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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050384/stimulating-thought-a-functional-mri-study-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-schizophrenia
#1
Natasza D Orlov, Owen O'Daly, Derek K Tracy, Yusuf Daniju, John Hodsoll, Lorena Valdearenas, John Rothwell, Sukhi S Shergill
Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049929/aggression-emotional-self-regulation-attentional-bias-and-cognitive-inhibition-predict-risky-driving-behavior
#2
Susan Raouf Hadadi Sani, Zahra Tabibi, Javad Salehi Fadardi, Despina Stavrinos
The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire...
October 16, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043656/from-eyes-to-hands-transfer-of-learning-in-the-simon-task-across-motor-effectors
#3
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040222/neurovascular-response-during-exercise-and-mental-stress-in-anabolic-steroid-users
#4
Rafael Armani Porello, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, César Abreu Akiho, Maurício Yonamine, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
PURPOSE: Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. Additionally, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. METHODS: Nineteen AAS users (AASU) aged 31±6 yr and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) aged 29±4 yr were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037639/reliability-of-kinematic-measures-in-subjects-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-during-dual-task-walking
#5
Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh
OBJECTIVE: To define the throughout within- and between-day reliability of gait parameters in single - and dual-task conditions in subjects with and without anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). METHODS: Fourteen subjects with ACLD and 14 healthy subjects completed a walking task on a treadmill with three levels of velocity (self-selected, high and low), with or without performing an auditory Stroop task over two sessions each 3-5 days apart. The gait kinematic parameters, including maximum and minimum hip flexion, total hip range of motion, maximum and minimum knee flexion and total knee range of motion were recorded using a motion analysis system...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035077/task-conflict-and-proactive-control-a-computational-theory-of-the-stroop-task
#7
Eyal Kalanthroff, Eddy J Davelaar, Avishai Henik, Liat Goldfarb, Marius Usher
The Stroop task is a central experimental paradigm used to probe cognitive control by measuring the ability of participants to selectively attend to task-relevant information and inhibit automatic task-irrelevant responses. Research has revealed variability in both experimental manipulations and individual differences. Here, we focus on a particular source of Stroop variability, the reverse-facilitation (RF; faster responses to nonword neutral stimuli than to congruent stimuli), which has recently been suggested as a signature of task conflict...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031742/a-preliminary-examination-of-gut-microbiota-sleep-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-healthy-older-adults
#8
Jason R Anderson, Ian Carroll, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Amber D Rochette, Leslie J Heinberg, Christine Peat, Kristine Steffen, Lisa M Manderino, James Mitchell, John Gunstad
OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep increases the risk for age-related cognitive decline and recent work suggests a possible role of the gut microbiota in this phenomenon. Partial sleep deprivation alters the human gut microbiome, and its composition is associated with cognitive flexibility in animal models. Given these findings, we examined the possible relationship among the gut microbiome, sleep quality, and cognitive flexibility in a sample of healthy older adults. METHODS: Thirty-seven participants (age 64...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031520/executive-function-responses-to-aerobic-exercise-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Fang Yu, David M Vock, Terry R Barclay
Executive dysfunction occurs early and is prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study tested the ability of different measures for identifying changes in executive function and the effect of 6-months of aerobic exercise on executive function in older adults with mild to moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 28, age 78.1 ± 8.37). Factor analysis and linear mixed-effects model analyses showed that individually the Exit Interview-25 (EXIT-25), Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS), and Golden Stroop test were the preferred instruments for measuring changes in executive function in the sample...
October 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031468/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-1-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-elite-athletes
#10
Beth L Parkin, Katie Warriner, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#11
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023823/is-attention-enhanced-following-performance-errors-testing-the-adaptive-control-hypothesis
#12
Rebecca J Compton, Elizabeth C Heaton, Averi Gaines
The present study tested whether people adaptively sharpen attentional focus following performance mistakes, as predicted by current theories of cognitive control. Participants completed a reverse Stroop task in which target stimuli were preceded by an informative spatial cue. Cue validity and Stroop interference effects on performance were robust, but neither effect was altered by commission of an error on the prior trial, as predicted by the adaptive control model. Likewise, a prior error did not enhance cue-evoked spatial asymmetries in EEG, nor did it enhance validity effects on neural responses evoked by targets...
October 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023452/functional-imaging-of-cognition-in-an-old-old-population-a-case-for-portable-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Theodore J Huppert, Helmet Karim, Chia-Cheng Lin, Bader A Alqahtani, Susan L Greenspan, Patrick J Sparto
In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record brain activation during cognitive testing in older individuals (88±6yo; N = 19) living in residential care communities. This population, which is often associated with loss of personal independence due to physical or cognitive decline associated with aging, is also often under-represented in neuroscience research because of a limited means to participate in studies which often take place in large urban or university centers. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility and initial results using a portable 8-source by 4-detector fNIRS system to measure brain activity from participants within residential care community centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019064/inhibition-in-aging-what-is-preserved-what-declines-a-meta-analysis
#14
Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade
Aging has been assumed to go along with deficient inhibitory processes in cognitive performance. According to this inhibition deficit hypothesis, older adults are less able to suppress or ignore irrelevant thoughts and actions than young adults are. This hypothesis has been investigated in a large number of studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether there is an inhibition deficit in older age and whether this deficit is general or task-specific. We selected 176 studies in which young and older adults were tested on tasks commonly assumed to measure inhibition (i...
October 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993051/isolating-automatic-photism-generation-from-strategic-photism-use-in-grapheme-colour-synaesthesia
#15
Arielle M Levy, Mike J Dixon, Sherif Soliman
Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which ordinary black numbers and letters (graphemes) trigger the experience of highly specific colours (photisms). The Synaesthetic Stroop task has been used to demonstrate that graphemes trigger photisms automatically. In the standard Stroop task, congruent trial probability (CTP) has been manipulated to isolate effects of automaticity from higher-order strategic effects, with larger Stroop effects at high CTP attributed to participants strategically attending to the stimulus word to facilitate responding, and smaller Stroop effects at low CTP reflecting automatic word processing...
October 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992377/a-single-session-of-attentional-bias-modification-reduces-alcohol-craving-and-implicit-measures-of-alcohol-bias-in-young-adult-drinkers
#16
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991521/exploring-the-bilingual-advantage-manipulations-of-similarity-and-second-language-immersion-in-a-stroop-task
#17
Naomi Hannaway, Bertram Opitz, Paul Sauseng
To explain varying previous results as to whether bilinguals show an advantage over monolinguals in inhibitory control, two hypotheses have been suggested. The Bilingual Inhibitory Control Advantage (BICA) hypothesis proposes a bilingual advantage specific to the presence of conflict. In contrast, the Bilingual Executive Processing Advantage (BEPA) hypothesis proposes a global advantage in processing, across all contexts. The present research contrasts these hypotheses by investigating the effects of second language immersion and similarity of colour terms across languages on the bilingual Stroop task...
October 9, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985594/the-effect-of-beam-slope-on-the-perception-of-melodic-contour
#18
Warren Brodsky, Yoav Kessler
Musical score reading is a complex task, which involves attending and interpreting multiple visual constituents that are graphically congested. The present investigation examined the 'beam', which although consistently found in music notation, is typically considered as providing no more information than marking metric boundaries (i.e., chunking). However, we provide evidence here that beams enhance visual perception of contour. In Study 1, a Stroop-like paradigm was used in which participants were required to judge the direction of notes or the beam in a compound figure; the two dimensions were either congruent or incongruent...
October 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985419/subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-impairs-emotional-conflict-adaptation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Friederike Irmen, Julius Huebl, Henning Schroll, Christof Brücke, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Fred H Hamker, Andrea A Kühn
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) occupies a strategic position in the motor network, slowing down responses in situations with conflicting perceptual input. Recent evidence suggests a role of the STN in emotion processing through strong connections with emotion recognition structures. As deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) inhibits monitoring of perceptual and value-based conflict, STN DBS may also interfere with emotional conflict processing. To assess a possible interference of STN DBS with emotional conflict processing, we used an emotional Stroop paradigm...
July 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985245/heart-rate-variability-and-cognitive-function-in-middle-age-adults-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults
#20
Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Tali Elfassy, Mercedes R Carnethon, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Kristine Yaffe
BACKGROUND: Low heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic dysfunction, has been associated with major risk factors of cognitive impairment. Yet, the direct association of HRV with cognitive function remains relatively unexplored, particularly in midlife. METHODS: In 2005, 2 measures of short-term HRV, the SD of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), were calculated for participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, and then categorized into quartiles...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
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