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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161150/cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia-and-depression-a-comparison-of-stability-and-course
#1
Peter Neu, Tina Gooren, Ulrike Niebuhr, Peter Schlattmann
Cognitive deficits are clinically relevant features in schizophrenia and depression, yet little comparative data on changes in both disorders is available. This study compares cognitive performance of inpatients with schizophrenia (N = 52) and unipolar major depression (N = 67) during psychiatric treatment, assessing performance twice: after admission to hospital (acute) and prior to discharge (postacute) on average seven weeks later. A group of healthy controls was tested at comparable intervals. Data was analyzed using a multivariate linear model...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160019/comparison-of-animal-action-and-phonemic-fluency-in-aphasia
#2
Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah, Lisa Milman
BACKGROUND: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency, is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables. AIMS: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Twenty-eight persons with aphasia (PWA) with a single left-hemisphere lesion and 40 age-matched neurotypical community-dwelling adults were administered three verbal fluency tasks: two semantic (animals and actions) and one phonemic (the letters F, A and S)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149692/acute-stress-affects-prospective-memory-functions-via-associative-memory-processes
#3
Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions...
November 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149110/-does-omega-3-supplementation-after-the-age-of-65-influence-cognitive-function-results-of-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
J Baleztena, M Arana, M Bes-Rastrollo, M C Castellanos, M J Gozalo, M Ruiz-Canela
BACKGROUND: The percentage of the older population is progressively increasing as are diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline (CD) and dementia. Observational epidemiological studies suggest that diets rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w3-PUFA) might reduce the risk of CD and dementia. The main objective was to assess whether there is sufficient scientific evidence about the relationship between w3-PUFA supplementation in patients aged 65 or older and cognitive performance...
November 17, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#5
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#6
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128469/the-different-patterns-of-seizure-induced-aphasia-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#7
Agnès Trebuchon, Isabelle Lambert, Bernard Guisiano, Aileen McGonigal, Charline Perot, Francesca Bonini, Romain Carron, Catherine Liegeois-Chauvel, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVES: Ictal language disturbances may occur in dominant hemisphere temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but little is known about the precise anatomoelectroclinical correlations. This study investigated the different facets of ictal aphasia in intracerebrally recorded TLE. METHODS: Video-stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings of 37 seizures in 17 right-handed patients with drug-resistant TLE were analyzed; SEEG electroclinical correlations between language disturbance and involvement of temporal lobe structures were assessed...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#8
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121238/structural-social-relations-and-cognitive-ageing-trajectories-evidence-from-the-whitehall-ii-cohort-study
#9
Marko Elovainio, Andrew Sommerlad, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Marianna Virtanen, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux
Background: Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Methods: Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119933/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Elzbieta Miller, Agnieszka Morel, Justyna Redlicka, Igor Miller, Joanna Saluk
Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117799/subclinical-executive-function-impairment-in-children-with-asymptomatic-treated-phenylketonuria-a-comparison-with-children-with-immunodeficiency-virus
#11
Patrizia Bisiacchi, Vincenza Tarantino, Giovanni Mento
In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of phenylketonuria (PKU) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to examine the specificity of the executive function (EF) impairment reported in these two patologies. A total of 55 age-matched children and adolescents were assessed, including 11 patients with PKU, 16 patients with HIV and 28 healthy controls, underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Although neither the PKU nor the HIV group scored below the normative ranges, both groups showed lower scores in neuropsychological tests engaging EFs than controls...
November 9, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116943/the-pparg-pro12ala-polymorphism-and-20-year-cognitive-decline-race-and-sex-heterogeneity
#12
Nancy A West, Jonathan V Tingle, Jeannette Simino, Elizabeth Selvin, Jan Bressler, Thomas H Mosley
Previous reports suggest race/ethnic and sex heterogeneity in the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene and cognitive decline. Tests of verbal memory, processing speed, and verbal fluency and a composite global Z-score were used to assess cognitive performance longitudinally in a large (n=11,620) biracial cohort of older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study from midlife to older age. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between the Ala12 allele and cognitive performance over 20 years of follow-up...
November 7, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116821/memory-and-linguistic-executive-functions-of-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#13
Andrea B Água Dias, Cristina P Albuquerque, Mário R Simões
Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) have received a minimal amount of research attention and have been studied in conjunction with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The present study intends to broaden the knowledge of BIF, by analyzing domains such as verbal memory and visual memory, as well as tasks that rely simultaneously on memory, executive functions, and language. A cross-sectional, comparison study was carried out between a group of 40 children with BIF (mean age = 10...
November 8, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114278/profiling-cognitive-deficits-in-intra-axial-and-extra-axial-tumors-using-addenbrooke-s-cognitive-examination-as-a-screening-tool-an-indian-experience
#14
Sandhya Cherkil, Dilip Panikar, Deepak Kuttikkattu Soman
Background: Tumors of the brain, whether intra- or extra-axial, results in cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to profile cognitive deficits using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Malayalam (ACE-M) as a screen and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the same. Methods: Seventy-four drug naïve patients diagnosed to have brain tumors were assessed for cognitive functioning using ACE-M before surgery. Results: Patients with high-grade intra-axial tumors showed a significant association on the cognitive domains of registration (0...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111357/relevance-of-dorsolateral-and-frontotemporal-cortex-on-the-phonemic-verbal-fluency-a-fnirs-study
#15
Martin J Herrmann, Anna K Horst, Sophia Löble, Mira T Möll, Andrea Katzorke, Thomas Polak
Non-invasive brain stimulation is widely used to investigate and manipulate specific brain functions to broaden knowledge about healthy people, and also to provide for a potential treatment option for people with various psychopathological disorders that do not adequately benefit from traditional treatments. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether we could alter the brain activity during a test for executive functioning...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108470/the-chinese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-affective-disorders-normative-data-of-a-mandarin-speaking-population
#16
Chun-Yi Lee, Sheng-Yu Lee, Yu-Chi Huang, Chi-Fa Hung, Yu Lee, Meng-I Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
OBJECTIVE: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A) is administered to assess the cognitive impairments in patients with affective disorders. This study aims to develop the normative data and to explore the factor structure of the Chinese version of the BAC-A in a Mandarin-speaking population. METHOD: This cross-sectional study consisted of 220 healthy participants (age range: 19-79 years; mean age: 51.5 ± 15.9 years, 48.2% male) in communities in Taiwan...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105546/the-effects-of-adjunctive-intranasal-oxytocin-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Miho Ota, Sumiko Yoshida, Masanori Nakata, Toshihiko Yada, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVES: Both human and animal studies have suggested that oxytocin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of schizophrenia. We evaluated the effects of intranasal oxytocin on cognition and its predictive factors in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Subjects were 16 chronic schizophrenia patients who underwent intranasal oxytocin treatment for 3 months and were assessed for changes in severity of clinical symptoms and cognitions. Fifteen of the 16 subjects underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging...
November 6, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101214/indoor-air-pollution-and-cognitive-function-among-older-mexican-adults
#18
Joseph L Saenz, Rebeca Wong, Jennifer A Ailshire
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution may negatively affect cognitive functioning in older adults, but less is known about the link between indoor sources of air pollution and cognitive functioning. We examine the association between exposure to indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults in Mexico, a developing country where combustion of biomass for domestic energy remains common. METHOD: Data come from the 2012 Wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100950/effects-of-alpha-and-gamma-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-on-verbal-creativity-and-intelligence-test-performance
#19
Roland H Grabner, Julia Krenn, Andreas Fink, Martin Arendasy, Mathias Benedek
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method that allows to directly modulate brain oscillations of a given frequency. Using this method, it was recently shown that increasing alpha (10Hz) oscillations improved creative ideation with figural material and that increasing gamma (40Hz) oscillations speeded up performance in a figural matrices intelligence task. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these findings generalize to verbal creativity and intelligence tasks...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098783/associations-of-maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-and-post-partum-with-maternal-cognition-and-caregiving
#20
Elizabeth L Prado, Ulla Ashorn, John Phuka, Kenneth Maleta, John Sadalaki, Brietta M Oaks, Marjorie Haskell, Lindsay H Allen, Steve A Vosti, Per Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey
Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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