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Dyscalculia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885484/multi-method-brain-imaging-reveals-impaired-representations-of-number-as-well-as-altered-connectivity-in-adults-with-dyscalculia
#1
REVIEW
Jessica Bulthé, Jellina Prinsen, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Stefanie Duyck, Nicky Daniels, Céline R Gillebert, Dante Mantini, Hans P Op de Beeck, Bert De Smedt
Two hypotheses have been proposed about the etiology of neurodevelopmental learning disorders, such as dyslexia and dyscalculia: representation impairments and disrupted access to representations. We implemented a multi-method brain imaging approach to directly investigate these representation and access hypotheses in dyscalculia, a highly prevalent but understudied neurodevelopmental disorder in learning to calculate. We combined several magnetic resonance imaging methods and analyses, including univariate and multivariate analyses, functional and structural connectivity...
June 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876258/dyscalculia-and-dyslexia-different-behavioral-yet-similar-brain-activity-profiles-during-arithmetic
#2
Lien Peters, Jessica Bulthé, Nicky Daniels, Hans Op de Beeck, Bert De Smedt
Brain disorders are often investigated in isolation, but very different conclusions might be reached when studies directly contrast multiple disorders. Here, we illustrate this in the context of specific learning disorders, such as dyscalculia and dyslexia. While children with dyscalculia show deficits in arithmetic, children with dyslexia present with reading difficulties. Furthermore, the comorbidity between dyslexia and dyscalculia is surprisingly high. Different hypotheses have been proposed on the origin of these disorders (number processing deficits in dyscalculia, phonological deficits in dyslexia) but these have never been directly contrasted in one brain imaging study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755376/relation-between-mathematical-performance-math-anxiety-and-affective-priming-in-children-with-and-without-developmental-dyscalculia
#3
Karin Kucian, Isabelle Zuber, Juliane Kohn, Nadine Poltz, Anne Wyschkon, Günter Esser, Michael von Aster
Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (= negative math priming effect )...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725316/innate-or-acquired-disentangling-number-sense-and-early-number-competencies
#4
REVIEW
Julia Siemann, Franz Petermann
The clinical profile termed developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a fundamental disability affecting children already prior to arithmetic schooling, but the formal diagnosis is often only made during school years. The manifold associated deficits depend on age, education, developmental stage, and task requirements. Despite a large body of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain dubious. Conflicting findings have stimulated opposing theories, each presenting enough empirical support to remain a possible alternative...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660590/detection-of-neurodevelopmental-diversity-in-memory-clinics-validation-of-a-self-report-measure
#5
Alon Seifan, Chiashin Shih, Katherine Hackett, Max J Pensack, Matthew W Schelke, Michael Lin, Hemali Patel, Christine A Ganzer, Mahreen Ahmed, Robert Krikorian, Peter Tamboer, Adolfo M Henriquez, Richard S Isaacson, Sheila Steinhof
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental learning and attentional disorders (NLAD) such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect at least 6% of the adult population or more. They are associated with atypical cognitive patterns in early and adult life. The cognitive patterns of affected individuals in late life have never been described. One main challenge is detecting individuals in clinical settings during which mild cognitive changes could be confounding the clinical presentation...
June 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651830/qualitative-and-quantitative-revaluation-of-specific-learning-disabilities-a-multicentric-study
#6
Francesca F Operto, Roberta Mazza, Maura Buttiglione, Francesco Craig, Alessandro Frolli, Simone Pisano, Lucia Margari, Giangennaro Coppola
BACKGROUND: Specific learning disabilities are disorders that affect the instrumental skills of academic learning, leaving intact the general intellectual functioning. It is possible to distinguish: dyslexia, dysorthography, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. The diagnosis is made according to DSMV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of Law N° 170 following a diagnosis of specific learning disabilities in children and their evolution over time. METHODS: The sample under examination consists of 75 children, 56 males and 18 females aged 7,8 to 16 years, with a diagnosis of specific learning disabilities; a revaluation was carried outthrough the use of standardized instruments according to age and school attended...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528683/conceptual-size-in-developmental-dyscalculia-and-dyslexia
#7
Yarden Gliksman, Avishai Henik
OBJECTIVE: People suffering from developmental dyscalculia (DD) are known to have impairment in numerical abilities and have been found to have weaker processing of countable magnitudes. However, not much research was done on their abilities to process noncountable magnitudes. An example of noncountable magnitude is conceptual size (e.g., mouse is small and elephant is big). Recently, we found that adults process conceptual size automatically. The current study examined automatic processing of conceptual size in students with DD and developmental dyslexia...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515490/analyzing-global-components-in-developmental-dyscalculia-and-dyslexia
#8
Gloria Di Filippo, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
The study examined whether developmental deficits in reading and numerical skills could be expressed in terms of global factors by reference to the rate and amount (RAM) and difference engine (DEM) models. From a sample of 325 fifth grade children, we identified 5 children with dyslexia, 16 with dyscalculia, 7 with a "mixed pattern," and 49 control children. Children were asked to read aloud words presented individually that varied for frequency and length and to respond (either vocally or manually) to a series of simple number tasks (addition, subtraction, number reading, and number comparisons)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487792/no-evidence-for-systematic-white-matter-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#9
David Moreau, Anna J Wilson, Nicole S McKay, Kasey Nihill, Karen E Waldie
Learning disabilities such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and their comorbid manifestation are prevalent, affecting as much as 15% of the population. Structural neuroimaging studies have indicated that these disorders can be related to differences in white matter integrity, although findings remain disparate. In this study, we used a unique design composed of individuals with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both disorders and controls, to systematically explore differences in fractional anisotropy across groups using diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273913/effectiveness-of-working-memory-training-among-children-with-dyscalculia-evidence-for-transfer-effects-on-mathematical-achievement-a-pilot-study
#10
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128782/evaluation-of-the-triple-code-model-of-numerical-processing-reviewing-past-neuroimaging-and-clinical-findings
#11
REVIEW
Julia Siemann, Franz Petermann
This review reconciles past findings on numerical processing with key assumptions of the most predominant model of arithmetic in the literature, the Triple Code Model (TCM). This is implemented by reporting diverse findings in the literature ranging from behavioral studies on basic arithmetic operations over neuroimaging studies on numerical processing to developmental studies concerned with arithmetic acquisition, with a special focus on developmental dyscalculia (DD). We evaluate whether these studies corroborate the model and discuss possible reasons for contradictory findings...
January 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118725/cognitive-and-neural-correlates-of-mathematical-giftedness-in-adults-and-children-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Timothy Myers, Emma Carey, Dénes Szűcs
Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040925/the-natural-number-bias-and-its-role-in-rational-number-understanding-in-children-with-dyscalculia-delay-or-deficit
#13
Jo Van Hoof, Lieven Verschaffel, Pol Ghesquière, Wim Van Dooren
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. AIMS: We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia...
October 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942712/developmental-dyscalculia-in-adults-beyond-numerical-magnitude-impairment
#14
Alice De Visscher, Marie-Pascale Noël, Mauro Pesenti, Valérie Dormal
Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control participants was compared in four categorization tasks using numerosities, lengths, durations, and faces (as non-magnitude-based control stimuli)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#15
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682117/separating-math-from-anxiety-the-role-of-inhibitory-mechanisms
#16
Irene C Mammarella, Sara Caviola, David Giofrè, Erika Borella
Deficits in executive functions have been hypothesized and documented for children with severe mathematics anxiety (MA) or developmental dyscalculia, but the role of inhibition-related processes has not been specifically explored. The main aim of the present study was to shed further light on the specificity of these profiles in children in terms of working memory (WM) and the inhibitory functions involved. Four groups of children between 8 and 10 years old were selected: one group with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and no MA, one with severe MA and developmental dyscalculia (MA-DD), one with severe MA and no DD (MA), and one with typical development (TD)...
July 6, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613104/a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-of-mathematics-difficulty
#17
Gena Nelson, Sarah R Powell
Some students may be diagnosed with a learning disability in mathematics or dyscalculia, whereas other students may demonstrate below-grade-level mathematics performance without a disability diagnosis. In the literature, researchers often identify students in both groups as experiencing math difficulty. To understand the performance of students with math difficulty, we examined 35 studies that reported longitudinal results of mathematics achievement (i.e., mathematics performance measured across at least a 12-month span)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442224/functional-hyperconnectivity-vanishes-in-children-with-developmental-dyscalculia-after-numerical-intervention
#18
Lars Michels, Ruth O'Gorman, Karin Kucian
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a developmental learning disability associated with deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information. Although behavioural training can reduce these deficits, it is unclear which neuronal resources show a functional reorganization due to training. We examined typically developing (TD) children (N=16, mean age: 9.5 years) and age-, gender-, and handedness-matched children with DD (N=15, mean age: 9.5 years) during the performance of a numerical order task with fMRI and functional connectivity before and after 5-weeks of number line training...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440815/15q11-2-cnv-affects-cognitive-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#19
M O Ulfarsson, G B Walters, O Gustafsson, S Steinberg, A Silva, O M Doyle, M Brammer, D F Gudbjartsson, S Arnarsdottir, G A Jonsdottir, R S Gisladottir, G Bjornsdottir, H Helgason, L M Ellingsen, J G Halldorsson, E Saemundsen, B Stefansdottir, L Jonsson, V K Eiriksdottir, G R Eiriksdottir, G H Johannesdottir, U Unnsteinsdottir, B Jonsdottir, B B Magnusdottir, P Sulem, U Thorsteinsdottir, E Sigurdsson, D Brandeis, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Stefansson, K Stefansson
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432933/-non-symbolic-magnitude-processing-in-children-with-mathematical-difficulties-a-meta-analysis
#20
Christin Schwenk, Delphine Sasanguie, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Sophia Kempe, Philipp Doebler, Heinz Holling
Symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude representations, measured by digit or dot comparison tasks, are assumed to underlie the development of arithmetic skills. The comparison distance effect (CDE) has been suggested as a hallmark of the preciseness of mental magnitude representations. It implies that two magnitudes are harder to discriminate when the numerical distance between them is small, and may therefore differ in children with mathematical difficulties (MD), i.e., low mathematical achievement or dyscalculia...
April 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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