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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464974/a-comparison-of-spastic-diplegia-in-term-and-preterm-born-children
#1
Prashant Jauhari, Pratibha Singhi, Naveen Sankhyan, Prahbhjot Malhi, Sameer Vyas, Niranjan Khandelwal
This study compared the risk factors and clinical and radiologic profile of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy born at term (≥37 weeks) with those born preterm. Children (2-14 years) with cerebral palsy meeting the study criteria for spastic diplegia were enrolled. Antecedent risk factors, clinical profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. Spasticity, functional ability, intellectual ability, and social quotient were assessed using standard scales. Ninety-three children met the study inclusion criteria (45 term, 48 preterm)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428154/neonatal-infection-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-registry-based-cohort-study
#2
Anne-Sophie Smilga, Jarred Garfinkle, Pamela Ng, John Andersen, David Buckley, Darcy Fehlings, Adam Kirton, Ellen Wood, Esias van Rensburg, Michael Shevell, Maryam Oskoui
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the association between neonatal infection and outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Canadian CP Registry. Neonatal infection was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: (1) septicemia, (2) septic shock, or (3) administration of antibiotics for ≥10 days. Phenotypic profiles of children with cerebral palsy with and without an antecedent neonatal infection were compared...
December 13, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420701/cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-term-and-very-preterm-born-infants
#3
Charlotte S Herzmann, Abraham Z Snyder, Jeanette K Kenley, Cynthia E Rogers, Joshua S Shimony, Christopher D Smyser
Cortical resting state networks have been consistently identified in infants using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Comparable studies in adults have demonstrated cerebellar components of well-established cerebral networks. However, there has been limited investigation of early cerebellar functional connectivity. We acquired non-sedated rs-fMRI data in the first week of life in 57 healthy, term-born infants and at term-equivalent postmenstrual age in 20 very preterm infants (mean birth gestational age 27 ± 2 weeks) without significant cerebral or cerebellar injury...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380120/altered-white-matter-development-in-children-born-very-preterm
#4
Julia M Young, Marlee M Vandewouw, Benjamin R Morgan, Mary Lou Smith, John G Sled, Margot J Taylor
Children born very preterm (VPT) at less than 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) are prone to disrupted white matter maturation and impaired cognitive development. The aims of the present study were to identify differences in white matter microstructure and connectivity of children born VPT compared to term-born children, as well as relations between white matter measures with cognitive outcomes and early brain injury. Diffusion images and T1-weighted anatomical MR images were acquired along with developmental assessments in 31 VPT children (mean GA: 28...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365081/neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-causes-functional-circuit-changes-in-subplate-neurons
#5
Aminah Sheikh, Xiangying Meng, Ji Liu, Alexandra Mikhailova, Joseph P Y Kao, Patrick S McQuillen, Patrick O Kanold
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the preterm human results in damage to subcortical developing white matter and cognitive impairments. Subplate neurons (SPNs) are among the first-born cortical neurons and are necessary for normal cerebral development. While moderate or severe HI at P1 in rats leads to SPN loss, it is unclear if HI, esp. forms not associated with overt cell loss lead to altered SPN circuits. Thus, we used two HI models with different severities in P1 rats. Cauterization of the common carotid artery (CCA) causes a largely transient and thus milder ischemia (HI-Caut) while CCA ligation causes more severe ischemia (HI-Lig)...
January 20, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356143/alterations-in-glucose-concentrations-affect-dna-methylation-at-lrg1-in-an-ex-vivo-rat-cortical-slice-model-of-preterm-brain-injury
#6
Jessy Cartier, Chinthika Piyasena, Sarah A Sparrow, James P Boardman, Amanda J Drake
Preterm birth affects 5-18% of all babies and is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment and increased neuropsychiatric disease risk. Although preterm birth associates with differential DNA methylation at neurodevelopmental genes in buccal DNA, including Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1), it is not known whether these differences also occur in the brain, or if they persist. Thus, there is a need for animal models or in vitro systems in which to undertake longitudinal and mechanistic studies. We used a combination of in vivo rat studies and ex vivo experiments in rat cortical slices to explore their utility in modelling the human preterm brain...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355709/magnesium-sulphate-induces-preconditioning-in-preterm-rodent-models-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#7
Gabriella Koning, Ellinor Lyngfelt, Pernilla Svedin, Anna-Lena Leverin, Masako Jinnai, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Xiaoyang Wang, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg
BACKGROUND: Brain injury in preterm infants represents a substantial clinical problem associated with development of motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric problems. According to clinical studies, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) given to women in preterm labor reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in the offspring but the mechanisms behind its neuroprotective effects are still unclear. Our aim was to explore whether MgSO4 induces tolerance (preconditioning) in the preterm rodent brain...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354680/differential-rates-of-perinatal-maturation-of-human-primary-and-nonprimary-auditory-cortex
#8
Brian B Monson, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Kush Kapur, Einat Liebenthal, Abraham Brownell, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers, Terrie E Inder, Simon K Warfield, Jeffrey J Neil
Primary and nonprimary cerebral cortex mature along different timescales; however, the differences between the rates of maturation of primary and nonprimary cortex are unclear. Cortical maturation can be measured through changes in tissue microstructure detectable by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to characterize the maturation of Heschl's gyrus (HG), which contains both primary auditory cortex (pAC) and nonprimary auditory cortex (nAC), in 90 preterm infants between 26 and 42 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA)...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339258/relationship-between-very-early-brain-structure-and-neuromotor-neurological-and-neurobehavioral-function-in-infants-born-31%C3%A2-weeks-gestational-age
#9
Joanne M George, Simona Fiori, Jurgen Fripp, Kerstin Pannek, Andrea Guzzetta, Michael David, Robert S Ware, Stephen E Rose, Paul B Colditz, Roslyn N Boyd
AIM: This study aimed to examine associations between structural MRI and concurrent motor, neurological and neurobehavioral measures at 30-32 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA; 'Early'), and at term equivalent age ('Term'). METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, infants underwent Early MRI (n = 119; 73 male; median 32 weeks 1 day PMA) and Term MRI (n = 102; 61 male; median 40 weeks 4 days PMA) at 3 T. Structural images were scored generating white matter (WM), cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, cerebellar and global brain abnormality scores...
January 13, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320482/severe-retinopathy-of-prematurity-is-associated-with-reduced-cerebellar-and-brainstem-volumes-at-term-and-neurodevelopmental-deficits-at-two-years
#10
Femke J Drost, Kristin Keunen, Pim Moeskops, Nathalie H P Claessens, Femke van Kalken, Ivana Išgum, Elsbeth S M Voskuil-Kerkhof, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders, Jacqueline U M Termote
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), measures of brain morphology at term equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 infants with severe ROP (median gestational age (GA) 25.3 (range 24.6-25.9 weeks) were included in this retrospective case-control study. Each infant was matched to two extremely preterm control infants (n=36) by GA, birth weight, sex and brain injury. T2-weighted images were obtained on a 3T MRI at TEA...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246927/disruption-of-interneuron-neurogenesis-in-premature-newborns-and-reversal-with-estrogen-treatment
#11
Mahima Tibrewal, Bokun Cheng, Preeti Dohare, Furong Hu, Rana Mehdizadeh, Ping Wang, Deyou Zheng, Zoltan Ungvari, Praveen Ballabh
Preterm-born children suffer from neurobehavioral disorders. Premature birth terminates the hypoxic in utero environment and supply of maternal hormones. As the production of interneurons continues until the end of pregnancy, we hypothesized that premature birth would disrupt interneuron production and restoration of the hypoxic milieu or estrogen treatment might reverse interneuron generation. To test these hypotheses, we quantified interneuronal progenitors in the medial, lateral, and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE, LGE, and CGE) of preterm- (E29 at D3 and D7) vs...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244803/changes-in-brain-morphology-and-microstructure-in-relation-to-early-brain-activity-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#12
Maria Luisa Tataranno, Nathalie H P Claessens, Pim Moeskops, Mona C Toet, Karina J Kersbergen, Giuseppe Buonocore, Ivana Išgum, Alexander Leemans, Serena Counsell, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of early brain activity with structural (growth of the cortex and cerebellum) and white matter microstructural brain development. METHODS: 33 preterm neonates (gestational age 26±1 weeks) without major brain abnormalities were continuously monitored with electroencephalography (EEG) during the first 48 h of life. Rate of spontaneous activity transients per minute (SAT rate) and interSAT interval (ISI) in seconds per minute were calculated...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212618/altered-cerebral-perfusion-in-infants-born-preterm-compared-with-infants-born-full-term
#13
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Jonathan Murnick, Marie Brossard-Racine, Taeun Chang, Eman Mahdi, Marni Jacobs, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To compare regional cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) in infants born very preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy newborns born full term and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on CBF in the cohort born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, cross-sectional study included infants born very preterm (gestational age at birth <32 weeks; birth weight <1500 g) and healthy infants born full term. Using noninvasive 3T arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified regional CBF in the cerebral cortex: sensorimotor/auditory/visual cortex, superior medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, and lateral posterior parietal cortex, as well as in the brainstem, and deep gray matter...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205631/maternal-cd8-t-cell-depletion-alleviates-intrauterine-inflammation-induced-perinatal-brain-injury
#14
Jun Lei, Li Xie, Hongxi Zhao, Candice Gard, Julia L Clemens, Michael W McLane, Mia C Feller, Maide Ozen, Christopher Novak, Wael Alshehri, Nader Alhejaily, Yahya Shabi, Jason M Rosenzweig, Andrea Facciabene, Irina Burd
We investigated the mechanisms by which CD8+ T-cell trafficking in placenta contributes to perinatal brain injury by studying effects of maternal CD8+ T-cell depletion (DEP) in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation (IUI). Maternal CD8+ T cells were depleted with anti-CD8+ antibodies. IUI was induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). DEP was confirmed using flow cytometry. Preterm birth rate was evaluated. Offspring neurologic sequelae were assessed by Nissl staining, immune arrays, confirmatory individual TaqMan® gene assays, and neurobehavioral tests...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200180/procedural-pain-and-oral-glucose-in-preterm-neonates-brain-development-and-sex-specific-effects
#15
Juliane Schneider, Emma G Duerden, Ting Guo, Karin Ng, Patric Hagmann, Myriam Bickle Graz, Ruth E Grunau, M Mallar Chakravarty, Petra S Hüppi, Anita C Truttmann, Steven P Miller
Our objectives were to determine whether procedural pain and glucose exposure are associated with altered structural and functional brain development differently in preterm males and females, and neurodevelopment at 18-months corrected age. Fifty-one very-preterm neonates (22 males; median[IQR] gestational age 27.6[2.0] weeks) underwent three serial scans including T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at median postmenstrual weeks: 29.4, 31.9, and 41.1. Thalamus, basal ganglia, and total brain volumes were segmented...
December 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194486/cortical-auditory-evoked-responses-in-preterm-neonates-revisited-by-spectral-and-temporal-analyses
#16
A Kaminska, V Delattre, J Laschet, J Dubois, M Labidurie, A Duval, A Manresa, J-F Magny, S Hovhannisyan, M Mokhtari, L Ouss, A Boissel, L Hertz-Pannier, M Sintsov, M Minlebaev, R Khazipov, C Chiron
Characteristic preterm EEG patterns of "Delta-brushes" (DBs) have been reported in the temporal cortex following auditory stimuli, but their spatio-temporal dynamics remains elusive. Using 32-electrode EEG recordings and co-registration of electrodes' position to 3D-MRI of age-matched neonates, we explored the cortical auditory-evoked responses (AERs) after 'click' stimuli in 30 healthy neonates aged 30-38 post-menstrual weeks (PMW). (1) We visually identified auditory-evoked DBs within AERs in all the babies between 30 and 33 PMW and a decreasing response rate afterwards...
August 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190325/joint-analysis-of-cortical-area-and-thickness-as-a-replacement-for-the-analysis-of-the-volume-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#17
Anderson M Winkler, Douglas N Greve, Knut J Bjuland, Thomas E Nichols, Mert R Sabuncu, Asta K Ha Berg, Jon Skranes, Lars M Rimol
Cortical surface area is an increasingly used brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided that images are smoothed...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179056/cortical-morphometry-and-cognition-in-very-preterm-and-term-born-children-at-early-school-age
#18
Ines Mürner-Lavanchy, Christian Rummel, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) and 30 term-born control children aged seven to twelve years. The automated method FreeSurfer was used to obtain cortical thickness and cortical surface area measures from T1-weighted MRI images...
November 24, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135357/short-term-refractive-effects-of-propranolol-hydrochloride-prophylaxis-on-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-very-preterm-newborns
#19
Levent Korkmaz, Cagatay Karaca, Mustafa Ali Akin, Osman Bastug, Mustafa Sahiner, Ahmet Ozdemir, Tamer Gunes, Mehmet Adnan Ozturk, Selim Kurtoglu
PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the major problems of surviving premature infants with several ophthalmic morbidities such as increased risk of refractive errors, strabismus, and cortical visual impairment. Use of propranolol hydrochloride (PH) for the prevention of ROP is a new promising treatment modality. However, long-term effects are still to be defined. In our study, we aimed to investigate the short-term refractive effects of PH used for ROP prophylaxis in very preterm newborns...
November 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095379/using-functional-connectivity-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-brain-connectivity-in-preterm-infants
#20
Rita Pickler, Stephanie Sealschott, Margo Moore, Stephanie Merhar, Jean Tkach, Andrew P Salzwedel, Weili Lin, Wai Gao
BACKGROUND: The use of functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) in research involving preterm infants is relatively new, and its feasibility in this population is not fully established. However, fcMRI images reveal functional neural connections that may be useful in establishing the mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using fcMRI to measure differences in functional neural connections in nursing intervention studies...
November 2017: Nursing Research
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