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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106569/cerebellar-volume-and-executive-function-in-parkinson-disease-with-and-without-freezing-of-gait
#1
Peter S Myers, Marie E McNeely, Jonathan M Koller, Gammon M Earhart, Meghan C Campbell
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) affects approximately 50% of people with Parkinson Disease (PD), impacting quality of life and placing financial and emotional strain on the individual and caregivers. People with PD and FOG have similar deficits in motor adaptation and cognition as individuals with cerebellar lesions, indicating the cerebellum may play a role in FOG. OBJECTIVE: To examine potential differences in cerebellar volumes and their relationships with cognition between PD with (FOG+) and without FOG (FOG-)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096758/effects-of-acute-ingestion-of-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-p-synephrine-on-resting-energy-expenditure-cognitive-function-and-exercise-performance
#2
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Elfego Galvan, Ryan Dalton, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Peter S Murano, Mike Greenwood, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p-synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and recreationally active male and female participants ingested a flavored maltodextrin placebo (PLA), a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg) with 2 g of maltodextrin and flavoring; or, the PWS with Citrus aurantium (PWS + S) extract standardized for 30% p-synephrine (20 mg)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096757/effects-of-ingesting-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-synephrine-for-8%C3%A2-weeks-on-training-adaptations-in-resistance-trained-males
#3
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Minye Cho, Nick Barringer, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Peter S Murano, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. METHODS: Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095005/identifying-stimuli-that-cue-multiple-responses-triggers-the-congruency-sequence-effect-independent-of-response-conflict
#4
Daniel H Weissman, Katelyn M Colter, Lauren D Grant, Patrick G Bissett
According to most accounts of executive control, resisting distraction requires enhancing task-relevant processing, reducing task-irrelevant processing, or both. Consistent with this view, the congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks-a putative measure of distraction-is often smaller after highly distracting incongruent trials than after less distracting congruent trials. Competing accounts of executive control, however, differ on which aspect of an incongruent trial triggers this congruency sequence effect (CSE)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092208/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-cricket-relevant-performance-among-elite-players
#5
Darren Veness, Stephen David Patterson, Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron
This study investigated the effects of a mentally fatiguing test on physical tasks among elite cricketers. In a cross-over design, 10 elite male cricket players from a professional club performed a cricket run-two test, a Batak Lite reaction time test and a Yo-Yo-Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo-IR1) test, providing a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after completing a 30-min Stroop test (mental fatigue condition) or 30-min control condition. Perceived fatigue was assessed before and after the two conditions and motivation was measured before testing...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092198/attentional-bias-in-excessive-internet-gamers-experimental-investigations-using-an-addiction-stroop-and-a-visual-probe
#6
Franziska Jeromin, Nele Nyenhuis, Antonia Barke
Background and aims Internet Gaming Disorder is included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5(th) edition) as a disorder that merits further research. The diagnostic criteria are based on those for Substance Use Disorder and Gambling Disorder. Excessive gamblers and persons with Substance Use Disorder show attentional biases towards stimuli related to their addictions. We investigated whether excessive Internet gamers show a similar attentional bias, by using two established experimental paradigms...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090654/the-development-of-semantic-blocking-in-children
#7
Harrie Boelens, Wido La Heij
Pictures are named more slowly in the context of semantically related pictures than in the context of unrelated pictures. This semantic blocking effect has been studied extensively in adult participants, and one study has revealed its presence in 6-year-old children. However, little is known about the development of the effect with age. In this study, a blocked cyclic naming procedure was arranged for 5- to 7-year-old and 10- to 12-year-old children. The semantic blocking effect obtained did not differ in size between the two age groups...
January 16, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077327/eliminating-stroop-effects-with-post-hypnotic-instructions-brain-mechanisms-inferred-from-eeg
#8
Anoushiravan Zahedi, Birgit Stuermer, Javad Hatami, Reza Rostami, Werner Sommer
The classic Stroop task demonstrates the persistent and automatic effects of the meaning of color words that are very hard to inhibit when the task is to name the word color. Post-hypnotic instructions may enable highly-hypnotizable participants to inhibit the automatic access to word meaning. Here we compared the consequences of hypnosis alone and hypnosis with post-hypnotic instructions on the Stroop effect and its facilitation and inhibition components. Importantly, we studied the mechanisms of the hypnosis effects at the neural level by analyzing EEG frequencies...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077120/altered-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-associated-with-cognitive-dysfunction-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-major-depressive-disorder-patients
#9
Manli Huang, Shaojia Lu, Liang Yu, Lingjiang Li, Peng Zhang, Jianbo Hu, Weihua Zhou, Shaohua Hu, Ning Wei, Jinwen Huang, Jian Weng, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that abnormities of both resting-state brain activity and cognitive dysfunction are frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying relationship between these two aspects is less investigated. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cognitive dysfunction and altered resting-state brain function in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naïve MDD patients and twenty-six age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls were recruited in this study...
January 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075038/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cancer-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-proof-of-concept-rct
#10
K L Campbell, J W Y Kam, S E Neil-Sztramko, T Liu Ambrose, T C Handy, H Lim, S Hayden, L Hsu, A A Kirkham, C C Gotay, D C McKenzie, L A Boyd
BACKGROUND: Change in cognitive ability is a commonly reported side effect by breast cancer survivors (BCS). The underlying etiology of cognitive complaints is unclear and to date there is limited evidence for effective intervention strategies. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and animal models treated with chemotherapy. This proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested the effect of aerobic exercise versus usual lifestyle on cognitive function in postmenopausal BCS...
January 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074268/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-a-chronic-vestibular-failure
#11
Pauline Popp, Melanie Wulff, Kathrin Finke, Maxine Rühl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073047/examining-cognitive-examining-cognitive-processes-and-drinking-urge-in-ptsd
#12
Jennifer P Read, Rachel L Bachrach, Jeffrey D Wardell, Scott F Coffey
Despite their centrality to learning theories, strikingly little attention has been paid to the role of cognitions in efforts to understand associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine information processing pathways for trauma and alcohol information, and the effects of posttraumatic stress and trauma cue exposure on these pathways. Participants were college students (N = 232; 49% female; Mage = 19.56,SD = 1.44) categorized into three diagnostic groups based on current PTSD status determined by structured clinical interview...
December 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068112/association-between-smoking-related-attentional-bias-and-craving-measured-in-the-clinic-and-in-the-natural-environment
#13
Rachna Begh, Margaret Smith, Stuart G Ferguson, Saul Shiffman, Marcus R Munafò, Paul Aveyard
Previous laboratory studies have investigated associations between attentional bias and craving, but ecological momentary assessment (EMA) may provide ecologically-valid data. This study examines whether clinic-measured attentional bias is associated with noticing smoking cues, attention to smoking, and craving assessed by EMA and whether EMA-assessed cues and attention to smoking are associated with craving in a secondary analysis of data from 100 cigarette smokers attempting cessation. Two weeks before quitting, participants completed attentional bias assessments on visual probe (VP) and Stroop tasks and completed random EMA-assessments for seven weeks thereafter...
December 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067945/effect-of-a-long-term-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-on-cognitive-function-action-for-health-in-diabetes-study
#14
Stephen R Rapp, Jose A Luchsinger, Laura D Baker, George L Blackburn, Helen P Hazuda, Kathryn E Demos-McDermott, Robert W Jeffery, Jeffrey N Keller, Jeanne M McCaffery, Nicholas M Pajewski, Mary Evans, Thomas A Wadden, Steven E Arnold, Mark A Espeland
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether randomization to 10 years of lifestyle intervention to induce and maintain weight loss improves cognitive function. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Continuation study (U01 DK057136-15). PARTICIPANTS: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 (N = 3,751)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065593/effortful-control-as-a-moderator-in-the-association-between-punishment-and-reward-sensitivity-and-eating-styles-in-adolescent-boys-and-girls
#15
Annelies Matton, Lien Goossens, Myriam Vervaet, Caroline Braet
The reactive traits of Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) are assumed to be involved in the development of Eating Disorders (EDs). Most studies examine whether levels of these traits differ between ED diagnoses, without taking other variables into account. However, vulnerability theories of psychopathology posit that the risk for psychopathology depends on the interaction between reactive traits and self-regulatory traits such as Effortful Control (EC). As such, the present objective was to examine the moderating role of EC in the association between SP, SR and the eating styles restrained eating, emotional eating and external eating as possible ED precursors in adolescents...
January 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063392/differences-in-the-verbal-fluency-working-memory-and-executive-functions-in-alcoholics-short-term-vs-long-term-abstainers
#16
Katarzyna Nowakowska-Domagała, Karolina Jabłkowska-Górecka, Łukasz Mokros, Jacek Koprowicz, Tadeusz Pietras
The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group...
December 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061943/the-effects-of-awareness-and-secondary-task-demands-on-stroop-performance-in-the-pre-cued-lists-paradigm
#17
Julie M Bugg, Nathaniel T Diede
Prior research has demonstrated that explicit pre-cues informing participants of the proportion congruence of an upcoming list of Stroop trials affect performance in mostly congruent lists but not mostly incongruent lists. This pattern suggests a limited role for expectations in influencing Stroop performance. An alternative explanation, however, is that the effects of pre-cues may be masked by a bleed-over of awareness (of the proportion congruence manipulation) from cued to uncued lists given use of a within-subjects manipulation of cueing in prior research...
January 4, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053894/effect-of-yoga-program-on-executive-functions-of-adolescents-dwelling-in-an-orphan-home-a-randomized-controlled-study
#18
Satya Prakash Purohit, Balaram Pradhan
Executive function (EF) is important for physical and mental health of children. Studies have shown that children with poverty and early life stress have reduced EF. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Yoga program on the EF of orphan adolescents. Seventy two apparently healthy orphan adolescents randomized and allocated into two groups as Yoga group (n = 40; 14 girls, age = 12.69 ± 1.35 yrs) and Wait List Control (WLC) group (n = 32, 13 girls, age = 12.58 ± 1.52 yrs). Yoga group underwent three months of Yoga program in a schedule of 90 min per day, four days per week whereas the WLC group followed the routine activities...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043899/prefrontal-cortex-mediated-executive-function-as-assessed-by-stroop-task-performance-associates-with-weight-loss-among-overweight-and-obese-adolescents-and-young-adults
#19
Xia Xu, Zhang-Yan Deng, Qin Huang, Wei-Xia Zhang, Chang-Zhu Qi, Jia-Ai Huang
People with cognitive deficits or executive dysfunction are often overweight or obese. Several human neuroimaging studies have found that executive function (EF) predicts food intake and weight gain; however, fewer studies have investigated the relationship between EF and weight loss. The Stroop task is a classic measure of EF that is used in many neuroimaging studies. In the present work, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data were collected during performance of the Stroop task from a sample of overweight or obese adolescents and young adults (n=31) who participated in a summer fitness and weight loss camp...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038438/executive-function-and-genetic-loading-in-nonpsychotic-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#20
Erkan Aydın, Mine Cansu Ülgen, Abdülkadir Tabo, Özlem Devrim Balaban, Sema Yeşilyurt, Hüseyin Yumrukçal
Executive functions meet the "endophenotype candidate" criteria in neuropsychological measures for schizophrenic patients. To determine which area of executive functioning has the greatest value in differentiating the so called "candidate endophenotype" of schizophrenia through comparing the effect sizes of four commonly used executive function tests. A Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop Test, a Trail Making Test and a Verbal Fluency Test were used to evaluate executive function in two study groups: healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients from simplex and multiplex families and a healthy control group...
December 21, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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