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Stijn Vantieghem, Ivan Bautmans, Ann De Guchtenaere, Ann Tanghe, Steven Provyn
INTRODUCTION: Studies linked obesity with a large number of medical conditions including decreased cognitive functioning. The relation between BMI and cognition was proven in adults, but in adolescents the results are conflicting. Further, limited data are available on the impact of weight loss on cognition. This study analyzed the impact of a 30-week lasting weight loss program on cognition and determined the impact of changes in body composition and self-perceived fatigue on changes in cognition...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Research
Rosangela Alice Batistela, Alison Oates, Renato Moraes
Understanding the effects of haptic input while performing a cognitive-visual task on postural control can broaden comprehension of the functional integration hypothesis in older adults with and without a history of falls. We aimed to investigate the effect of haptic input provided by light touch (LT) and the anchors while performing a cognitive-visual task in faller and non-faller older adults when standing upright. Twenty-two fallers and twenty-two non-fallers older adults participated in this study. They stood upright with feet together and performed six experimental conditions combining haptic cues (none, LT, and anchors) and the presence/absence of the cognitive-visual task (the adapted visual Stroop test)...
June 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Aline de Souza Pagnussat, Camila Pinto, Ritchele Rovido, Ana Paula Salazar, Manuela Galli
OBJECTIVE: to assess the effects of Automated Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS) in reducing gait variability of subjects with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) treated with AMPS and to explore the effects of this treatment on gait during a single task (walking) and a dual task (walking while attending the word-color Stroop test). DESIGN: interventional, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. SETTING: Clinical rehabilitation...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jing Zhu, Jianxiu Li, Xiaowei Li, Juan Rao, Yanrong Hao, Zhijie Ding, Gangping Wang
Objects: Effective psychological function requires that cognition is not affected by task-irrelevant emotional stimuli in emotional conflict. Depression is mainly characterized as an emotional disorder. The object of this study is to reveal the behavioral and electrophysiological signature of emotional conflict processing in major depressive disorder (MDD) using event-related potentials (ERPs) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analysis. Method: We used a face-word Stroop task involving emotional faces while recording EEG (electroencephalography) in 20 patients with MDD and 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sara Scrimin, Ughetta Moscardino, Lucia Mason
BACKGROUND: Children's ability to remain focused on a task despite the presence of emotionally salient distractors in the environment is crucial for successful learning and academic performance. AIMS: This study investigated first-graders' allocation of attentional resources in the presence of distracting emotional, school-related social interaction stimuli. Moreover, we examined whether such attentional processes were influenced by students' self-regulation, as indexed by heart period variability, observed classroom climate, or their interaction...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Rachel A Malcolm, Simon Cooper, Jonathan P Folland, Christopher J Tyler, Caroline Sunderland
Findings regarding the influence of passive heat exposure on cognitive function remain equivocal due to a number of methodological issues including variation in the domains of cognition examined. In a randomized crossover design, forty-one male participants completed a battery of cognitive function tests [Visual Search, Stroop, Corsi Blocks and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) tests] prior to and following 1 h of passive rest in either hot (39.6 ± 0.4°C, 50.8 ± 2.3% Rh) or moderate (21.2 ± 1.8°C, 41...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ananda Gaihre, Sasidharan K Rajesh
Background: Chronic vulnerability characterizes substance abuse disorder with consequent relapse. The process of abstinence depends on cognitive recovery. Hence, behavioral intervention should account for cognitive dimension of substance abusers. Recent studies highlight yoga-based intervention as a promising add-on therapy for treating and preventing addictive behaviors. Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a yoga-based intervention as an add-on in enhancing cognitive functions, compared with physical exercise to newly admitted substance abusers seeking an inpatient treatment program...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Safoura Sheikh Rezaei, Brigitte Litschauer, Gazaleh Gouya, Sabina Baumgartner-Parzer, Thomas Stulnig, Michael Wolzt
Increased free fatty acids stimulate sympathetic nervous system activity, impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and increase regional blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess if fatty acids acutely elevated by infusion of intralipid/heparin affect cardiovascular reactivity employing two stressors eliciting either a cardiac (Stroop test) or vascular (Cold Face test) dominated pressor response. Two stress tasks were performed in 20 healthy subjects (10 women, 10 men) before and during a 180-min intralipid/heparin or saline infusion as placebo on alternate trial days in a randomized crossover study design...
June 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Somasundaram Aadhimoolam Chinnadurai, Divya Gandhirajan, Vijaya Pamidimukala, Bhanu Kesavamurthy, Srinivasan Avathvadi Venkatesan
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between objective measures of sleep measured by polysomnography and measures of physical and cognitive fatigue in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS: People with MS of age 18-50 years of any subtype attending the OPD satisfying the revised 2010 McDonald criteria were recruited. Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were used to assess physical fatigue...
May 23, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Carrie Georges, Danielle Hoffmann, Christine Schiltz
Behavioral evidence for the link between numerical and spatial representations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large numbers with the left/right hand respectively. The SNARC effect is, however, characterized by considerable intra- and inter-individual variability. It depends not only on the explicit or implicit nature of the numerical task, but also relates to interference control. To determine whether the prevalence of the latter relation in the elderly could be ascribed to younger individuals' ceiling performances on executive control tasks, we determined whether the SNARC effect related to Stroop and/or Flanker effects in 26 young adults with ADHD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Zhanjia Zhang, Bing Zhang, Chunmei Cao, Weiyun Chen
This study aimed to examine the effects of active workstation use on the executive function by measuring the three components of executive function (Inhibition, Updating, and Shifting) during sitting, standing, and walking at an active workstation with different speeds. Twenty-four college students completed a cognitive test battery while sitting, standing, walking on an active workstation with a self-selected speed (mean = 2.3 km/h) and a faster speed (mean = 3.5 km/h). The three components of executive function (Inhibition, Updating, and Shifting) were assessed by Stroop task, N-back task, More-odd shifting task, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Robert D Melara, Shalini Singh, Denise A Hien
Two groups of healthy young adults were exposed to 3 weeks of cognitive training in a modified version of the visual flanker task, one group trained to discriminate the target (discrimination training) and the other group to ignore the flankers (inhibition training). Inhibition training, but not discrimination training, led to significant reductions in both Garner interference, indicating improved selective attention, and in Stroop interference, indicating more efficient resolution of stimulus conflict. The behavioral gains from training were greatest in participants who showed the poorest selective attention at pretest...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Massimo Stefano Silvetti, Vincenzo Pazzano, Irma Battipaglia, Corrado Di Mambro, Camilla Calvieri, Fabio Anselmo Saputo, Letizia Verticelli, Adriano Carotti, Sergio Torcinaro, Fabrizio Drago
AIMS: Young patients with operated complex congenital heart defects (CHD) often develop sinus node dysfunction (SND) requiring permanent pacing with rate-responsive function. Activity-driven sensors cannot account for non-movement stress and cannot modulate heart rate physiologically. Closed Loop Stimulation (CLS, Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) is a physiological rate-responsive pacemaker based on the indirect measure of ventricular contractility. No data are available on the effects of such pacing strategy in young patients...
June 6, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Véronique Desbeaumes Jodoin, François Richer, Jean-Philippe Miron, Marie-Pierre Fournier-Gosselin, Paul Lespérance
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a serious chronic condition disabling patients functionally and cognitively. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is recognized for the management of TRD, but few studies have examined its long-term effects on cognitive dysfunction in unipolar and bipolar resistant depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the course of cognitive functions and clinical symptoms in a cohort of patients treated with VNS for TRD...
June 4, 2018: Journal of ECT
V A Parfenov, T M Ostroumova, E M Pеrepelova, V A Perepelov, A I Kochetkov, O D Ostroumova
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the cognitive functions and cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL) and their possible correlations with vascular age in untreated middle-aged patients with grade 1-2 essential arterial hypertension (EAH). METHODS: We examined 73 subjects aged 40-59 years (33 with EAH and 40 healthy volunteers [controls]). Neuropsychological assessment included Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Trail Making test (part A and part B), Stroop Color and Word Test, verbal fluency test (phonemic verbal fluency and semantic verbal fluency), 10‑item word list learning task...
May 2018: Kardiologiia
Anmao Li, Junya Mu, Mingxia Huang, Zengjun Zhang, Jixin Liu, Ming Zhang
Depression and cognitive control deficits were frequently reported in concurrent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Neuroimaging studies indicated depression could be a risk factor for cognitive control deficits, and amygdala-related circuitry may play a critical role in this abnormal interaction. To investigate the potential relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive control reduction in ESRD patients, T1-weighted and resting fMRI images were obtained in 29 ESRD patients and 29 healthy controls...
June 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Angela L D'Rozario, Clarice J Field, Camilla M Hoyos, Sharon L Naismith, George C Dungan, Keith K H Wong, Ronald R Grunstein, Delwyn J Bartlett
Objective/Background: Although polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard measure for assessing disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), it has limited value in identifying individuals experiencing significant neurobehavioural dysfunction. This study used a brief and novel computerised test battery to examine neurobehavioural function in adults with and without OSA. Patients/Methods: 204 patients with untreated OSA [age 49.3 (12.5) years; body mass index, [BMI] 33...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
Ian T Ferguson, Martine Elbejjani, Behnam Sabayan, David R Jacobs, Osorio Meirelles, Otto A Sanchez, Russell Tracy, Nick Bryan, Lenore J Launer
Objective: As part of research on the heart-brain axis, we investigated the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with brain structure and function in a community-based cohort of middle-aged adults from the Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Approach and results: In a cohort of 634 community-dwelling adults with a mean (range) age of 50.4 (46-52) years, we examined the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP to total, gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, abnormal WM load and WM integrity, and to cognitive function tests [the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), the Stroop test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test]...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yuya Maruo, Timothy I Murphy, Hiroaki Masaki
Previous findings have reported that track and field athletes may monitor and utilize internal information, including anxiety level, suggesting that the ability to inwardly monitor one's own functioning and utilize anxiety are required to achieve superior performance. Performance monitoring has been investigated using two event-related potential components; the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and error positivity (Pe). It is unknown whether performance monitoring differs among various types of athletes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Da-Eun Jung, Soo-Young Bhang, Won-Hye Lee, Hae-Joo Yoon, Hee-Yeon Jung, Yeni Kim
Objective: Association between home environment and the behavioral and neurocognitive development of children from a community childcare center for low-income families was examined (aged 6 to 12 years, n=155). Methods: The parents performed a questionnaire on home environment (K-HOME-Q) to assess home environment including parenting attitude and the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL). The children performed the Wechsler Intelligence (IQ) Scale, Stroop interference test (Stroop), word fluency test (WF), and design fluency test (DF) to assess their neurocognitive development...
June 7, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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