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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644682/management-of-severe-bupropion-poisoning-with-intravenous-lipid-emulsion
#1
Neeraj Chhabra, Carol DesLauriers, Michael Wahl, Sean M Bryant
BACKGROUND: Bupropion toxicity is characterized by central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been suggested as a treatment by some for the treatment of refractory bupropion toxicity. This recommendation is based largely on published case reports and cases presented at scientific meetings. The objective of this study is to characterize the outcomes of patients with suspected bupropion toxicity in which ILE was administered and the indications for its use...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644409/quercetin-protects-obesity-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-by-reducing-microglia-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-ho-1-induction
#2
Jihyeon Yang, Chu-Sook Kim, Thai Hien Tu, Min-Seon Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada, Myung-Sook Choi, Taesun Park, Mi-Kyung Sung, Jong Won Yun, Suck-Young Choe, Jee Hye Lee, Yeonsoo Joe, Hye-Seon Choi, Sung Hoon Back, Hun Taeg Chung, Rina Yu
Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is characterized by activation of microglia, which are resident macrophages of the central nervous system, and is implicated in the derangement of energy homeostasis, metabolic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is known to protect against oxidative stress and inflammation-related metabolic complications. Here, we demonstrate that quercetin reduces obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammatory responses, and the beneficial action of quercetin is associated with heme oxygenase (HO-1) induction...
June 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644072/clinicopathological-and-imaging-features-of-lipoastrocytoma-case-report
#3
Laxminadh Sivaraju, Saritha Aryan, Nandita Ghosal, Alangar S Hegde
Lipidized tumors of the central nervous system are very uncommon, with only a few cases described. We report a case of a 25-year-old woman with a tumor involving the left premotor area. She underwent gross total excision. Histologically, the tumor was composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive glial cells with areas of lipidization. A diagnosis of lipoastrocytoma was rendered. At three-year follow-up she was doing well, supporting the presumed favorable prognosis of these uncommon tumors. Absence of xanthochromic appearance, mitotic activity, necrosis and poor reticulin activity are the differentiating features from the pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643927/co2-low-level-laser-therapy-has-an-early-but-not-delayed-pain-effect-during-experimental-tooth-movement
#4
T Deguchi, D G Kim, H Kamioka
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces elevated pain by controlling the release of neurochemicals during orthodontic tooth movement. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Okayama University. Sixty-five Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to tooth movement and LLLT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Groups included day 0 controls, irradiation only controls and with or without irradiation sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after tooth movement (n=5 each, total n=65)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643517/a-novel-strategy-for-comprehensive-profiling-and-identification-of-acidic-glycosphingolipids-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Ting Hu, Zhixin Jia, Jinlan Zhang
Acidic glycosphingolipids (AGSLs), which mainly consist of ganglioside and sulfatide moieties, are highly concentrated in the central nervous system. Comprehensive profiling of AGSLs has historically been challenging because of their high complexity and the lack of standards. In this paper, a novel strategy was developed to comprehensively profile AGSLs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Ganglioside isomers with different glycan chains such as GD1a/ GD1b were completely separated on a C18 column for the first time to our knowledge, facilitated by the addition of formic acid in the mobile phase...
June 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#6
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643229/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-lymphoma-and-presumptive-hyper-ige-syndrome
#7
Rahsan Gocmen, Nazire Pinar Acar, Deniz Cagdas, Asli Kurne
We, herein, report a 23-year-old male with a rare inherited immunodeficiency disease, hyperimmunoglobulin IgE syndrome (HIES), who developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and lymphoma simultaneously. Primary immunodeficiency of the patient has remained undiagnosed until adulthood. PML is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by John Cunningham virus. HIES is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency characterized by high serum levels of IgE, recurrent staphylococcal infection, eczema, and hypereosinophilia...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#8
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642996/central-conduction-abnormalities-in-patients-receiving-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-infusion
#9
Francesco Bove, Marco Luigetti, Lara Gallicchio, Valentina Recchia, Antonella Petruzzellis, Riccardo Di Iorio, Filippo Tamma, Alfonso Fasano
In recent years, several studies have reported a relatively high frequency of polyneuropathy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), in particular, in patients receiving levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion. In spite of the several patients investigated with nerve conduction studies, no study has prospectively explored a possible central nervous system involvement of patients receiving LCIG infusion. We prospectively evaluated eight PD patients receiving LCIG infusion, who underwent neurophysiological evaluations with nerve conduction studies, visual, somatosensory and motor evoked potentials before LCIG infusion, and 1 and 6 months after...
June 22, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642828/surgical-orthodontic-treatment-of-a-patient-affected-by-type-1-myotonic-dystrophy-steinert-syndrome
#10
Laura Cacucci, Beatrice Ricci, Maria Moretti, Giulio Gasparini, Sandro Pelo, Cristina Grippaudo
Myotonic dystrophy, or Steinert's disease, is the most common form of muscular dystrophy that occurs in adults. This multisystemic form involves the skeletal muscles but affects also the eye, the endocrine system, the central nervous system, and the cardiac system. The weakness of the facial muscles causes a characteristic facial appearance frequently associated with malocclusions. Young people with myotonic dystrophy, who also have severe malocclusions, have bad oral functions such as chewing, breathing, and phonation...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642732/autonomic-function-impairment-and-brain-perfusion-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Wei-Che Lin, Pei-Chin Chen, Chih-Cheng Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chen Wang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu
INTRODUCTION: Autonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson's disease (PD) components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642697/targeting-microglial-activation-states-as-a-therapeutic-avenue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Sudhakar R Subramaniam, Howard J Federoff
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642339/establishment-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-primary-culture-model-for-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#13
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Takashi Ohama, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Koichi Sato
New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus throughout life and contribute to the functions of learning and memory. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which disrupted neurogenesis regulates central nervous system (CNS) disorders are not fully understood. Here, we established a novel 3D culture system of hippocampal neurogenesis using air liquid interface (ALI) culture and Matrigel culture from mouse hippocampus tissues. After isolated mouse hippocampus tissue fragments were seeded into ALI wells and cultured in stemness-stimulated media containing Wnt, EGF, Noggin and R-spondin for 7 days, small spheres gradually appeared in the tissues...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642128/immunomodulation-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-mucuna-pruriens-mp
#14
REVIEW
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642030/cyclic-mog35-55-ameliorates-clinical-and-neuropathological-features-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#15
Athanasios Lourbopoulos, George Deraos, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Olga Touloumi, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Hubert Kalbacher, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Vasso Apostolopoulos, John Matsoukas
EAE is induced to susceptible mice using linear peptides of myelin proteins of the central nervous system. Specific peptide motifs within the peptide-binding groove of the MHC peptide-complex determines the affinity of the peptide in each animal and the consequent T-cell receptor recognition and activation of the cell. Altered peptide ligand (APL) vaccination is a novel approach based on an effort to induce T-cell tolerance or alter cytokine profile from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory. In the present study we synthesized the MOG35-55 peptide and altered its 3-dimensional conformation to make it a cyclic one (c-MOG35-55)...
June 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641933/the-role-of-sleep-in-regulating-structural-plasticity-and-synaptic-strength-implications-for-memory-and-cognitive-function
#16
REVIEW
Frank Raven, Eddy A Van der Zee, Peter Meerlo, Robbert Havekes
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways...
May 18, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641774/membranous-nephropathy-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#17
Xiangling Li, YanQiang Wang
Membranous nephropathy (MN) accompanying Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has rarely been described previously. We recently presented a 45-year-old Chinese male presenting with recurrent lower extremity pitting edema, or eyelid edema, proteinuria and hyperlipidemia. especially intractable hiccup and vomiting, painful tonic spasm (PTS) as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating disorder of central nervous system. The kindey biopsy specimen showed MN stage 2. Serological testing revealed antibodies AQP4, MRI head and spine revealed medulla oblongata and C1-C2 cervical vertebra lesions...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641766/amyloid-pet-in-pseudotumoral-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Jordi A Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Ana Cortés-Martínez, Vanesa Pytel, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Celia Oreja-Guevara, José Luis Carreras, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis is a rare form of demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Positron emission tomography (PET) using amyloid-tracers has also been suggested as a marker of damage in white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis due to the nonspecific uptake of these tracers in white matter. METHOD: We present the case of a 59 year-old woman with a pathological-confirmed pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis, who was studied with the amyloid tracer (18)F-florbetaben...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641606/solving-the-challenge-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-to-treat-infections-caused-by-trypanosoma-evansi-evaluation-of-nerolidol-loaded-nanospheres-in-mice
#19
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Aline A Boligon, Thirssa H Grando, Mariângela F DE Sá, Aleksandro S DA Silva, Lenita M Stefani, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Silvia G Monteiro
Despite significant advances in therapies against Trypanosoma evansi, its effective elimination from the central nervous system (CNS) remains a difficult task. The incapacity of trypanocidal drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after systemic administrations makes the brain the main refuge area for T. evansi. Nanotechnology is showing great potential to improve drug efficacy, such as nerolidol-loaded nanospheres (N-NS). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the treatment with N-NS was able to cross the BBB and to eliminate T...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641560/functional-and-catalytic-characterization-of-the-detoxifying-enzyme-haloalkane-dehalogenase-from-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#20
Nikolaos Georgakis, Evangelia Chronopoulou, Maria Anna Gad, Dimitrios Skliros, Rodica Efrose, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Nikolaos E Labrou
Haloalkanes are acutely toxic to animals and humans and their toxic effects are mainly observed in the liver, kidneys and central nervous system. In the present work, the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (DrlA) was characterized. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme activity assays revealed that the DrlA gene expression in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii is induced by 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) during the early exponential phase. The gene of the enzyme was isolated, cloned and expressed in E...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
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