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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#1
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163981/a-comparison-of-isometric-isotonic-concentric-and-isotonic-eccentric-exercises-in-the-physiotherapy-management-of-subacromial-pain-syndrome-rotator-cuff-tendinopathy-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Rita Kinsella, Sallie M Cowan, Lyn Watson, Tania Pizzari
Background: Subacromial pain syndrome (SPS) involving rotator cuff tendinopathy is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Evidence suggests that structured physiotherapy may be as effective as surgery in this condition with significant improvements demonstrated in trials involving scapular retraining, rotator cuff strengthening and flexibility exercises. Most published programs typically utilise isotonic concentric and/or eccentric strengthening modes. Recently, immediate analgesic effects and muscle strength gains following heavy-load isometric exercises in lower limb tendinopathy conditions have been observed...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154491/does-differential-visual-exploration-contribute-to-visual-memory-impairments-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#3
M Bostelmann, B Glaser, A Zaharia, S Eliez, M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may contribute to memory difficulties in 22q11.2DS by tracking eye movements during the encoding phase of a visual short-term memory task. METHOD: Eye movements were recorded during a computerised version of the multiple-choice Benton Visual Retention Test, which consisted of exploring and then recognising complex visual stimuli...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125009/exercise-beliefs-and-behaviours-of-individuals-with-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobility-type
#4
Jane V Simmonds, Anthony Herbland, Alan Hakim, Nelly Ninis, William Lever, Qasim Aziz, Mindy Cairns
PURPOSE: To explore exercise beliefs and behaviours of individuals with Joint Hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - hypermobility type and to explore patient experiences of physiotherapy. METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire survey design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from adult members of the Hypermobility Syndromes Association and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Support UK. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data...
November 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119933/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Elzbieta Miller, Agnieszka Morel, Justyna Redlicka, Igor Miller, Joanna Saluk
Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054333/developmental-trend-of-children-with-down-s-syndrome-how-do-sex-and-neonatal-conditions-influence-their-developmental-patterns
#6
Sayaka Aoki, Yuko Yamauchi, Keiji Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated factors that would influence developmental trend of children with Down's syndrome (DS) in three different domains (motor, cognitive, language), specifically focusing on the effect of sex and neonatal conditions, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The participants were 158 children with DS (mean age at the initial test = 25.5 months) receiving clinical service at a rehabilitation center in Yokohama, Japan...
October 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052951/basic-self-disturbance-neurocognition-and-metacognition-a-pilot-study-among-help-seeking-adolescents-with-and-without-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome
#7
Dan Koren, Ravit Scheyer, Noa Reznik, Merav Adres, Alan Apter, Josef Parnas, Larry J Seidman
AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help-seeking adolescents (age 13-18) were assessed with the examination of anomalous self-experience, the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and a new metacognitive approach to neurocognitive assessment applied to two non-social (executive functions and verbal memory) and two social (theory of mind and emotion recognition) domains...
October 20, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037499/neuropsychiatric-and-cognitive-profile-of-early-richardson-s-syndrome-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-parkinsonism-and-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Clelia Pellicano, Francesca Assogna, Nystya Cellupica, Federica Piras, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Alessandro Stefani, Rocco Cerroni, Bruno Mercuri, Carlo Caltagirone, Francesco E Pontieri, Gianfranco Spalletta
INTRODUCTION: The two main variants of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) and PSP-parkinsonism (PSP-P), share motor and non-motor features with Parkinson's disease (PD) particularly in the early stages. This makes the precocious diagnosis more challenging. We aimed at defining qualitative and quantitative differences of neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological profiles between PSP-P, PSP-RS and PD patients recruited within 24 months after the onset of symptoms, in order to clarify if the identification of peculiar cognitive and psychiatric symptoms is of help for early PSP diagnosis...
October 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028867/how-flexible-is-the-use-of-egocentric-versus-allocentric-frame-of-reference-in-the-williams-syndrome-population
#9
J Heiz, S Majerus, K Barisnikov
Objective: This study examined the spontaneous use of allocentric and egocentric frames of reference and their flexible use as a function of instructions. Method: The computerized spatial reference task created by Heiz and Barisnikov (2015) was used. Participants had to choose a frame of reference according to three types of instructions: spontaneous, allocentric and egocentric. The performances of 16 Williams Syndrome participants between 10 and 41 years were compared to those of two control groups (chronological age and non-verbal intellectual ability)...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984599/sleep-apnea-cognitive-profile-and%C3%A2-vascular-changes-an-intriguing-relationship
#10
Laura Buratti, Giovanna Viticchi, Sara Baldinelli, Lorenzo Falsetti, Simona Luzzi, Alessandra Pulcini, Cristina Petrelli, Leandro Provinciali, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: Sleep breathing disorders can affect cognitive performances through complex brain anatomical and functional changes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between cognitive performances and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), as well as the possible influence of vascular factors. METHODS: Thirty-four non-demented OSAS patients and 34 controls were submitted to a neuropsychological evaluation and to a vascular screening including the study of cerebrovascular reactivity by means of the breath-holding index (BHI) calculation...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945138/cross-sectional-associations-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-performance-across-cognitive-domains-a-systematic-review
#11
Tara Alcorn, Elise Hart, Ashleigh E Smith, Daniel Feuerriegel, Blossom C M Stephan, Mario Siervo, Hannah A D Keage
This review aimed to systematically evaluate associations between the Metabolic Syndrome and domain specific cognitive performance from cross-sectional studies. PsycINFO and Medline were searched on 12 January 2017 with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome" and "cogni*." A total of 973 articles were identified, with 26 meeting inclusion criteria. Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome were consistently reported to have poorer performance on executive function tasks that were not adaptations of the verbal fluency task, including the Stockings of Cambridge test, Color-Word Inference Test and Frontal Assessment Battery; findings from adaptations of the verbal fluency test showed less consistent results...
September 25, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912737/neuropsychological-profile-of-specific-executive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#12
Ernest Tyburski, Justyna Pełka-Wysiecka, Monika Mak, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Jerzy Samochowiec
Objectives: Although it has been shown that there are more profound deficits present in deficit schizophrenia (DS) patients than in non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients, there still remain some matters requiring further investigation. In this context, we formulated three research aims: (1) to compare executive functions between the investigated groups, (2) to determine the relationship between particular aspects of executive functions within the groups, and (3) to draw up a neuropsychological profile for executive functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750682/behavioural-and-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-auditory-speech-analysis-in-primary-progressive-aphasias
#13
Chris J D Hardy, Jennifer L Agustus, Charles R Marshall, Camilla N Clark, Lucy L Russell, Rebecca L Bond, Emilie V Brotherhood, David L Thomas, Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal auditory impairment is increasingly recognised in the primary progressive aphasias (PPAs) but its relationship to speech processing and brain substrates has not been defined. Here we addressed these issues in patients representing the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA) and semantic variant (svPPA) syndromes of PPA. METHODS: We studied 19 patients with PPA in relation to 19 healthy older individuals. We manipulated three key auditory parameters-temporal regularity, phonemic spectral structure and prosodic predictability (an index of fundamental information content, or entropy)-in sequences of spoken syllables...
July 27, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738222/thinking-inside-the-box-spatial-frames-of-reference-for-drawing-in-williams-syndrome-and-typical-development
#14
Kerry D Hudson, Emily K Farran
BACKGROUND: Successfully completing a drawing relies on the ability to accurately impose and manipulate spatial frames of reference for the object that is being drawn and for the drawing space. Typically developing (TD) children use cues such as the page boundary as a frame of reference to guide the orientation of drawn lines. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically produce incohesive drawings; this is proposed to reflect a local processing bias. AIMS: Across two studies, we provide the first investigation of the effect of using a frame of reference when drawing simple lines and shapes in WS and TD groups (matched for non-verbal ability)...
July 21, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736607/typical-versus-delayed-speech-onset-influences-verbal-reporting-of-autistic-interests
#15
Liliane Chiodo, Steve Majerus, Laurent Mottron
BACKGROUND: The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is associated with clinical, cognitive, and neural differences. It is unknown whether these different speech development pathways and associated cognitive differences are involved in the heterogeneity of the restricted interests that characterize autistic adults. METHOD: This study tested the hypothesis that speech onset delay, or conversely, early mastery of speech, orients the nature and verbal reporting of adult autistic interests...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736353/sport-related-structural-brain-injury-3-cases-of-subdural-hemorrhage-in-american-high-school-football
#16
Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Ryan M Gardner, Andrew W Kuhn, Gary S Solomon, Christopher M Bonfield, Scott L Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries...
October 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730399/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-findings-in-susac-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Lisa Toto, Alfonso Senatore, Alessandro D'Uffizi, Piergiorgio Neri, Cesare Mariotti, Marica Tina Maccarone, Luca Di Antonio
PURPOSE: To report clinical features of Susac's syndrome (SS) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 25-year-old Caucasian female with a history of non-pulsatile migraine, tinnitus, and verbal apraxia complaining of peripheral scotoma in left eye due to branch retinal arteriole occlusion (BRAO) was diagnosed as having SS after audiometric test, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and multimodal retinal imaging...
July 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714100/why-is-it-so-hard-to-reach-agreement-on-terminology-the-case-of-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#18
Dorothy V M Bishop
A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637741/the-closed-trial-clonidine-compared-with-midazolam-for-sedation-of-paediatric-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Antje Neubert, Manuel Alberto Baarslag, Monique van Dijk, Joost van Rosmalen, Joseph F Standing, Yucheng Sheng, Wolfgang Rascher, Deborah Roberts, Jackie Winslade, Louise Rawcliffe, Sara M Hanning, Tuuli Metsvaht, Viviana Giannuzzi, Peter Larsson, Pavla Pokorná, Alessandra Simonetti, Dick Tibboel
INTRODUCTION: Sedation is an essential part of paediatric critical care. Midazolam, often in combination with opioids, is the current gold standard drug. However, as it is a far-from-ideal agent, clonidine is increasingly being used in children. This drug is prescribed off-label for this indication, as many drugs in paediatrics are. Therefore, the CLOSED trial aims to provide data on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of clonidine for the sedation of mechanically ventilated patients in order to obtain a paediatric-use marketing authorisation...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579975/the-eight-and-a-half-year-journey-of-undiagnosed-ad-gene-sequencing-and-funding-of-advanced-genetic-testing-has-led-to-hope-and-new-beginnings
#20
Illana Gozes, Marc C Patterson, Anke Van Dijck, R Frank Kooy, Joseph N Peeden, Jacob A Eichenberger, Angela Zawacki-Downing, Sandra Bedrosian-Sermone
BACKGROUND: Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is one of the most prevalent de novo mutated genes in syndromic autism spectrum disorders, driving a general interest in the gene and the syndrome. AIM: The aim of this study was to provide a detailed developmental case study of ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation toward improvements in (1) diagnostic procedures, (2) phenotypic scope, and (3) interventions. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical and parental reports...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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