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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648301/associations-of-early-kidney-disease-with-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-function-in-african-americans-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Barry I Freedman, Kaycee M Sink, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Timothy M Hughes, Jeff D Williamson, Christopher T Whitlow, Nicholette D Palmer, Michael E Miller, Laura C Lovato, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Lenore J Launer, Joshua I Barzilay, Robert M Cohen, Mark D Sullivan, R Nick Bryan, Benjamin C Wagner, Donald W Bowden, Joseph A Maldjian, Jasmin Divers
BACKGROUND: Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647846/attentional-processing-of-itch
#2
A I M van Laarhoven, S van Damme, A P M Lavrijsen, D M van Ryckeghem, G Crombez, A W M Evers
Itch is a prevalent somatosensory symptom that can be highly disabling, because it is likely to draw attention and, as a result, may interfere with the performance of daily activities. Yet, research experimentally investigating attention to itch is lacking. In this study we aimed to investigate attentional processing of itch using multiple behavioral attention tasks. Forty-one healthy participants performed (1) a modified Stroop task with itch-related words, (2) a dot-probe task with itch-related pictures, and (3) a recently developed somatosensory attention task in which the effect of experimentally induced itch on the localization of visual targets was examined...
June 24, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647493/associations-between-the-dbh-gene-plasma-dopamine-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-activity-and-cognitive-measures-in-han-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Zuoli Sun, Yun Ma, Wenbiao Li, Jing He, Jun Li, Xue Yang, Peixian Mao, Joseph F Cubells, Yilang Tang
The dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems modulate cognitive function. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts DA to NE, and its activity is under strong genetic control. This study examines the association of plasma DβH (pDβH) activity, DBH gene polymorphisms (-1021C>T, rs1611115 and 444G>A, rs1108580) and cognitive deficits in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed pDβH activity and cognitive function using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Trail Making Test (TMT) A-B, Stroop color-word test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 200 patients with schizophrenia before and after 8weeks of antipsychotic treatment (96 patients completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment)...
June 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646032/the-human-coronary-vasodilatory-response-to-acute-mental-stress-is-mediated-by-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase
#4
Sitara Gulurkh Khan, Narbeh Melikian, Husain Shabeeh, Ana Rita Cabaco, Katherine Martin, Faisal Khan, Kevin O'Gallagher, Phil Chowienczyk, Ajay M Shah
INTRODUCTION: Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental-stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645229/cognitive-function-in-early-psychosis-patients-from-a-lower-middle-income-country
#5
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Rachel Thomasson, Tayyeba Kiran, Paul Bassett, Muhammad I Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
OBJECTIVES: To establish evidence of cognitive changes in early psychosis (EP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in Pakistan. METHODS: Fifty-one participants with EP were recruited from psychiatric units in Karachi and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and matched with 51 HC. Neurocognitive domains were assessed using standardised neuropsychological tests [the Stroop test, block design, Matrix Reasoning, picture completion, object assembly, oral fluency, memory for design, Coughlan learning task (verbal and visual)]...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644923/examining-transfer-effects-of-dual-task-training-protocols-for-a-complex-locomotor-task
#6
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643101/cognitive-performance-correlates-with-the-degree-of-dopaminergic-degeneration-in-the-associative-part-of-the-striatum-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-patients
#7
Dorothee Kübler, Henning Schroll, Ralph Buchert, Andrea A Kühn
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive deficits that are relevant in terms of prognosis and quality of life. Degeneration of striatal dopaminergic afferents proceeds from dorsal/caudal to anterior/ventral and is discussed to account for some of these symptoms. Treatment with dopamine (DA) has differential effects on cognitive dysfunctions, improving some and worsening others. We hypothesized that cognitive performance during the dopaminergic OFF state correlates with DAT availability in the associative striatum...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642166/frontal-alpha-oscillations-and-attentional-control-a-virtual-reality-neurofeedback-study
#8
Anna M Berger, Eddy J Davelaar
Two competing views about alpha oscillations suggest that cortical alpha reflect either cortical inactivity or cortical processing efficiency. We investigate the role of alpha oscillations in attentional control, as measured with a Stroop task. We use neurofeedback to train 22 participants to increase their level of alpha amplitude. Based on the conflict/control loop theory, we selected to train prefrontal alpha and focus on the Gratton effect as an index of deployment of attentional control. We expected an increase or a decrease in the Gratton effect with increase in neural learning depending on whether frontal alpha oscillations reflect cortical idling or enhanced processing efficiency, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639079/autonomic-nervous-system-response-to-stressors-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Miroslav Vlcek, Adela Penesova, Richard Imrich, Milada Meskova, Martina Mravcova, Lucia Grunnerova, Alexandra Garafova, Monika Sivakova, Peter Turcani, Branislav Kollar, Daniela Jezova
Autonomic dysfunction is commonly detected in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, data evaluating autonomic nervous system function in early MS are limited. Present study investigates response to two different stressors in newly diagnosed MS patients, looking for the signs of autonomic dysfunction at the beginning of the disease. We examined 19 MS patients and 19 age, sex, and body mass index matched healthy controls. MS patients were newly diagnosed, untreated, and with low expanded disability status scale (EDSS) values [median 1...
June 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635178/assessing-inhibitory-control-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-disease-using-the-hayling-sentence-completion-test
#10
Anthony Martyr, Elina Boycheva, Aleksandra Kudlicka
The ability to inhibit irrelevant information is essential for coping with the demands of everyday life. Inhibitory deficits are present in all stages of dementia and commonly observed in people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD). Inhibition is frequently tested with the Stroop test, but this may lack ecological validity. This study investigates inhibitory control in people with Alzheimer's disease dementia (PwD) and PwPD using the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), which aspires to be a more ecologically valid task...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#11
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630458/the-value-of-instability-an-investigation-of-intra-subject-variability-in-brain-activity-among-obese-adolescent-girls
#12
L O Bauer, R J Houston
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the value of intra-subject variability (ISV) as a metric for revealing differences in cognition and brain activation associated with an obese versus lean body mass. METHODS: Ninety-six adolescents with a lean body mass (BMI %-ile=5-85), and 92 adolescents with an obese body mass (BMI %-ile >=95), performed two tasks (Stroop and Go/NoGo) challenging response inhibition skills. The standard deviations and averages of their reaction time and P300 electroencephalographic responses to task stimuli were computed across trials...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#13
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629417/use-of-mobile-and-cordless-phones-and-change-in-cognitive-function-a-prospective-cohort-analysis-of-australian-primary-school-children
#14
Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Geza Benke, Catherine L Smith, Mary Redmayne, Christina Dimitriadis, Anna Dalecki, Skye Macleod, Malcolm R Sim, Rodney J Croft, Rory Wolfe, Jordy Kaufman, Michael J Abramson
BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have suggested an association between children's use of mobile phones (MPs)/cordless phones (CPs) and development of cognitive function. We evaluated possible longitudinal associations between the use of MPs and CPs in a cohort of primary school children and effects on their cognitive function. METHODS: Data on children's socio-demographics, use of MPs and CPs, and cognitive function were collected at baseline (2010-2012) and follow-up (2012-2013)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627125/the-role-of-long-term-physical-exercise-on-performance-and-brain-activation-during-the-stroop-colour-word-task-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#15
S Martinsen, P Flodin, J Berrebi, M Löfgren, I Bileviciute-Ljungar, K Mannerkorpi, M Ingvar, P Fransson, E Kosek
The Stroop colour word test (SCWT) has been widely used to assess changes in cognitive performance such as processing speed, selective attention and the degree of automaticity. Moreover, the SCWT has proven to be a valuable tool to assess neuronal plasticity that is coupled to improvement in performance in clinical populations. In a previous study, we showed impaired cognitive processing during SCWT along with reduced task-related activations in patients with fibromyalgia. In this study, we used SCWT and functional magnetic resonance imagingFMRI to investigate the effects of a 15-week physical exercise intervention on cognitive performance, task-related cortical activation and distraction-induced analgesia (DIA) in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls...
June 18, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621495/the-spectrum-of-pre-dementia-stages-cognitive-profile-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-and-relationship-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
H Sekhon, G Allali, C P Launay, J Chabot, O Beauchet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a pre-dementia syndrome. There is little information on the cognitive profile of individuals with MCR syndrome and its overlap with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndrome. This study aimed to examine and compare the cognitive performance of non-demented older community dwellers with and without MCR and MCI syndromes. METHODS: A total of 291 non-demented individuals were selected from the Gait and Alzheimer Interactions Tracking study, which is a cross-sectional study...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620337/the-acute-effects-of-exercise-intensity-on-inhibitory-cognitive-control-in-adolescents
#17
Fernando Peruyero, Julio Zapata, Diego Pastor, Eduardo Cervelló
Adolescence is an important stage for brain maturation. There are many studies of exercise-cognition relations, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the impact of combining different intensities of exercise on adolescents' cognitive responses. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of three physical education sessions (based on Zumba dance) of different intensities (no exercise, predominantly light intensity, and predominantly vigorous intensity) on the inhibition response (measured with the Stroop test) in adolescents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618192/the-patient-buddy-app-can-potentially-prevent-hepatic-encephalopathy-related-readmissions
#18
Dinesh Ganapathy, Chathur Acharya, Jatinder Lachar, Kavish Patidar, Richard K Sterling, Melanie B White, Catherine Ignudo, Swamy Bommidi, John DeSoto, Leroy R Thacker, Scott Matherly, Jawaid Shaw, Mohammad S Siddiqui, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Velimir Luketic, Hannah Lee, R Todd Stravitz, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Readmissions are a major burden in cirrhosis. A proportion of readmissions in cirrhosis, especially due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE) could be avoided through patient and caregiver engagement. We aimed to define the feasibility of using the Patient Buddy App and its impact on 30-day readmissions by engaging and educating cirrhotic inpatients and caregivers in a pilot study. METHODS: Cirrhotic inpatients with caregivers were enrolled and followed for 30 days post-discharge...
June 15, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614399/the-effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-over-the-left-dlpfc-on-cognitive-control-in-young-healthy-participants
#19
Yanmin Li, Lin Wang, Meng Jia, Jihong Guo, Huijun Wang, Mingwei Wang
A large body of evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is clinically effective in treating neuropsychiatric disorders and multiple sessions are commonly used. However, it is unknown whether multiple sessions of rTMS improve cognitive control, which is a function of the neural circuitry of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)-cingulate cortex in healthy individuals. In addition, it is still unclear which stages of neural processing are altered by rTMS. In this study, we investigated the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive control and explored the time course changes of cognitive processing after rTMS using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611717/n450-and-lpc-event-related-potential-correlates-of-an-emotional-stroop-task-with-words-differing-in-valence-and-emotional-origin
#20
Kamil K Imbir, Tomasz Spustek, Joanna Duda, Gabriela Bernatowicz, Jarosław Żygierewicz
Affective meaning of verbal stimuli was found to influence cognitive control as expressed in the Emotional Stroop Task (EST). Behavioral studies have shown that factors such as valence, arousal, and emotional origin of reaction to stimuli associated with words can lead to lengthening of reaction latencies in EST. Moreover, electrophysiological studies have revealed that affective meaning altered amplitude of some components of evoked potentials recorded during EST, and that this alteration correlated with the performance in EST...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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