonios Makropoulos, Christopher J Kelly, Ralica Dimitrova, Emer J Hughes, Joseph V Hajnal, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
Human cortical development during the third trimester is characterised by macro- and microstructural changes which are reflected in alterations in diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures, with significant decreases in cortical mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). This has been interpreted as reflecting increased cellular density and dendritic arborisation. However, the fall in FA stops abruptly at 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA), and then tends to plateau, while MD continues to fall, suggesting a more complex picture and raising the hypothesis that after this age development is dominated by continuing increase in neural and organelle density rather than alterations in the geometry of dendritic trees...
May 23, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796591/preterm-birth-changes-networks-of-newborn-cortical-activity
#6
Anton Tokariev, Susanna Stjerna, Aulikki Lano, Marjo Metsäranta, J Matias Palva, Sampsa Vanhatalo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688290/gestational-age-is-dimensionally-associated-with-structural-brain-network-abnormalities-across-development
#7
Rula Nassar, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Aristeidis Sotiras, Marieta Pehlivanova, Tyler M Moore, Angel Garcia de La Garza, David R Roalf, Adon F G Rosen, Scott A Lorch, Kosha Ruparel, Russell T Shinohara, Christos Davatzikos, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Prematurity is associated with diverse developmental abnormalities, yet few studies relate cognitive and neurostructural deficits to a dimensional measure of prematurity. Leveraging a large sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (age 8-22 years) studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined how variation in gestational age impacted cognition and brain structure later in development. Participants included 72 preterm youth born before 37 weeks' gestation and 206 youth who were born at term (37 weeks or later)...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687654/the-emergence-of-top-down-sensory-prediction-during-learning-in-infancy-a-comparison-of-full-term-and-preterm-infants
#8
Alex M Boldin, Romin Geiger, Lauren L Emberson
Prematurity alters developmental trajectories in preterm infants even in the absence of medical complications. Here, we use fNIRS and learning tasks to probe the nature of the developmental differences between preterm and full-term born infants. Our recent work has found that prematurity disrupts the ability to engage in top-down sensory prediction after learning. We now examine the neural changes during the learning that precede prediction. In full-terms, we found modulation of all cortical regions examined during learning (temporal, frontal, and occipital)...
April 24, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660514/early-life-predictors-of-brain-development-at-term-equivalent-age-in-infants-born-across-the-gestational-age-spectrum
#9
REVIEW
Deanne K Thompson, Claire E Kelly, Jian Chen, Richard Beare, Bonnie Alexander, Marc L Seal, Katherine Lee, Lillian G Matthews, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND: It is well established that preterm infants have altered brain development compared with full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) infants, however the perinatal factors associated with brain development in preterm infants have not been fully elucidated. In particular, perinatal predictors of brain development may differ between very preterm infants (VP; <32 weeks' GA) and infants born moderate (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA) and late (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA) preterm, but this has not been studied...
April 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621826/cognitive-functions-of-the-fetus
#10
Aida Salihagic Kadic, Asim Kurjak
The human brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, action, memory and learning. The complete nervous system is active during prenatal development and the aim of this review is to present data on fetal cognitive functions. The fetus processes sensory stimuli at a cortical level, including painful stimulus, from about 25 weeks of gestation onwards. At gestational week 34, the fetus is able not only to perceive complex acoustic external sounds but also to discriminate between different sounds...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522888/the-dynamics-of-cortical-folding-waves-and-prematurity-related-deviations-revealed-by-spatial-and-spectral-analysis-of-gyrification
#11
REVIEW
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra S Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507201/dynamic-patterns-of-cortical-expansion-during-folding-of-the-preterm-human-brain
#12
Kara E Garcia, Emma C Robinson, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Donna L Dierker, Matthew F Glasser, Timothy S Coalson, Cynthia M Ortinau, Daniel Rueckert, Larry A Taber, David C Van Essen, Cynthia E Rogers, Christopher D Smyser, Philip V Bayly
During the third trimester of human brain development, the cerebral cortex undergoes dramatic surface expansion and folding. Physical models suggest that relatively rapid growth of the cortical gray matter helps drive this folding, and structural data suggest that growth may vary in both space (by region on the cortical surface) and time. In this study, we propose a unique method to estimate local growth from sequential cortical reconstructions. Using anatomically constrained multimodal surface matching (aMSM), we obtain accurate, physically guided point correspondence between younger and older cortical reconstructions of the same individual...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464974/a-comparison-of-spastic-diplegia-in-term-and-preterm-born-children
#13
Prashant Jauhari, Pratibha Singhi, Naveen Sankhyan, Prahbhjot Malhi, Sameer Vyas, Niranjan Khandelwal
This study compared the risk factors and clinical and radiologic profile of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy born at term (≥37 weeks) with those born preterm. Children (2-14 years) with cerebral palsy meeting the study criteria for spastic diplegia were enrolled. Antecedent risk factors, clinical profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. Spasticity, functional ability, intellectual ability, and social quotient were assessed using standard scales. Ninety-three children met the study inclusion criteria (45 term, 48 preterm)...
April 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428154/neonatal-infection-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-registry-based-cohort-study
#14
Anne-Sophie Smilga, Jarred Garfinkle, Pamela Ng, John Andersen, David Buckley, Darcy Fehlings, Adam Kirton, Ellen Wood, Esias van Rensburg, Michael Shevell, Maryam Oskoui
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the association between neonatal infection and outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Canadian CP Registry. Neonatal infection was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: (1) septicemia, (2) septic shock, or (3) administration of antibiotics for ≥10 days. Phenotypic profiles of children with cerebral palsy with and without an antecedent neonatal infection were compared...
March 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420701/cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-term-and-very-preterm-born-infants
#15
Charlotte S Herzmann, Abraham Z Snyder, Jeanette K Kenley, Cynthia E Rogers, Joshua S Shimony, Christopher D Smyser
Cortical resting state networks have been consistently identified in infants using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Comparable studies in adults have demonstrated cerebellar components of well-established cerebral networks. However, there has been limited investigation of early cerebellar functional connectivity. We acquired non-sedated rs-fMRI data in the first week of life in 57 healthy, term-born infants and at term-equivalent postmenstrual age in 20 very preterm infants (mean birth gestational age 27 ± 2 weeks) without significant cerebral or cerebellar injury...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380120/altered-white-matter-development-in-children-born-very-preterm
#16
Julia M Young, Marlee M Vandewouw, Benjamin R Morgan, Mary Lou Smith, John G Sled, Margot J Taylor
Children born very preterm (VPT) at less than 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) are prone to disrupted white matter maturation and impaired cognitive development. The aims of the present study were to identify differences in white matter microstructure and connectivity of children born VPT compared to term-born children, as well as relations between white matter measures with cognitive outcomes and early brain injury. Diffusion images and T1-weighted anatomical MR images were acquired along with developmental assessments in 31 VPT children (mean GA: 28...
June 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365081/neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-causes-functional-circuit-changes-in-subplate-neurons
#17
Aminah Sheikh, Xiangying Meng, Ji Liu, Alexandra Mikhailova, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick S McQuillen, Patrick O Kanold
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the preterm human results in damage to subcortical developing white matter and cognitive impairments. Subplate neurons (SPNs) are among the first-born cortical neurons and are necessary for normal cerebral development. While moderate or severe HI at P1 in rats leads to SPN loss, it is unclear if HI, esp. forms not associated with overt cell loss lead to altered SPN circuits. Thus, we used two HI models with different severities in P1 rats. Cauterization of the common carotid artery (CCA) causes a largely transient and thus milder ischemia (HI-Caut) while CCA ligation causes more severe ischemia (HI-Lig)...
January 20, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356143/alterations-in-glucose-concentrations-affect-dna-methylation-at-lrg1-in-an-ex-vivo-rat-cortical-slice-model-of-preterm-brain-injury
#18
Jessy Cartier, Chinthika Piyasena, Sarah A Sparrow, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm birth affects 5-18% of all babies and is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment and increased neuropsychiatric disease risk. Although preterm birth associates with differential DNA methylation at neurodevelopmental genes in buccal DNA, including leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1), it is not known whether these differences also occur in the brain, or whether they persist. Thus, there is a need for animal models or in vitro systems in which to undertake longitudinal and mechanistic studies...
March 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355709/magnesium-sulphate-induces-preconditioning-in-preterm-rodent-models-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#19
Gabriella Koning, Ellinor Lyngfelt, Pernilla Svedin, Anna-Lena Leverin, Masako Jinnai, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Xiaoyang Wang, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg
BACKGROUND: Brain injury in preterm infants represents a substantial clinical problem associated with development of motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric problems. According to clinical studies, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) given to women in preterm labor reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in the offspring but the mechanisms behind its neuroprotective effects are still unclear. Our aim was to explore whether MgSO4 induces tolerance (preconditioning) in the preterm rodent brain...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354680/differential-rates-of-perinatal-maturation-of-human-primary-and-nonprimary-auditory-cortex
#20
Brian B Monson, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Kush Kapur, Einat Liebenthal, Abraham Brownell, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers, Terrie E Inder, Simon K Warfield, Jeffrey J Neil
Primary and nonprimary cerebral cortex mature along different timescales; however, the differences between the rates of maturation of primary and nonprimary cortex are unclear. Cortical maturation can be measured through changes in tissue microstructure detectable by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to characterize the maturation of Heschl's gyrus (HG), which contains both primary auditory cortex (pAC) and nonprimary auditory cortex (nAC), in 90 preterm infants between 26 and 42 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA)...
January 2018: ENeuro
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