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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651390/-cross-sectional-survey-of-smoking-and-smoking-cessation-behaviors-in-adults-in-jiangxi-province-2013
#1
Y Y Chen, L P Zhu, W Yan, J Liu, L Ji, Y Xu
Objective: To describe the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation in adults of Jiangxi province in 2013. Methods: Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 6 000 individuals aged ≥18 years from 10 chronic and non-communicable disease and risk factor surveillance points of Jiangxi province in 2013. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information about the risk factors for chronic and non-communicable diseases and 5 997 records were used in final analysis of smoking and smoking cessation...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651388/-tobacco-use-rate-and-associated-factors-in-middle-school-students-in-china
#2
L Xiao, G Z Feng, Y Jiang, J R Zhang, L X Liu
Objective: To understand tobacco use rate and explore the factors associated with tobacco use in middle school students in China. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 155 117 eligible middle students selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 31 provinces of China. The questionnaire consists of the following topics: tobacco use and cessation, passive smoking, access to tobacco products, tobacco control and tobacco advertisement, and knowledge about and attitudes to tobacco...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651387/-importance-of-smoke-free-for-healthy-china
#3
Y Jiang, L X Liu
After WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control coming into force for 11 years, the tobacco control has made progress in the world and China. Development and implementation of tobacco control policy are fundamental for tobacco control. This paper introduces the effects of different tobacco control policies in different countries, summarizes the progress and challenges in prohibiting smoking in public place in China. In China, the goal of health for all can be only met by achieving smoke-free.
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651376/comparison-of-sampling-strategies-for-tobacco-retailer-inspections-to-maximize-coverage-in-vulnerable-areas-and-minimize-cost
#4
Joseph G L Lee, Bonnie E Shook-Sa, J Michael Bowling, Kurt M Ribisl
Introduction: In the United States, tens of thousands of inspections of tobacco retailers are conducted each year. Various sampling choices can reduce travel costs, emphasize enforcement in areas with greater non-compliance, and allow for comparability between states and over time. We sought to develop a model sampling strategy for state tobacco retailer inspections. Methods: Using a 2014 list of 10,161 North Carolina tobacco retailers, we compared results from simple random sampling; stratified, clustered at the ZIP code sampling; and, stratified, clustered at the census tract sampling...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651213/reward-related-frontostriatal-activity-and-smoking-behavior-among-adolescents-in-treatment-for-smoking-cessation
#5
Kathleen A Garrison, Sarah W Yip, Iris M Balodis, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. METHODS: The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14)...
June 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650195/mechanisms-underlying-mindfulness-based-addiction-treatment-versus-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-usual-care-for-smoking-cessation
#6
Claire Adams Spears, Donald Hedeker, Liang Li, Cai Wu, Natalie K Anderson, Sean C Houchins, Christine Vinci, Diana Stewart Hoover, Jennifer Irvin Vidrine, Paul M Cinciripini, Andrew J Waters, David W Wetter
OBJECTIVE: To examine cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment (MBAT) versus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and usual care (UC) for smoking cessation. METHOD: Participants in the parent study from which data were drawn (N = 412; 54.9% female; 48.2% African American, 41.5% non-Latino White, 5.4% Latino, 4.9% other; 57.6% annual income <$30,000) were randomized to MBAT (n = 154), CBT (n = 155), or UC (n = 103). From quit date through 26 weeks postquit, participants completed measures of emotions, craving, dependence, withdrawal, self-efficacy, and attentional bias...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650184/effects-of-nicotine-versus-placebo-e-cigarette-use-on-symptom-relief-during-initial-tobacco-abstinence
#7
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Valerie C Michael
Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i...
June 26, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649699/a-wrky-transcription-factor-from-withania-somnifera-regulates-triterpenoid-withanolide-accumulation-and-biotic-stress-tolerance-through-modulation-of-phytosterol-and-defense-pathways
#8
Anup Kumar Singh, Sarma Rajeev Kumar, Varun Dwivedi, Avanish Rai, Shaifali Pal, Ajit K Shasany, Dinesh A Nagegowda
Withania somnifera produces pharmacologically important triterpenoid withanolides that are derived via phytosterol pathway; however, their biosynthesis and regulation remain to be elucidated. A jasmonate- and salicin-inducible WRKY transcription factor from W. somnifera (WsWRKY1) exhibiting correlation with withaferin A accumulation was functionally characterized employing virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression studies combined with transcript and metabolite analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649692/urgent-need-to-strengthen-and-expand-screening-and-other-cancer-control-programs-in-the-caricom-caribbean
#9
Renee A Franklin, Donald T Simeon
PURPOSE: With high mortality in breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers in Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, we examined cancer control initiatives including screening as well as the implementation of relevant international and regional mandates. METHODS: Secondary data were used to examine cancer control initiatives, which included the presence of national policies, programs, and screening services as well as the implementation of international and regional mandates...
June 26, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649482/the-impact-of-tobacco-use-on-outcomes-and-toxicity-in-a-predominantly-minority-population-of-males-with-prostate-cancer-receiving-external-beam-radiation
#10
Anna Lee, Meng S Shao, David Schwartz, Joseph Safdieh, Virginia W Osborn, David Schreiber
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether current or prior smoking history had any impact on prostate cancer outcomes and toxicity in our predominantly minority population of males receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). METHODS: Of the 500 patients treated with EBRT between 2003-2011, 444 had smoking histories recorded. Patients were classified as current smoker, former smoker, or never smoker. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and distant metastatic-free survival (DMFS) endpoints were analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649261/the-role-of-sink-strength-and-nitrogen-availability-in-the-down-regulation-of-photosynthetic-capacity-in-field-grown-nicotiana-tabacum-l-at-elevated-co2-concentration
#11
Ursula M Ruiz-Vera, Amanda P De Souza, Stephen P Long, Donald R Ort
Down-regulation of photosynthesis is among the most common responses observed in C3 plants grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Down-regulation is often attributed to an insufficient capacity of sink organs to use or store the increased carbohydrate production that results from the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2]. Down-regulation can be accentuated by inadequate nitrogen (N) supply, which may limit sink development. While there is strong evidence for down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated [CO2] in enclosure studies most often involving potted plants, there is little evidence for this when [CO2] is elevated fully under open-air field treatment conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649255/overexpression-of-the-peat1-elicitor-gene-from-alternaria-tenuissima-improves-drought-tolerance-in-rice-plants-via-interaction-with-a-myo-inositol-oxygenase
#12
Fachao Shi, Yijie Dong, Yi Zhang, Xiufeng Yang, Dewen Qiu
Abiotic stresses, especially drought, seriously threaten cereal crops yields and quality. In this study, we observed that the rice plants of overexpression the Alternariatenuissima PeaT1 gene showed enhanced drought stress tolerance and increased the survival rate following a drought treatment. In PeaT1-overexpressing (PeaT1OE) plants, abscisic acid and chlorophyll content significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased compared with the wild-type plants. Additionally, we confirmed that the transcript levels of drought-responsive genes, including OsAM1, OsLP2, and OsDST, were prominently lower in the PeaT1OE plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649144/motivational-interviewing-or-counseling-medical-therapies-or-no-intervention-to-improve-tobacco-cessation-in-adults-and-adolescents
#13
Abigail R Norris, Jan E Miller
CLINICAL QUESTION: In adults and adolescents using cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco, is motivational interviewing (MI) more effective compared to counseling, medical therapies or no intervention for improving tobacco cessation? ANSWER: Yes. Evidence is modest but conclusive that using MI alone or in conjunction with other therapies results in greater rates of tobacco cessation compared to interventions that did not include MI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE OF THE ANSWER: A...
March 2017: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649143/sugar-price-supports-and-taxation-a-public-health-policy-paradox
#14
Abby Dilk, Dennis A Savaiano
Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity...
May 2017: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649068/expression-of-four-s-pneumoniae-type-2-polysaccharide-biosynthetic-enzymes-utilising-the-endogenous-kex2-protease-activity-in-tobacco
#15
Kafeel Ahmad, David Twell, Kevin Christopher Gough, Ben Charles Maddison
In order to express multisubunit proteins, or to manipulate metabolic pathways in plants it is essential to be able to efficiently express multiple proteins within the same plant cell. To increase the efficiency of multi-protein expression, we demonstrate the use of the Golgi localized Kex2 protease activity in tobacco to process a large polyprotein precursor consisting of four individual protein domains into its individual protein constituents. Four genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of S...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648992/the-association-between-indoor-smoke-free-home-rules-and-the-use-of-cigar-and-smokeless-tobacco-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Xiao Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The existence of an indoor smoke-free home rule is associated with lower use of cigar and smokeless tobacco. This study aims to use a longitudinal sample to examine the association between smoke-free home rules and the cessation and uptake of these two types of tobacco products. METHOD: The Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey surveyed 28,153 adults in May 2010 and then followed them up 12months later. Data from these two surveys and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the association between overtime smoke-free home rule status and the use of cigar and smokeless tobacco...
June 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648969/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-smoking-cessation-self-help-intervention-for-dual-users-of-tobacco-cigarettes-and-e-cigarettes-intervention-development-and-research-design
#17
Lauren R Meltzer, Vani N Simmons, Steven K Sutton, David J Drobes, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Cathy D Meade, Marina Unrod, Karen O Brandon, Paul T Harrell, Thomas Eissenberg, Christopher R Bullen, Thomas H Brandon
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes, have been available for over a decade and use has been increasing dramatically. The primary reported reasons for use are to aid smoking cessation or reduction, yet a significant proportion appear to be long-term users of both products ("dual users"). Dual users may be motivated to quit smoking and might benefit from a behavioral intervention for smoking cessation. This paper describes the intervention development, as well as the design, methods, and data analysis plans for an ongoing randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 22, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648260/broadening-the-perspective-on-gun-violence-an-examination-of-the-firearms-industry-1990-2015
#18
Victoria M Smith, Michael Siegel, Ziming Xuan, Craig S Ross, Sandro Galea, Bindu Kalesan, Eric Fleegler, Kristin A Goss
INTRODUCTION: Firearm violence injures or kills 100,000 Americans each year. This paper applies the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment model to this issue. Research on firearm violence tends to focus on two elements-the host (i.e., victims of firearm violence) and the environment (i.e., gun policies)-but little attention has been paid to the agent (the gun and ammunition) or the vector (firearm manufacturers, dealers, and the industry lobby). METHODS: Using Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives data, trends in firearm manufacturing were investigated from 1990 to 2015...
June 17, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648193/-adolescence-and-psychoactive-substances
#19
Ivana Obradovic
By the age of 17, most young people have tried alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and some of them have already become regular users. While they have partly achieved their objective, clinics for young addicts, created ten years ago and aimed specifically at this section of the population, still struggle to reach out to certain teenagers, notably those with issues relating to alcohol consumption.
June 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648190/-drug-use-and-addictive-practices-in-france
#20
François Beck
In terms of drug use, legal substances, namely tobacco and alcohol, are the most commonly consumed. Cannabis is the most widely consumed illegal substance, followed by cocaine with ten times fewer users, far ahead of other products. This broad overview conceals numerous nuances explored by the French drug and drug addiction watch.
June 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
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