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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346685/metabolic-flux-engineering-of-cembratrien-ol-production-in-both-the-glandular-trichome-and-leaf-mesophyll-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#1
Hongying Zhang, Songtao Zhang, Yongxia Yang, Hongfang Jia, Hong Cui
Cembratrien-ol synthase (CBTS) catalyses the first step in cembranoid biosynthesis, producing cembratrien-ols in plant trichomes. In our previous study, microarray transcriptomes between leaves with trichomes and leaves without trichomes showed that a NtCBTS2 gene was expressed exclusively and abundantly in trichomes. Here, two NtCBTS2 isogenes (NtCBTS2a and NtCBTS2b), derived from a diploid genome donor, N. sylvestris, were identified from N. tabacum. Both genes were expressed primarily in trichomes, with relatively decreased transcription in flowers and stems, faint expression in roots, and no expression was detected in leaves lacking trichomes...
January 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346576/commentary-on-communicating-messages-about-drinking-using-the-big-legal-guns-to-block-alcohol-health-warning-labels
#2
Paula O'Brien, Deborah Gleeson, Robin Room, Claire Wilkinson
Like the tobacco industry, the alcohol industry, with the support of governments in alcohol exporting nations, is looking to international trade and investment law as a means to oppose health warning labels on alcohol. The threat of such litigation, let alone its commencement, has the potential to deter all but the most resolute governments from implementing health warning labeling.
January 16, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346545/influence-of-nicotine-metabolism-ratio-on-11c-phno-pet-binding-in-tobacco-smokers
#3
Patricia Di Ciano, Rachel F Tyndale, Esmaeil Mansouri, Christian S Hendershot, Alan A Wilson, Dina Lagzdins, Sylvain Houle, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
Background: Identifying the biological basis of smoking cessation success is of growing interest. The rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), affects multiple aspects of nicotine dependence. Fast nicotine metabolizers (FM) tend to smoke more, experience more withdrawal and craving and have lower cessation rates as compared to slow metabolizers (SM). The NMR predicts treatment response, and differences in brain activation between FM and SM have been reported in fMRI studies...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346343/asthma-mortality-among-persons-aged-15-64-years-by-industry-and-occupation-united-states-1999-2016
#4
Opal Patel, Girija Syamlal, John Wood, Katelynn E Dodd, Jacek M Mazurek
In 2015, an estimated 18.4 million U.S. adults had current asthma, and 3,396 adult asthma deaths were reported (1). An estimated 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be attributable to occupational exposures (2). To describe asthma mortality among persons aged 15-64 years,* CDC analyzed multiple cause-of-death data† for 1999-2016 and industry and occupation information collected from 26 states§ for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2012. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs)¶ for asthma among persons aged 15-64 years were calculated...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346338/current-cigarette-smoking-among-adults-united-states-2016
#5
Ahmed Jamal, Elyse Phillips, Andrea S Gentzke, David M Homa, Stephen D Babb, Brian A King, Linda J Neff
The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346189/the-impact-of-implementing-tobacco-control-policies-the-2017-tobacco-control-policy-scorecard
#6
David T Levy, Jamie Tam, Charlene Kuo, Geoffrey T Fong, Frank Chaloupka
The Tobacco Control Scorecard, published in 2004, presented estimates of the effectiveness of different policies on smoking rates. Since its publication, new evidence has emerged. We update the Scorecard to include recent studies of demand-reducing tobacco policies for high-income countries. We include cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, media campaigns, comprehensive tobacco control programs, marketing bans, health warnings, and cessation treatment policies. To update the 2004 Scorecard, a narrative review was conducted on reviews and studies published after 2000, with additional focus on 3 policies in which previous evidence was limited: tobacco control programs, graphic health warnings, and marketing bans...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345998/key-factors-inhibiting-legislative-progress-toward-smoke-free-coverage-in-appalachia
#7
J Travis Donahoe, Andrea R Titus, Nancy L Fleischer
The Appalachian Region has among the highest rates of smoking and smoking-related illness in the United States. Strong smoke-free legislation could help protect nonsmoking residents from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. However, there is a dearth of state, county, city, and subcounty smoke-free law coverage throughout Appalachia. As of July 2016, only 21% of Appalachian residents were covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws (i.e., 100% coverage for workplaces, restaurants, and bars). Only 46% of Appalachians lived in places with 100% smoke-free workplace laws, only 30% lived in places with 100% smoke-free restaurant laws, and only 29% lived in places with 100% smoke-free bar laws...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345859/development-of-a-risk-prediction-model-for-lung-cancer-the-japan-public-health-center-based-prospective-study
#8
Hadrien Charvat, Shizuka Sasazuki, Taichi Shimazu, Sanjeev Budhathoki, Manami Inoue, Motoki Iwasaki, Norie Sawada, Taiki Yamaji, Shoichiro Tsugane
While the impact of tobacco consumption on the occurrence of lung cancer is well-established, risk estimation could be improved by risk prediction models that consider various smoking habits, such as quantity, duration, and time since quitting. We constructed a risk prediction model using a population of 59,161 individuals from JPHC Study Cohort II. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact of age, gender and smoking-related factors (cumulative smoking intensity measured in pack-years, age at initiation, and time since cessation)...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345540/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-asymptomatic-peripheral-artery-disease-screening-with-the-abi-test
#9
Nathan K Itoga, Hataka R Minami, Meenadachi Chelvakumar, Keon Pearson, Matthew M Mell, Eran Bendavid, Douglas K Owens
Screening for asymptomatic peripheral artery disease (aPAD) with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) test is hypothesized to reduce disease progression and cardiovascular (CV) events by identifying individuals who may benefit from early initiation of medical therapy. Using a Markov model, we evaluated the cost effectiveness of initiating medical therapy (e.g. statin and ACE-inhibitor) after a positive ankle-brachial index (ABI) screen in 65-year-old patients. We modeled progression to symptomatic PAD (sPAD) and CV events with and without ABI screening, evaluating differences in costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)...
January 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344610/association-of-combined-patterns-of-tobacco-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescence-with-psychotic-experiences
#10
Hannah J Jones, Suzanne H Gage, Jon Heron, Matthew Hickman, Glyn Lewis, Marcus R Munafò, Stanley Zammit
Importance: There is concern about potentially causal effects of tobacco use on psychosis, but epidemiological studies have been less robust in attempts to minimize effects of confounding than studies of cannabis use have been. Objectives: To examine the association of patterns of cigarette and cannabis use with preceding and subsequent psychotic experiences, and to compare effects of confounding across these patterns. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which initially consisted of 14 062 children...
January 17, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343954/exposure-to-environmental-tobacco-smoke-from-husband-more-strongly-impacts-on-the-airway-obstruction-of-nonsmoking-women
#11
Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai
Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband's smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015-December 2016, Japan...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343952/understanding-of-copd-among-final-year-medical-students
#12
Javier Mohigefer, Carmen Calero-Acuña, Eduardo Marquez-Martin, Francisco Ortega-Ruiz, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos
Objective: Several previous studies have shown a suboptimal level of understanding of COPD among different population groups. Students in their final year of Medicine constitute a population that has yet to be explored. The evaluation of their understanding provides an opportunity to establish strategies to improve teaching processes. The objective of the present study is to determine the current level of understanding of COPD among said population. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was done using digital surveys given to medical students in their final year at the Universidad de Sevilla...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342418/functional-characterization-of-9-cyp2a13-allelic-variants-by-assessment-of-nicotine-c-oxidation-and-coumarin-7-hydroxylation
#13
Masaki Kumondai, Hiroki Hosono, Masamitsu Maekawa, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Nariyasu Mano, Akifumi Oda, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) is responsible for the metabolism of chemical compounds such as nicotine, coumarin, and tobacco-specific nitrosamine. Several of these compounds have been recognized as procarcinogens activated by CYP2A13. We recently showed that CYP2A13*2 contributes to inter-individual variations observed in bladder cancer susceptibility because CYP2A13*2 might cause a decrease in enzymatic activity. Other CYP2A13 allelic variants may also affect cancer susceptibility. In this study, we performed an in vitro analysis of the wild-type enzyme (CYP2A13...
November 22, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342304/introduction-of-standardised-tobacco-packaging-during-a-12-month-transition-period-findings-from-small-retailers-in-the-united-kingdom
#14
Nathan Critchlow, Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Douglas Eadie, Anne Marie MacKintosh
Introduction: Factory-made cigarettes (FMC) and roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco have had to be produced in standardised packaging since 20th May 2016 in the United Kingdom, with a minimum pack size of 20 sticks for FMC and 30 grams for RYO. Manufacturers and retailers were given a 12-month transition period. Methods: An observational study was conducted using monthly Electronic Point of Sale data from 500 small retailers in England, Scotland, and Wales, between May 2016 and May 2017...
January 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342303/biomarkers-for-tobacco-exposures-toxicology-regulation-and-cessation
#15
Andrew W Bergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341846/primary-intra-medullary-nailing-of-open-tibia-fractures-caused-by-low-velocity-gunshots-does-operative-debridement-increase-infection-rates
#16
Chester J Donnally, Charles M Lawrie, Jonathan I Sheu, Meredith A Gunder, Stephen M Quinnan
BACKGROUND: Although gunshot-induced extremity fractures are typically not considered open fractures, there is controversy regarding wound management in the setting of operative fixation to limit infection complications. Previous studies have evaluated the need for a formal irrigation and debridement (I&D) prior to intra-medullary nailing (IMN) of gunshot-induced femur fractures but none have specifically evaluated tibias. By comparing primary IMN for tibial shaft fractures caused by low-velocity firearms additionally treated with a formal operative I&D (group 1) with those without an I&D (group 2), we sought to identify whether there are: differences in treatment group infection rates; particular fracture patterns more prone to infection; and patient characteristics more prone to infections...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341488/gene-gene-interaction-between-msx1-and-tp63-in-asian-case-parent-trios-with-nonsyndromic-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate
#17
Dongjing Liu, Holger Schwender, Mengying Wang, Hong Wang, Ping Wang, Hongping Zhu, Zhibo Zhou, Jing Li, Tao Wu, Terri H Beaty
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-like modification, also known as sumoylation, is a crucial post-translational regulatory mechanisms involved in development of the lip and palate. Recent studies reported two sumoylation target genes, MSX1 and TP63, to have achieved genome-wide level significance in tests of association with nonsyndromic clefts. Here, we performed a candidate gene analysis considering gene-gene and gene-environment interaction for SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 to further explore the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P)...
January 17, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340953/mdpin1b-encodes-a-putative-auxin-efflux-carrier-and-has-different-expression-patterns-in-bc-and-m9-apple-rootstocks
#18
Zengyu Gan, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Lower promoter activity is closely associated with lower MdPIN1b expression in the M9 interstem, which might contribute to the dwarfing effect in apple trees. Apple trees grafted onto dwarfing rootstock Malling 9 (M9) produce dwarfing tree architecture with high yield and widely applying in production. Previously, we have reported that in Malus 'Red Fuji' (RF) trees growing on M9 interstem and Baleng Crab (BC) rootstock, IAA content was relatively higher in bark tissue of M9 interstem than that in scion or rootstock...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340115/hypermutation-and-microsatellite-instability-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Kizuki Yuza, Masayuki Nagahashi, Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Recent progress in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing has revealed a high mutation burden in some tumors. The particularly high rate of somatic mutation in these tumors correlates with the generation of neo-antigens capable of eliciting an immune response. Identification of hypermutated tumors is therefore clinically valuable for selecting patients suitable for immunotherapy treatment. There are several known causes of hypermutation in tumors, such as ultraviolet light in melanoma, tobacco smoke in lung cancer, and excessive APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) activity in breast and gastric cancer...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339652/smoking-and-promoter-specific-deoxyribonucleic-acid-methylation-of-the-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-gene-methylation-of-smokers-and-non-smokers-differs-significantly-during-withdrawal
#20
Alexander Glahn, Mathias Rhein, Helge Frieling, Rilana Schuster, Alain El Aissami, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher, Marc Muschler
BACKGROUND: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is well known in psychiatric disorders to modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Disturbances of ANP have been described in early abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. This is the first longitudinal investigation on cytosine-phosphatidyl-guanine (CpG)-island promoter methylation of the ANP gene in the blood of tobacco-dependent patients. METHODS: In a longitudinal approach, we investigated whether changes in ANP serum levels correlated to CpG methylation of the respective gene promoters on days 1, 7, and 14 of tobacco withdrawal...
January 16, 2018: European Addiction Research
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