keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Tobacco

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944936/smoking-cessation-in-workplace-settings-quit-rates-and-determinants-in-a-group-behaviour-therapy-programme
#1
Yann Hausherr, Carlos Quinto, Leticia Grize, Christian Schindler, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION: To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944773/the-effect-of-treatment-with-guanfacine-an-alpha2-adrenergic-agonist-on-dopaminergic-tone-in-tobacco-smokers-an-11-c-flb457-pet-study
#2
Christine M Sandiego, David Matuskey, Meaghan Lavery, Erin McGovern, Yiyun Huang, Nabeel Nabulsi, Jim Ropchan, Marina R Picciotto, Evan D Morris, Sherry A McKee, Kelly P Cosgrove
Guanfacine, a noradrenergic alpha2a agonist, reduced tobacco smoking in a 4-week trial and in animal models has been shown to reduce cortical dopamine release, which is critically involved in the reinforcing effect of tobacco smoking. We measured amphetamine-induced extrastriatal dopamine release before and after treatment with guanfacine with [(11)C]FLB457, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, and positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen tobacco smokers had one set of [(11)C]FLB457 PET scans on the same day, one before and one at 2...
September 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944313/effect-of-tobacco-control-policies-on-perinatal-and-child-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Timor Faber, Arun Kumar, Johan P Mackenbach, Christopher Millett, Sanjay Basu, Aziz Sheikh, Jasper V Been
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy and childhood cause considerable childhood morbidity and mortality. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether implementation of WHO's recommended tobacco control policies (MPOWER) was of benefit to perinatal and child health. METHODS: We searched 19 electronic databases, hand-searched references and citations, and consulted experts to identify studies assessing the association between implementation of MPOWER policies and child health...
September 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944278/smoking-behavior-and-smoke-constituents-from-cigarillos-and-little-cigars
#4
Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Daniel Yi, Sean Stewart, Wallace B Pickworth
OBJECTIVE: Although most cigarillos and little cigars smokers also smoke cigarettes (dual use), there are few studies comparing toxicant exposure and smoking behavior in cigars and cigarettes. METHODS: Two groups of dual users smoked their usual brand of cigarette and either a Winchester unflavored little cigar (N = 21) or a Black & Mild cigarillo (N = 23). Acute exposure of nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and puffing topography parameters were collected...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943427/alteration-of-adolescent-aversive-nicotine-response-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-nicotine-exposed-rats-during-late-lactation-period
#5
Hyunchan Lee, Taesub Jung, Woonhee Kim, Jihyun Noh
Early nicotine exposure is an important cause of further habitual tobacco smoking. Although nicotine has not only rewarding but also aversive properties, the effects of early nicotine exposure on the distinct properties of nicotine are not well known. To reveal the effects of early adolescent nicotine exposure on further persistent tobacco smoking, we demonstrated developmental changes in nicotine-related appetitive and aversive behaviors of rats exposed to nicotine during the late lactation period. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline or nicotine (2, 6 and 12mg/kg)...
September 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943284/evaluating-oral-flavorant-effects-on-nicotine-self-administration-behavior-and-phasic-dopamine-signaling
#6
Robert J Wickham, Eric J Nunes, Shannon Hughley, Phillip Silva, Sofia N Walton, Jinwoo Park, Nii A Addy
Understanding how tobacco product flavor additives, such as flavorants in electronic cigarettes, influence smoking behavior and addiction is critical for informing public health policy decisions regarding tobacco product regulation. Here, we developed a combined intraoral (i.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) self-administration paradigm in rats to determine how flavorants influence self-administration behavior. By combining i.o. flavorant delivery with fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) or i.v. nicotine self-administration in adult, male rats, we examined whether flavors alter phasic dopamine (DA) signaling and nicotine self-administration...
September 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943084/horizontal-transfer-of-a-synthetic-metabolic-pathway-between-plant-species
#7
Yinghong Lu, Sandra Stegemann, Shreya Agrawal, Daniel Karcher, Stephanie Ruf, Ralph Bock
Transgene expression from the plastid (chloroplast) genome provides unique advantages, including high levels of foreign protein accumulation, convenient transgene stacking in operons, and increased biosafety due to exclusion of plastids from pollen transmission [1, 2]. However, applications in biotechnology and synthetic biology are severely restricted by the very small number of plant species whose plastid genomes currently can be transformed [3, 4]. Here we report a simple method for the introduction of useful plastid transgenes into non-transformable species...
September 16, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943065/nicotine-dependence-internalizing-symptoms-mood-variability-and-daily-tobacco-use-among-young-adult-smokers
#8
Cristina B Bares, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette use among young adults continues to rise. As young adults transition to college and assume other adult roles and responsibilities, they are at risk for the development of mental health problems and for the progression of substance use problems. Previous studies suggest that individual differences in negative and positive mood contribute to cigarette use in established college-aged smokers, but less is known whether fluctuations in mood influence daily cigarette use, controlling for trait levels of internalizing symptoms and nicotine dependence...
September 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942775/missed-diagnosis-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-outpatient-general-medicine-insights-from-malpractice-claims-data
#9
Gene R Quinn, Darrell Ranum, Ellen Song, Margarita Linets, Carol Keohane, Heather Riah, Penny Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic errors are an underrecognized source of patient harm, and cardiovascular disease can be challenging to diagnose in the ambulatory setting. Although malpractice data can inform diagnostic error reduction efforts, no studies have examined outpatient cardiovascular malpractice cases in depth. A study was conducted to examine the characteristics of outpatient cardiovascular malpractice cases brought against general medicine practitioners. METHODS: Some 3,407 closed malpractice claims were analyzed in outpatient general medicine from CRICO Strategies' Comparative Benchmarking System database-the largest detailed database of paid and unpaid malpractice in the world-and multivariate models were created to determine the factors that predicted case outcomes...
October 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942634/photochemical-transformation-of-nicotine-in-wastewater-effluent
#10
Lushi Lian, Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Shen-An Chan, Weihua Song
Nicotine is a highly toxic tobacco alkaloid that is ubiquitous in wastewater effluent. For the first time, we report the identification of the products and the pathways for the photodegradation of nicotine in an effluent matrix under simulated solar irradiation. Nicotine was found to be degraded by triplet state organic matter (3OM*), thus indicating that electron transfer is a preferred reaction mechanism. Using the multivariate statistical strategies orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering, 49 potential transformation products (TPs) of nicotine were successfully extracted from the water matrix via high-resolution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS)...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942430/interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-patients-admitted-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-review
#11
REVIEW
Omar M Chehab, Habib A Dakik
Tobacco smoking contributes to about six million deaths per year and is predicted to increase in the future. Several pharmacological interventions are used for smoking cessation. Trials using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) showed inconclusive results. Furthermore, three trials using bupropion in patients admitted with ACS failed to show improvement in smoking cessation compared with placebo. Interestingly, only one trial using varenicline was successful in achieving smoking abstinence in the acute setting...
September 23, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941933/psychosocial-and-cessation-related-differences-between-tobacco-marijuana-co-users-and-single-product-users-in-a-college-student-population
#12
Matthew N Masters, Regine Haardörfer, Michael Windle, Carla Berg
Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18-25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users)...
September 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941289/malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-protein-adducts-are-found-exclusively-in-the-lungs-of-smokers-with-alcohol-use-disorders-and-are-associated-with-systemic-anti-maa-antibodies
#13
Muna Sapkota, Ellen L Burnham, Jane M DeVasure, Jenea M Sweeter, C D Hunter, Michael J Duryee, Lynell W Klassen, Kusum K Kharbanda, Joseph H Sisson, Geoffrey M Thiele, Todd A Wyatt
Malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA) exist following ethanol metabolism and tobacco pyrolysis. As such, lungs of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a target for the effects of combined alcohol and cigarette smoke metabolites. MDA and AA form a stable protein adduct, malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct, known to be immunogenic, profibrotic, and proinflammatory. MAA adduct is the dominant epitope in anti-MAA antibody formation. We hypothesized that MAA-adducted protein forms in lungs of those who both abuse alcohol and smoke cigarettes, and that this would be associated with systemically elevated anti-MAA antibodies METHODS: Four groups were established: AUD subjects who smoked cigarettes (+AUD/+smoke), smokers without AUD (-AUD/+smoke), AUD without smoke (+AUD/-smoke), and non-AUD/nonsmokers (-AUD/-smoke) RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in MAA adducts in lung cells of +AUD/+smoke vs...
September 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940939/brassica-napus-glabra3-1-promotes-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-and-trichome-formation-in-true-leaves-when-expressed-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Chenhao Gao, Yuan Guo, Jianjun Wang, Dong Li, Kaige Liu, Shuanghui Qi, Changyu Jin, Shaowei Duan, Jingyun Gong, Zixiong Li, Mingxun Chen
Previous studies have shown that GLABRA3 (AtGL3), a bHLH transcription factor, plays essential roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, there have been no such studies of a homolog, BnGL3, from the closely related crop, Brassica napus. Here, we analyzed the BnGL3-1 coding domain sequence from the B. napus cultivar QINYOU Seven, identified conserved protein domains, and performed a phylogenetic analysis to elucidate its relationship with homologs form a range of plant species...
September 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940515/migration-from-mexico-to-the-united-states-a-high-speed-cancer-transition
#15
Paulo S Pinheiro, Karen E Callahan, Mariana C Stern, Esther De Vries
Differences and similarities in cancer patterns between the country of Mexico and the United States' Mexican population, 11% of the entire US population, have not been studied. Mortality data from 2008-2012 in Mexico and California were analyzed and compared for causes of cancer death among adult and pediatric populations, using standard techniques and negative binomial regression. A total of 380,227 cancer deaths from Mexico and California were included. Mexican Americans had 49% and 13% higher mortality than their counterparts in Mexico among males and females, respectively...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940252/tobacco-exposure-and-wound-healing-in-head-and-neck-surgical-wounds
#16
Amy Anne D Lassig, Joan E Bechtold, Bruce R Lindgren, Andrew Pisansky, Abayo Itabiyi, Bevan Yueh, Anne M Joseph
OBJECTIVE: Smoking impairs wound healing, yet the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated tobacco-altered healing in head and neck surgery by studying the association between biomarkers and tobacco exposure, as well as cutaneous perfusion by smoking status. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, tertiary/academic care center, 2011 to present. METHODS: Patients who required head and neck surgery were enrolled prospectively...
September 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939837/physiological-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-heteromorphic-leaves-and-hydrophilic-roots-in-response-to-soil-drying-in-desert-populus-euphratica
#17
Arshad Iqbal, Tianxiang Wang, Guodong Wu, Wensi Tang, Chen Zhu, Dapeng Wang, Yi Li, Huafang Wang
Populus euphratica Olivier, which has been considered as a tree model for the study of higher plant response to abiotic stresses, survive in the desert ecosystem characterized by extreme drought stress. To survive in the harsh environmental condition the plant species have developed some plasticity such as the development of heteromorphic leaves and well-developed roots system. We investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms enabling this species to cope with severe stress caused by drought. The heterophylly, evolved from linear to toothed-ovate shape, showed the significant difference in cuticle thickness, stomata densities, and sizes...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939411/high-prevalence-of-severe-asthma-in-a-large-random-population-study
#18
Roxana Mincheva, Linda Ekerljung, Apostolos Bossios, Bo Lundbäck, Jan Lötvall
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma severity is not well described at a population level. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of phenotypic signs of asthma severity among individuals with asthma in a general population, and to describe risk factors for asthma severity. METHODS: Epidemiological study conducted between 2008 and 2012 (West Sweden Asthma Study). A postal questionnaire was sent to random population (N = 30,000) in West Sweden, with 18,087 responses...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939392/self-and-other-directed-forms-of-violence-and-their-relationship-with-lifetime-dsm-5-psychiatric-disorders-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-related-conditions-iii-nesarc-iii
#19
Thomas C Harford, Chiung M Chen, Bradley T Kerridge, Bridget F Grant
A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939248/early-life-home-environment-and-risk-of-asthma-among-inner-city-children
#20
George T O'Connor, Susan V Lynch, Gordon R Bloomberg, Meyer Kattan, Robert A Wood, Peter J Gergen, Katy F Jaffee, Agustin Calatroni, Leonard B Bacharier, Avrahman Beigelman, Megan T Sandel, Christine C Johnson, Ali Faruqi, Clark Santee, Kei E Fujimura, Douglas Fadrosh, Homer Boushey, Cynthia M Visness, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures in early life appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma, but the potentially modifiable exposures that lead to asthma remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify early-life environmental risk factors for childhood asthma in a birth cohort of high-risk inner-city children. METHODS: We examined the relationship of prenatal and early-life environmental factors to the occurrence of asthma at 7 years of age among 442 children...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
keyword
keyword
4283
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"