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Joyce Ying Hui Tee, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan, Yit Siew Chin
The understanding on the roles of obesity and lifestyle behaviors in predicting executive function of adolescents has been limited. Low executive function proficiency may have adverse effects on adolescents' school academic performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between BMI-for-age and multiple lifestyle behaviors (operationalized as meal consumption, physical activity, and sleep quality) with executive function (operationalized as inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) on a sample of Malaysian adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 513)...
2018: PloS One
Isabel Gauthier, Kao-Wei Chua, Jennifer J Richler
The Vanderbilt Holistic Processing Test for faces (VHPT-F) is the first standard test designed to measure individual differences in holistic processing. The test measures failures of selective attention to face parts through congruency effects, an operational definition of holistic processing. However, this conception of holistic processing has been challenged by the suggestion that it may tap into the same selective attention or cognitive control mechanisms that yield congruency effects in Stroop and Flanker paradigms...
April 16, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mieke H J Schulte, Reinout W Wiers, Wouter J Boendermaker, Anna E Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink, Denise S van Deursen, Malte Friese, Emily Brede, Andrew J Waters
INTRODUCTION: Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data...
March 26, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Wi-Young So
PURPOSE: Children from multicultural families face physical, social, mental, and intellectual hurdles; however, relative interventions are lacking in South Korea (hereafter Korea) in this regard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular Taekwondo (TKD) training on physical fitness, mood, sociability, and cognitive functions in these children. METHODS: This study included 30 children from multicultural families in Korea who were randomly assigned to a TKD group ( n = 15) and control group ( n = 15)...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cécile Barbet, Guillaume Thierry
Some studies in experimental pragmatics have concluded that scalar inferences (e.g., 'some X are Y' implicates 'not all X are Y') are context-dependent pragmatic computations delayed relative to semantic computations. However, it remains unclear whether strong contextual support is necessary to trigger such inferences. Here we tested if the scalar inference 'not all' triggered by some can be evoked in a maximally neutral context. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) amplitude modulations elicited by Stroop-like conflicts in participants instructed to indicate whether strings of letters were printed with all their letters in upper case or otherwise...
April 10, 2018: Cognition
Daniel Niederer, Anke Bumann, Yvonne Mühlhauser, Mareike Schmitt, Katja Wess, Tobias Engeroff, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone tasks like texting, typing, and dialling during walking are known to impact gait characteristics. Beyond that, the effects of performing smartphone-typical actions like researching and taking self-portraits (selfie) on gait have not been investigated yet. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to investigate the effects of smartphone usage on relevant gait characteristics and to reveal potential association of basic cognitive and walking plus smartphone dual-task abilities...
April 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jenna L Zhao, Steven B Most
Emotional distractors can impair perception of subsequently presented targets, a phenomenon called emotion-induced blindness. Do emotional distractors lose their power to disrupt perception when appearing with increased frequency, perhaps due to desensitisation or enhanced recruitment of proactive control? Non-emotional tasks, such as the Stroop, have revealed that high frequency distractors or conflict lead to reduced interference, and distractor frequency appears to modulate attentional capture by emotional distractors in spatial attention tasks...
April 12, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Takamitsu Shinada, Kohei Sakaki, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Poor sleep quality is associated with unfavorable psychological measurements, whereas sleep duration has complex relationships with such measurements. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between microstructural properties of the brain and sleep duration/sleep quality in a young adult. The associations between mean diffusivity (MD), a measure of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and sleep duration/sleep quality were investigated in a study cohort of 1201 normal young adults. Positive correlations between sleep duration and MD of widespread areas of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the dopaminergic systems, were identified...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michela Sforza, Francesca Assogna, Domiziana Rinaldi, Giuliano Sette, Stefania Tagliente, Francesco E Pontieri
Orthostatic hypotension is a frequent non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, with negative prognostic role on cognitive functions. Here we measured the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on executive functions in Parkinson's disease patients devoid of hypertension, carotid artery stenosis, and significant chronic cerebrovascular pathology. Measurements were carried out during regular visits in outpatient setting. Twenty-eight Parkinson's disease patients were recruited and studied along scheduled outpatient visits...
April 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Ryan Van Patten, Anne M Fagan, David A S Kaufman
BACKGROUND: There exists a need for more sensitive measures, capable of detecting subtle cognitive decline due to Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To advance the literature in Alzheimer's disease by demonstrating that performance on a cued-Stroop task is impacted by preclinical Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. METHOD: Twenty-nine cognitively asymptomatic older adults completed a computerized, cued-Stroop task in which accuracy rates and intraindividual variability in reaction times were the outcomes of interest...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Benjamin A Piest, Maj-Britt Isberner, Tobias Richter
Previous research has shown that the validation of incoming information during language comprehension is a fast, efficient, and routine process (epistemic monitoring). Previous research on this topic has focused on epistemic monitoring during reading. The present study extended this research by investigating epistemic monitoring of audiovisual information. In a Stroop-like paradigm, participants (Experiment 1: adults; Experiment 2: 10-year-old children) responded to the probe words correct and false by keypress after the presentation of auditory assertions that could be either true or false with respect to concurrently presented pictures...
April 5, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Keaton A Inkol, Andrew H Huntley, Lori Ann Vallis
To date, little work has focused on whether cognitive-task interference during postural response execution is influenced by the direction and/or magnitude of the perturbation applied. Hypothetically, the increased difficulty associated with a backward loss of balance could necessitate increased allocation of cognitive resources to counteract destabilizing forces. The current study investigated these relationships using a paradigm in which individuals performed a cognitive task (auditory Stroop task during quiet stance; baseline condition)...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Fabio Masina, Antonino Vallesi, Elisa Di Rosa, Luca Semenzato, Daniela Mapelli
Background: Error awareness is essential to maintain an adaptive and goal-directed behavior and is supposed to rely on the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, studies employing electrophysiological methods and functional resonance imaging (fMRI) do not allow to establish a causal relationship between error awareness and implicated brain structures. Objective: The study examined the causal relationship between DLPFC activity and error awareness in order to confirm the involvement of the right DLPFC in error awareness and to obtain temporal information about this process, namely when the activity of the right DLPFC is involved in error awareness...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuan Guan, Jiamei He
The present study aimed to explore how state self-control influences the intertemporal decisions made by individuals with high and low trait self-control. State self-control, represented by the degree of depletion, was manipulated by conducting Stroop tasks with different levels of difficulty, and the intertemporal decision task was used as a self-control task. Compared with participants with high trait self-control, the preferences of participants with low trait self-control for immediate rewards were more vulnerable to the difficulty of depletion tasks...
2018: PloS One
Masahiro Hayashi, Takashi Ishibashi, Takashi Maoka
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplement containing astaxanthin-rich extract derived from Paracoccus carotinifaciens (astaxanthin supplement) on cognitive function of subjects aged 45-64 years. Cognitive functions of 28 subjects orally administered 8 mg astaxanthin/day of astaxanthin supplement for 8 weeks (astaxanthin group) and 26 subjects given a placebo (placebo group) were compared by word memory test, verbal fluency test, and Stroop test. The astaxanthin group experienced significantly larger increase in blood astaxanthin level than the placebo group...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Peter C Douris, John P Handrakis, Demitra Apergis, Robert B Mangus, Rima Patel, Jessica Limtao, Svetlana Platonova, Aladino Gregorio, Elliot Luty
The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking), and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years) randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Catherine Thompson, Elsie Li Chen Ong
It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Clara D Martin, Caroline A Niziolek, Jon A Duñabeitia, Alejandro Perez, Doris Hernandez, Manuel Carreiras, John F Houde
When a speaker's auditory feedback is altered, he adapts for the perturbation by altering his own production, which demonstrates the role of auditory feedback in speech motor control. In the present study, we explored the role of auditory acuity and executive control in this process. Based on the DIVA model and the major cognitive control models, we expected that higher auditory acuity, and better executive control skills would predict larger adaptation to the alteration. Thirty-six Spanish native speakers performed an altered auditory feedback experiment, executive control (numerical Stroop, Simon and Flanker) tasks, and auditory acuity tasks (loudness, pitch, and melody pattern discrimination)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Amanda L Penko, Matthew C Streicher, Mandy Miller Koop, Tanujit Dey, Anson B Rosenfeldt, Andrew S Bazyk, Jay L Alberts
Gait dysfunction, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, contributes to a relatively high incidence of falling. Gait function is further diminished during the performance of a motor-cognitive task (i.e., dual-task). It is unclear if Parkinson's disease related dual-task deficits are related to a specific area of cognitive function or are the result of a more global decline in executive function. The aim of this project was to systematically evaluate gait performance to determine if gait dysfunction is restricted to certain types of executive function or a global phenomenon in individuals with Parkinson's disease...
March 22, 2018: Neuroscience
Ellen Sleuwaegen, Wouter Hulstijn, Laurence Claes, Marlies Houben, Amarendra Gandhi, Ann Berens, Bernard Sabbe
Disturbances in emotion regulation have been identified as a core feature of patients with a borderline personality disorder (BPD). Findings of studies using experimental measures of emotion processing are mixed, which may be partially explained by the heterogeneity of the BPD population. To address this issue, we investigated differences in experimental measures of emotional action tendencies (approach-avoidance behaviour) and attentional bias to emotional stimuli in BPD subtypes. Data of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) and the Emotional Stroop Task (EST) were collected in 140 BPD patients, previously clustered into four BPD subtypes based on temperament dimensions...
March 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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