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Dyscalculia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040925/the-natural-number-bias-and-its-role-in-rational-number-understanding-in-children-with-dyscalculia-delay-or-deficit
#1
Jo Van Hoof, Lieven Verschaffel, Pol Ghesquière, Wim Van Dooren
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. AIMS: We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942712/developmental-dyscalculia-in-adults-beyond-numerical-magnitude-impairment
#2
Alice De Visscher, Marie-Pascale Noël, Mauro Pesenti, Valérie Dormal
Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control participants was compared in four categorization tasks using numerosities, lengths, durations, and faces (as non-magnitude-based control stimuli)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#3
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682117/separating-math-from-anxiety-the-role-of-inhibitory-mechanisms
#4
Irene C Mammarella, Sara Caviola, David Giofrè, Erika Borella
Deficits in executive functions have been hypothesized and documented for children with severe mathematics anxiety (MA) or developmental dyscalculia, but the role of inhibition-related processes has not been specifically explored. The main aim of the present study was to shed further light on the specificity of these profiles in children in terms of working memory (WM) and the inhibitory functions involved. Four groups of children between 8 and 10 years old were selected: one group with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and no MA, one with severe MA and developmental dyscalculia (MA-DD), one with severe MA and no DD (MA), and one with typical development (TD)...
July 6, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613104/a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-of-mathematics-difficulty
#5
Gena Nelson, Sarah R Powell
Some students may be diagnosed with a learning disability in mathematics or dyscalculia, whereas other students may demonstrate below-grade-level mathematics performance without a disability diagnosis. In the literature, researchers often identify students in both groups as experiencing math difficulty. To understand the performance of students with math difficulty, we examined 35 studies that reported longitudinal results of mathematics achievement (i.e., mathematics performance measured across at least a 12-month span)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442224/functional-hyperconnectivity-vanishes-in-children-with-developmental-dyscalculia-after-numerical-intervention
#6
Lars Michels, Ruth O'Gorman, Karin Kucian
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a developmental learning disability associated with deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information. Although behavioural training can reduce these deficits, it is unclear which neuronal resources show a functional reorganization due to training. We examined typically developing (TD) children (N=16, mean age: 9.5 years) and age-, gender-, and handedness-matched children with DD (N=15, mean age: 9.5 years) during the performance of a numerical order task with fMRI and functional connectivity before and after 5-weeks of number line training...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440815/15q11-2-cnv-affects-cognitive-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#7
M O Ulfarsson, G B Walters, O Gustafsson, S Steinberg, A Silva, O M Doyle, M Brammer, D F Gudbjartsson, S Arnarsdottir, G A Jonsdottir, R S Gisladottir, G Bjornsdottir, H Helgason, L M Ellingsen, J G Halldorsson, E Saemundsen, B Stefansdottir, L Jonsson, V K Eiriksdottir, G R Eiriksdottir, G H Johannesdottir, U Unnsteinsdottir, B Jonsdottir, B B Magnusdottir, P Sulem, U Thorsteinsdottir, E Sigurdsson, D Brandeis, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Stefansson, K Stefansson
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432933/-non-symbolic-magnitude-processing-in-children-with-mathematical-difficulties-a-meta-analysis
#8
Christin Schwenk, Delphine Sasanguie, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Sophia Kempe, Philipp Doebler, Heinz Holling
Symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude representations, measured by digit or dot comparison tasks, are assumed to underlie the development of arithmetic skills. The comparison distance effect (CDE) has been suggested as a hallmark of the preciseness of mental magnitude representations. It implies that two magnitudes are harder to discriminate when the numerical distance between them is small, and may therefore differ in children with mathematical difficulties (MD), i.e., low mathematical achievement or dyscalculia...
April 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384496/approximate-number-sense-correlates-with-math-performance-in-gifted-adolescents
#9
Jinjing Jenny Wang, Justin Halberda, Lisa Feigenson
Nonhuman animals, human infants, and human adults all share an Approximate Number System (ANS) that allows them to imprecisely represent number without counting. Among humans, people differ in the precision of their ANS representations, and these individual differences have been shown to correlate with symbolic mathematics performance in both children and adults. For example, children with specific math impairment (dyscalculia) have notably poor ANS precision. However, it remains unknown whether ANS precision contributes to individual differences only in populations of people with lower or average mathematical abilities, or whether this link also is present in people who excel in math...
May 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373834/adolescents-with-developmental-dyscalculia-do-not-have-a-generalized-magnitude-deficit-processing-of-discrete-and-continuous-magnitudes
#10
Ursina McCaskey, Michael von Aster, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Karin Kucian
The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360845/surround-masking-affects-visual-estimation-ability
#11
Nicola R Jastrzebski, Laila E Hugrass, Sheila G Crewther, David P Crewther
Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281877/comprehensive-analysis-of-interaction-networks-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-with-multiple-bioinformatic-approaches-deep-mining-the-potential-functions-of-telomere-and-telomerase
#12
Chunyu Hou, Fei Wang, Xuewen Liu, Guangming Chang, Feng Wang, Xin Geng
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the protein component of telomerase complex. Evidence has accumulated showing that the nontelomeric functions of TERT are independent of telomere elongation. However, the mechanisms governing the interaction between TERT and its target genes are not clearly revealed. The biological functions of TERT are not fully elucidated and have thus far been underestimated. To further explore these functions, we investigated TERT interaction networks using multiple bioinformatic databases, including BioGRID, STRING, DAVID, GeneCards, GeneMANIA, PANTHER, miRWalk, mirTarBase, miRNet, miRDB, and TargetScan...
August 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254833/yellow-fever-vaccine-associated-neurological-disease-a-suspicious-case
#13
Pedro Beirão, Patrícia Pereira, Andreia Nunes, Pedro Antunes
A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative...
March 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157694/mathematics-anxiety-and-the-brain
#14
Ahmed A Moustafa, Richard Tindle, Zaheda Ansari, Margery J Doyle, Doaa H Hewedi, Abeer Eissa
Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019687/improving-with-practice-a-neural-model-of-mathematical-development
#15
Sean Aubin, Aaron R Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
The ability to improve in speed and accuracy as a result of repeating some task is an important hallmark of intelligent biological systems. Although gradual behavioral improvements from practice have been modeled in spiking neural networks, few such models have attempted to explain cognitive development of a task as complex as addition. In this work, we model the progression from a counting-based strategy for addition to a recall-based strategy. The model consists of two networks working in parallel: a slower basal ganglia loop and a faster cortical network...
January 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921356/time-processing-impairments-in-preschoolers-at-risk-of-developing-difficulties-in-mathematics
#16
Valentina Tobia, Luca Rinaldi, Gian Marco Marzocchi
The occurrence of time processing problems in individuals with Development Dyscalculia (DD) has favored the view of a general magnitude system devoted to both numerical and temporal information. Yet, this scenario has been partially challenged by studies indicating that time difficulties can be attributed to poor calculation or counting skills, which can support reasoning on time in school-aged children and adults. Here, we tackle this debate by exploring the performance of young children before they fully develop the symbolic number system...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835751/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-hyperactivity-inattention-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia-in-adolescents-of-the-german-giniplus-and-lisaplus-birth-cohorts
#17
Elaine Fuertes, Marie Standl, Joan Forns, Dietrich Berdel, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Iana Markevych, Gerd Schulte-Koerne, Dorothea Sugiri, Tamara Schikowski, Carla M T Tiesler, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the link between air pollution exposure and behavioural problems and learning disorders during late childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with hyperactivity/inattention, dyslexia and dyscalculia up to age 15years using the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts (recruitment 1995-1999). METHODS: Hyperactivity/inattention was assessed using the German parent-completed (10years) and self-completed (15years) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
December 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748007/numerical-magnitude-processing-impairments-in-genetic-syndromes-a-cross-syndrome-comparison-of-turner-and-22q11-2-deletion-syndromes
#18
Carmen Brankaer, Pol Ghesquière, Anke De Wel, Ann Swillen, Bert De Smedt
Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). We further verified whether the phenotypic outcomes of these syndromes emerged from the same or different cognitive processes and therefore examined whether numerical impairments were related to working memory deficits, often observed in these syndromes...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553484/symbolic-magnitude-processing-in-elementary-school-children-a-group-administered-paper-and-pencil-measure-symp-test
#19
Carmen Brankaer, Pol Ghesquière, Bert De Smedt
The ability to compare symbolic numerical magnitudes correlates with children's concurrent and future mathematics achievement. We developed and evaluated a quick timed paper-and-pencil measure that can easily be used, for example in large-scale research, in which children have to cross out the numerically larger of two Arabic one- and two-digit numbers (SYMP Test). We investigated performance on this test in 1,588 primary school children (Grades 1-6) and examined in each grade its associations with mathematics achievement...
August 23, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515455/dyscalculia-and-the-calculating-brain
#20
REVIEW
Isabelle Rapin
Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item...
August 2016: Pediatric Neurology
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