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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212618/altered-cerebral-perfusion-in-infants-born-preterm-compared-with-infants-born-full-term
#1
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Jonathan Murnick, Marie Brossard-Racine, Taeun Chang, Eman Mahdi, Marni Jacobs, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To compare regional cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) in infants born very preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy newborns born full term and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on CBF in the cohort born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, cross-sectional study included infants born very preterm (gestational age at birth <32 weeks; birth weight <1500 g) and healthy infants born full term. Using noninvasive 3T arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified regional CBF in the cerebral cortex: sensorimotor/auditory/visual cortex, superior medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, and lateral posterior parietal cortex, as well as in the brainstem, and deep gray matter...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205631/maternal-cd8-t-cell-depletion-alleviates-intrauterine-inflammation-induced-perinatal-brain-injury
#2
Jun Lei, Li Xie, Hongxi Zhao, Candice Gard, Julia L Clemens, Michael W McLane, Mia C Feller, Maide Ozen, Christopher Novak, Wael Alshehri, Nader Alhejaily, Yahya Shabi, Jason M Rosenzweig, Andrea Facciabene, Irina Burd
We investigated the mechanisms by which CD8+ T-cell trafficking in placenta contributes to perinatal brain injury by studying effects of maternal CD8+ T-cell depletion (DEP) in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Maternal CD8+ T cells were depleted with anti-CD8+ antibodies. IUI was induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). DEP was confirmed using flow cytometry. Preterm birth rate was evaluated. Offspring neurologic sequelae were assessed by Nissl staining, immune arrays, confirmatory individual TaqMan® gene assays, and neurobehavioral tests...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200180/procedural-pain-and-oral-glucose-in-preterm-neonates-brain-development-and-sex-specific-effects
#3
Juliane Schneider, Emma G Duerden, Ting Guo, Karin Ng, Patric Hagmann, Myriam Bickle Graz, Ruth E Grunau, M Mallar Chakravarty, Petra S Hüppi, Anita C Truttmann, Steven P Miller
Our objectives were to determine whether procedural pain and glucose exposure are associated with altered structural and functional brain development differently in preterm males and females, and neurodevelopment at 18-months corrected age. Fifty-one very-preterm neonates (22 males; median[IQR] gestational age 27.6[2.0] weeks) underwent three serial scans including T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at median postmenstrual weeks: 29.4, 31.9, and 41.1. Thalamus, basal ganglia, and total brain volumes were segmented...
December 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194486/cortical-auditory-evoked-responses-in-preterm-neonates-revisited-by-spectral-and-temporal-analyses
#4
A Kaminska, V Delattre, J Laschet, J Dubois, M Labidurie, A Duval, A Manresa, J-F Magny, S Hovhannisyan, M Mokhtari, L Ouss, A Boissel, L Hertz-Pannier, M Sintsov, M Minlebaev, R Khazipov, C Chiron
Characteristic preterm EEG patterns of "Delta-brushes" (DBs) have been reported in the temporal cortex following auditory stimuli, but their spatio-temporal dynamics remains elusive. Using 32-electrode EEG recordings and co-registration of electrodes' position to 3D-MRI of age-matched neonates, we explored the cortical auditory-evoked responses (AERs) after 'click' stimuli in 30 healthy neonates aged 30-38 post-menstrual weeks (PMW). (1) We visually identified auditory-evoked DBs within AERs in all the babies between 30 and 33 PMW and a decreasing response rate afterwards...
August 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190325/joint-analysis-of-cortical-area-and-thickness-as-a-replacement-for-the-analysis-of-the-volume-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#5
Anderson M Winkler, Douglas N Greve, Knut J Bjuland, Thomas E Nichols, Mert R Sabuncu, Asta K Ha Berg, Jon Skranes, Lars M Rimol
Cortical surface area is an increasingly used brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided that images are smoothed...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179056/cortical-morphometry-and-cognition-in-very-preterm-and-term-born-children-at-early-school-age
#6
Ines Mürner-Lavanchy, Christian Rummel, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) and 30 term-born control children aged seven to twelve years. The automated method FreeSurfer was used to obtain cortical thickness and cortical surface area measures from T1-weighted MRI images...
November 24, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135357/short-term-refractive-effects-of-propranolol-hydrochloride-prophylaxis-on-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-very-preterm-newborns
#7
Levent Korkmaz, Cagatay Karaca, Mustafa Ali Akin, Osman Bastug, Mustafa Sahiner, Ahmet Ozdemir, Tamer Gunes, Mehmet Adnan Ozturk, Selim Kurtoglu
PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the major problems of surviving premature infants with several ophthalmic morbidities such as increased risk of refractive errors, strabismus, and cortical visual impairment. Use of propranolol hydrochloride (PH) for the prevention of ROP is a new promising treatment modality. However, long-term effects are still to be defined. In our study, we aimed to investigate the short-term refractive effects of PH used for ROP prophylaxis in very preterm newborns...
November 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095379/using-functional-connectivity-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-brain-connectivity-in-preterm-infants
#8
Rita Pickler, Stephanie Sealschott, Margo Moore, Stephanie Merhar, Jean Tkach, Andrew P Salzwedel, Weili Lin, Wai Gao
BACKGROUND: The use of functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) in research involving preterm infants is relatively new, and its feasibility in this population is not fully established. However, fcMRI images reveal functional neural connections that may be useful in establishing the mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using fcMRI to measure differences in functional neural connections in nursing intervention studies...
November 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#9
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072385/-medical-clowns-the-triple-value-clown-parent-premature-neonate
#10
REVIEW
Hagit Friedman, Shay Barak, Yelena Chulsky, Shoshi Ofir, Amir Kushnir
The infant's brain develops rapidly during the prenatal and early postnatal period. Temporary new neural circuits appear, such as the sub-cortical plate (SCP). SCP links the thalamus and cortex in a time window of sensory circuits' intensive development, creating the basis for the infant's bonding interactions. SCP activity in premature neonates is vulnerable and hypoxic injury may have a long lasting influence on brain development. Preterm birth is an emotional trauma for the parents and may lead to depression, anxiety and stress...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044426/p2x7-receptor-blockade-prevents-preterm-birth-and-perinatal-brain-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-inflammation
#11
Michael E Tsimis, Jun Lei, Jason M Rosenzweig, Hattan Arif, Yahya Shabi, Wael Alshehri, Connie C Talbot, K Maravet Baig-Ward, James Segars, Ernest M Graham, Irina Burd
The P2X7 is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated ion channel involved in several facets of immune activation and neuronal function through its importance in interleukin (IL)-1β secretion. We hypothesized that blockade of P2X7 would prevent perinatal brain injury associated with exposure to intrauterine (IU) inflammation. Dams received 45 mg/kg of Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a specific P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) antagonist, on gestation day 17 (E17) prior to administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021546/functional-maturation-in-preterm-infants-measured-by-serial-recording-of-cortical-activity
#12
N J Stevenson, L Oberdorfer, N Koolen, J M O'Toole, T Werther, K Klebermass-Schrehof, S Vanhatalo
Minimally invasive, automated cot-side tools for monitoring early neurological development can be used to guide individual treatment and benchmark novel interventional studies. We develop an automated estimate of the EEG maturational age (EMA) for application to serial recordings in preterm infants. The EMA estimate was based on a combination of 23 computational features estimated from both the full EEG recording and a period of low EEG activity (46 features in total). The combination function (support vector regression) was trained using 101 serial EEG recordings from 39 preterm infants with a gestational age less than 28 weeks and normal neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months of age...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981619/cortical-responses-to-alien-odors-in-newborns-an-fnirs-study
#13
Jakob Frie, Marco Bartocci, Hugo Lagercrantz, Pierre Kuhn
Very preterm (VPT) infants are exposed to odors released by healthcare products, triggering the trigeminal and olfactory subsystems. Irritation of the nasal mucosa induces pain in adults. We examined whether preterm and full-term (FT) newborns perceived trigeminal odors at different cortical levels, whether these odors elicit pain, and if oral glucose modulates this pain. We performed 44 recording sessions in newborn (15 VPT infants, 12 VPT infants at term-equivalent age, and 17 FT infants) following exposure to trigeminal/olfactory stimuli from the hospital environment...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975539/exposure-to-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-increases-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-affected-offspring
#14
Eileen A Curran, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Ann Marie Looney, Gerard Moloney, Shane V Hegarty, Deirdre M Murray, Ali S Khashan, Louise C Kenny
There is growing awareness that prenatal adversity may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examined the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and ASD risk at 7 years of age using the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a representative cohort of 13,192 children born in the UK from 2000 to 2001. We also sought to examine cytokine expression in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia, which is the most common HDP, and whether exposure of foetal neurons to this serum could change patterns of neuronal growth...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942062/volumetric-grey-matter-alterations-in-adolescents-and-adults-born-very-preterm-suggest-accelerated-brain-maturation
#15
Vyacheslav R Karolis, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Jasmin Kroll, Philip J Brittain, Chieh-En Jane Tseng, Kie-Woo Nam, Antje A T S Reinders, Robin M Murray, Steven C R Williams, Paul M Thompson, Chiara Nosarti
Previous research investigating structural neurodevelopmental alterations in individuals who were born very preterm demonstrated a complex pattern of grey matter changes that defy straightforward summary. Here we addressed this problem by characterising volumetric brain alterations in individuals who were born very preterm from adolescence to adulthood at three hierarchically related levels - global, modular and regional. We demarcated structural components that were either particularly resilient or vulnerable to the impact of very preterm birth...
September 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925578/combined-fetal-inflammation-and-postnatal-hypoxia-causes-myelin-deficits-and-autism-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#16
Erik van Tilborg, E J Marijke Achterberg, Caren M van Kammen, Annette van der Toorn, Floris Groenendaal, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Cobi J Heijnen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Manon N J L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#17
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915231/postnatal-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-associated-with-larger-preterm-brain-tissue-volumes-and-better-outcomes
#18
Daphne Kamino, Colin Studholme, Mengyuan Liu, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller, Anne Synnes, Elizabeth E Rogers, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Rollin Brant, Emily W Y Tam
BackgroundHuman studies investigating the link between postnatal polyunsaturated fatty acids and preterm brain growth are limited, despite emerging evidence of potential effects on outcomes.MethodsSixty preterm neonates <32 weeks gestational age with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning at near-birth and near-term age were assessed for brain tissue volumes, including cortical gray matter, white matter, deep gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Red blood cell fatty acid content was evaluated within 1 week of each MRI scan...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898671/preterm-newborn-pain-research-review
#19
Tiffany Field
This narrative review is based on a literature search of PubMed and PsycINFO for research on preterm newborn pain published during the last ten years. The high prevalence of painful procedures being performed with preterm newborns without analgesia (79%), with a median of 75 painful procedures being received during hospitalization and as many as 51 painful procedures per day highlights the importance of this problem. This review covers the pain assessments that have been developed, the short-term effects of the painful procedures, the longer-term developmental outcomes and the pharmacological and alternative therapies that have been researched...
September 9, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895475/delayed-intranasal-infusion-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-improves-white-matter-maturation-after-asphyxia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#20
Lotte G van den Heuij, Mhoyra Fraser, Suzanne L Miller, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Joanne O Davidson, Christopher A Lear, Rebecca Lim, Guido Wassink, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury remains highly associated with neurodevelopmental disability after preterm birth. There is increasing evidence that disability is linked with impaired white matter maturation, but there is no specific treatment. In this study, we evaluated whether, in preterm fetal sheep, delayed intranasal infusion of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) given 1, 3 and 10 days after severe HI, induced by umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min, can restore white matter maturation or reduce delayed cell loss...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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