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Verbal fluency

Tali R Marron, Yulia Lerner, Ety Berant, Sivan Kinreich, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Talma Hendler, Miriam Faust
Research on creativity shows that creative thinking entails both executive (controlled) and associative (spontaneous) processes. Yet standard creativity tasks cannot reliably isolate these two types of cognitive processes, making it difficult to understand the relation between the two and the roles of their corresponding brain networks in creative cognition. In this study we used a behavioral and neuroimaging approach in an effort to establish chain free association (FA) tasks as a relevant method for directly investigating spontaneous associative thinking and its role in creative cognition...
March 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Xiaosong He, Danielle S Bassett, Ganne Chaitanya, Michael R Sperling, Lauren Kozlowski, Joseph I Tracy
Temporal lobe epilepsy tends to reshape the language system causing maladaptive reorganization that can be characterized by task-based functional MRI, and eventually can contribute to surgical decision making processes. However, the dynamic interacting nature of the brain as a complex system is often neglected, with many studies treating the language system as a static monolithic structure. Here, we demonstrate that as a specialized and integrated system, the language network is inherently dynamic, characterized by rich patterns of regional interactions, whose transient dynamics are disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Natascia De Lucia, Silvio Peluso, Alessandro Roca, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Marco Massarelli, Giovanna De Michele, Luigi Di Maio, Elena Salvatore, Giuseppe De Michele
Objective: In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical marker of the frontal/executive dysfunctions in the early examination of HD patients...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Ricardo Cáceda, W Sue T Griffin, Pedro L Delgado
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation is linked to suicide risk. However, it is unclear whether increased inflammation drives suicidal crises or is a trait associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Limited data exist on the sources of increased inflammation observed in suicidal patients and on its downstream effects. AIMS: To examine factors associated with inflammation and with suicidal ideation severity in acutely suicidal depressed patients. METHODS: Fifty-two adult depressed patients of both sexes hospitalized for severe suicidal ideation were characterized for suicidality, depression, anxiety, medical comorbidity, psychological and physical pain, impulsivity, verbal fluency, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL) 6...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Megan Zirnstein, Janet G van Hell, Judith F Kroll
In this study, we examined the role that cognitive control and language regulation ability play in mediating readers' susceptibility to prediction error costs when reading in the native language (L1) or a second language (L2). Twenty-four English monolinguals (Experiment 1) and 28 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) read sentences in English while their EEG was recorded. The sentences varied in the predictability of an upcoming expected word and in whether that prediction was confirmed. Monolinguals showed sensitivity to sentence contexts in which expectations were not met (i...
March 14, 2018: Cognition
Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll, Elisabet Londos, Tomas Ohlsson, Oskar Hansson
Mixed pathologies of α-synuclein, β-amyloid and tau are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). We therefore wanted to study the retention patterns of18 F-AV-1451 in PD, PD-dementia (PDD), and DLB. To do this 44 healthy controls, 11 non-demented patients with PD, 18 patients with PDD, and six patients with DLB underwent MRI and18 F-AV-1451 PET scanning and cognitive testing. We found that parietal18 F-AV-1451 retention was increased in patients with DLB compared to controls and PD patients, while18 F-AV-1451 uptake was reduced in the substantia nigra in PDD...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniela Neves, Maria S Pinho
Certain clinical populations exhibit an Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory (OAM), characterized by difficulty remembering specific events. One study has observed OAM for positive events in a group of offenders. This study analyzed the stability of the valence effect in the OAM of offenders, the executive control impairments facilitating OAM in offenders, and the relationship of self-esteem and social desirability with AM specificity. The specificity (Autobiographical Memory Test) and emotional properties of the AMs of 59 prisoners (30 men, 29 women) and a control group (29 men, 30 women) were compared...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Zude Zhu, Xiaopu Hou, Yiming Yang
Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hwan-Hee Kim, Nam-Hae Jung
[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the effects of combining exercise with a cognitive-enhancement group program on cognition and depression in a group of community-dwelling elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study's subjects consisted of 30 community-dwelling elderly people of both genders, whose average age was 78 years. They participated in a program of physical exercise combined with a cognitive-enhancement group training program. This consisted of sessions lasting 60 minutes that took place once a week over 3 months...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Junzo Iida, Naoko Kishimoto, Shohei Tanaka, Michihiro Toritsuka, Daisuke Ikawa, Yasunori Yamashita, Toyosaku Ota, Manabu Makinodan, Hiroki Yoshino, Toshifumi Kishimoto
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are characterized by different clinical symptoms, and have previously been considered as categorically separate. However, several lines of evidence controversially suggest that these two disorders may run on a continuum. While it is therefore important to evaluate the subtle differences between SZ and BD, few studies have investigated the difference of brain functioning between the two by focusing on the common symptoms of cognitive functioning and impulsivity, rather than positive/negative and mood symptoms...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Musetta C Fu, Basia Belza, Huong Nguyen, Rebecca Logsdon, Steven Demorest
PURPOSE: Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Rainbow T H Ho, Ted C T Fong, Tiffany Hon, Wai Chi Chan, Joseph S K Kwan, Patrick K C Chiu, Linda C W Lam
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to an early but abnormal state of cognitive impairment with minimal functional impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) as a measure of episodic memory function. METHOD: The study sample included 204 Chinese older adults with cognitive impairments. The participants completed five recall trials and a delayed trial in FOME, neurocognitive measures on digit spans and trail making, and daily functioning...
March 8, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Tobias Luck, Alexander Pabst, Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, Veronica Witte, Andreas Hinz, Anja Mehnert, Christoph Engel, Markus Loeffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. METHOD: Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Ana Paula de Pereira, Maria Lucia Alves Pedroso, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Bin Tang, Anya Umlauf, Donald Franklin, Rowan G Saloner, Maria Geny Ribas Batista, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner
Although cognitive impairment has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, research on neurocognitive effects is limited in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection. The aims of this study were to explore the interplay between HIV and HCV infections in the expression of neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and to examine the differences in test performance between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV or HCV mono-infected patients. A total of 128 participants from Southern Brazil underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) battery comprising 18 tests...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Hanzhang Xu, Truls Ostbye, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Matthew E Dupre, Bei Wu
BACKGROUND: The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. METHODS: The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural...
March 7, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Stephen L Aita, Jameson D Beach, Sarah E Taylor, Nicholas C Borgogna, Murphy N Harrell, Benjamin D Hill
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were more related to aspects of language processing than executive functioning (EF). An exploratory factor analysis was performed on a college-aged sample of 320 healthy participants using principle axis factoring and promax rotation on nine measures of EF. The first three factors, labeled: working memory, fluid reasoning, and shifting/updating, were extracted and used as latent executive variables. Participants were also split into low, medium, and high phonemic and semantic verbal fluency ability groups...
March 7, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Stian Lydersen, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
OBJECTIVE: Older age and lower education levels are known to be associated with worse neurocognitive (NC) performance in healthy adults, and individuals with HIV infection may experience accelerated brain/cognition aging. However, higher education may possibly protect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of age and education in an HIV-1 clade C infected adult population in urban Zambia. METHOD: Demographically corrected Zambian norms on a neuropsychological (NP) test battery were used to correct for normal age and education effects...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Lynn E Eberly, David S Knopman
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to examine the association between perseverations produced on the semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task in asymptomatic individuals and the future diagnosis of cognitive impairment (CI). METHOD: Participants were individuals participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (N = 1269, Mage  = 79.3 years, SD = 5.1; 51% men). All were cognitively normal at baseline and were followed in 15-month intervals for up to 6 visits. Each neurocognitive assessment included SVF tasks ("animals," "fruits," and "vegetables")...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jana Klaus, Dennis J L G Schutter
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has become a common method to study the interrelations between the brain and language functioning. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the study of language production in healthy volunteers. Forty-five effect sizes from 30 studies which investigated the effects of NIBS on picture naming or verbal fluency in healthy participants were meta-analysed. Further sub-analyses investigated potential influences of stimulation type, control, target site, task, online vs...
February 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
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