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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922231/evaluation-of-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-glycogen-storage-disease-type-1a
#1
Yusuf Aydemir, Figen Gürakan, İnci Nur Saltık Temizel, Hülya Demir, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Dilek Yalnızoğlu, Meral Topçu, Hasan Özen, Aysel Yüce
We aimed to evaluate structure and functions of central nervous system (CNS) in children with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a. Neurological examination, psychometric tests, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed. The results were compared between patients with good and poor metabolic control and healthy children. Twenty-three patients with GSD type 1a were studied. Twelve patients were in poor metabolic control group and 11 patients in good metabolic control group...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922194/pharmacodynamic-response-profiles-of-anxiolytic-and-sedative-drugs
#2
Xia Chen, Freerk Broeyer, Marieke de Kam, Joke Baas, Adam Cohen, Joop van Gerven
INTRODUCTION: Centrally-acting acutely anxiolytic drugs, like benzodiazepines, barbiturates and gabapentinoids, affect various central nervous system (CNS) functions, which reflect not only their anxiolytic effects but also neuropsychological side-effects. To validate the pharmacodynamic biomarkers for GABA-ergic anxiolytics, this study determined the pharmacodynamics of two anxiolytics and a non-anxiolytic control and linked them to their anxiolytic and sedative effects, during an anxiety-challenge study day...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920803/bone-pain-mechanism-in-osteoporosis-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Consalvo Mattia, Flaminia Coluzzi, Ludovica Celidonio, Renato Vellucci
Bone pain in elderly people dramatically affects their quality of life, with osteoporosis being the leading cause of skeletal related events. Peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system sensitization. Osteoporosis in the elderly has been associated with increased density of bone sensory nerve fibers and their pathological modifications, together with an over-expression of nociceptors sensitized by the lowering pH due to the osteoclastic activity. The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the microglia, as a response to a range of pathological conditions, represent the leading cause of central sensitization...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920753/neuroproteomics-and-systems-biology-approach-to-identify-temporal-biomarker-changes-post-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#4
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy D Guingab-Cagmat, Zhiqun Zhang, Ahmed Moghieb, Olena Y Glushakova, Stefania Mondello, Angela M Boutté, John Anagli, Richard Rubenstein, Hisham Bahmad, Amy K Wagner, Ronald L Hayes, Kevin K W Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical health problem of which diagnosis, management, and treatment remain challenging. TBI is a contributing factor in approximately one-third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.7 million people suffer a TBI in the United States annually. Efforts continue to focus on elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying TBI pathophysiology and defining sensitive and specific biomarkers that can aid in improving patient management and care...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920668/getting-mirna-therapeutics-into-the-target-cells-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Ming Ming Wen
miRNAs play important roles in modulating gene expression in varying cellular processes and disease pathogenesis, including neurodegenerative diseases. Several miRNAs are expressed in the brain, control brain development and are identified as important biomarkers in the pathogenesis of motor-and neuro-cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These remarkable miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targeting potential for many stressful and untreatable progressive neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920664/investigation-of-snp-rs2060546-immediately-upstream-to-ntn4-in-a-danish-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-cohort
#6
Shanmukha S Padmanabhuni, Rayan Houssari, Ann-Louise Esserlind, Jes Olesen, Thomas M Werge, Thomas F Hansen, Birgitte Bertelsen, Fotis Tsetsos, Peristera Paschou, Zeynep Tümer
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. GTS is a complex disorder, with environmental factors and several genes involved. Although variations within a few genes such as AADAC, NRXN1, SLITRK1, HDC, and IMMP2L have been tentatively associated with GTS (in a small number of patients), the causative genes underlying GTS pathophysiology remain unknown. In a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2060546) near the Netrin-4 (NTN4 - MIM 610401) gene was shown to be associated with GTS [odds ratio (OR) = 1...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920532/the-effect-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-precursors
#7
Klára Jiráková, Monika Šeneklová, Daniel Jirák, Karolína Turnovcová, Magda Vosmanská, Michal Babič, Daniel Horák, Pavel Veverka, Pavla Jendelová
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is suitable for noninvasive long-term tracking. We labeled human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors (iPSC-NPs) with two types of iron-based nanoparticles, silica-coated cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles (CZF) and poly-l-lysine-coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (PLL-coated γ-Fe2O3) and studied their effect on proliferation and neuronal differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of these two contrast agents on neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation capability...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919954/tachykinin-receptor-3-distribution-in-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Kyoichi Obata, Tsuyoshi Shimo, Tatsuo Okui, Kenichi Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Takada, Kiyofumi Takabatake, Yuki Kunisada, Soichiro Ibaragi, Hitoshi Nagatsuka, Akira Sasaki
BACKGROUND: Tachykinin 3 (TAC3) and its preferred tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3) that are prominently detected in the central nervous system, play significant roles in physiological development and specifically in the human reproductive system. The roles of TAC3/TACR3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression pattern of TAC3/TACR3 in clinically-resected oral squamous cell carcinoma samples using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919794/diagnostic-utility-of-contrast-enhanced-3d-t1-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-graves-disease
#9
Yasufumi Gon, Manabu Sakaguchi, Naoki Oyama, Hideki Mochizuki
Graves disease is rarely complicated with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases. Previous studies have suggested several hypotheses for this occurrence, including excess thyroid hormone, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn causes an abnormal hemodynamic response with consequent atherosclerotic changes, and antithyroid antibodies cause local vascular inflammation in patients with Graves disease. However, radiological findings of vasculitis in patients with Graves disease and cerebral infarction remain less known...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919687/cardiomyocyte-released-factors-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-proliferation
#10
Mariko Kuroda, Rieko Muramatsu, Toshihide Yamashita
The heart produces multiple diffusible factors that are involved in a number of physiological processes, but the action of these factors on the central nervous system is not well understood. In this study, we found that one or more factors released by cardiomyocytes promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation in vitro. Mouse OPCs co-cultured with mouse cardiomyocytes showed higher proliferative ability than OPCs cultured alone. In addition, cardiomyocyte-conditioned media was sufficient to promote OPC proliferation...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919548/cognitive-decline-over-time-in-adults-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-a-9-year-longitudinal-study
#11
Benjamin Gallais, Cynthia Gagnon, Jean Mathieu, Louis Richer
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited neuromuscular disease with multisystemic involvement including the central nervous system. The evolution of the cognitive profile is a matter of debate, whether an eventual decline could be global or process-specific. Study aims are to describe, compare and document the clinical relevance of the progression of cognitive abilities in DM1 patients with adult and late-onset phenotypes. A total of 115 DM1 patients (90 adult; 25 late-onset) were assessed twice within a 9-year period on cognitive abilities (language, memory, visual attention, processing speed, visuoconstructive abilities and executive functions) and intellectual functioning (WAIS-R 7)...
October 14, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919018/trigeminal-nervous-system-sensitization-by-infraorbital-nerve-injury-enhances-responses-in-a-migraine-model
#12
Midori Toyama, Chiho Kudo, Chikako Mukai, Mika Inoue, Aiko Oyamaguchi, Hiroshi Hanamoto, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Hitoshi Niwa
BACKGROUND: Although the peripheral and central sensitizations of trigeminal nervous system may be one of the important factors of migraine, the precise mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the influence of the sensitization of the second division of the trigeminal nerve (V2) by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the infraorbital nerve (ION) on migraine headache, using the capsaicin-induced migraine model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: (a) sham surgery and topical-dural vehicle application (Sham + Vehicle) group, (b) CCI-ION and topical-dural vehicle application (CCI-ION + Vehicle) group, (c) sham surgery and topical-dural capsaicin application (Sham + Capsaicin) group, (d) CCI-ION and topical-dural capsaicin application (CCI-ION + Capsaicin) group...
November 9, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918873/loperamide-the-poor-man-s-methadone-brief-review
#13
Cornel N Stanciu, Samantha A Gnanasegaram
Loperamide is widely available as an inexpensive, over-the-counter remedy commonly used for management of diarrhea. Although an opioid, at therapeutic doses it acts primarily on the gastrointestinal tissues; however, larger than recommended amounts facilitate central nervous system (CNS) penetration. Such high doses of loperamide have recently gained popularity among users of opioids to manage withdrawal symptomatology and, less frequently, to achieve psychoactive effects. Chronic loperamide use can result in development of tolerance and, upon abrupt cessation of use, withdrawal...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918641/evaluation-of-the-biocompatibility-of-polypyrrole-implanted-subdurally-in-gaers
#14
Sebastien H Bauquier, Karen J McLean, Jonathan L Jiang, Ray C Boston, Alan Lai, Zhilian Yue, Simon E Moulton, Amy J Halliday, Gordon Wallace, Mark J Cook
This blinded controlled prospective randomized study investigates the biocompatibility of polypyrrole (PPy) polymer that will be used for intracranial triggered release of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Three by three millimeters PPy are implanted subdurally in six adult female genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg. Each rat has a polymer implanted on one side of the cortex and a sham craniotomy performed on the other side. After a period of seven weeks, rats are euthanized and parallel series of coronal sections are cut throughout the implant site...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918464/checkpoints-to-the-brain-directing-myeloid-cell-migration-to-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Meredith Harrison-Brown, Guo-Jun Liu, Richard Banati
Myeloid cells are a unique subset of leukocytes with a diverse array of functions within the central nervous system during health and disease. Advances in understanding of the unique properties of these cells have inspired interest in their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes, proteins, and drugs, or as "assistants" in the clean-up of aggregated proteins and other molecules when existing drainage systems are no longer adequate. The trafficking of myeloid cells from the periphery to the central nervous system is subject to complex cellular and molecular controls with several 'checkpoints' from the blood to their destination in the brain parenchyma...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918427/prolactin-friend-or-foe-in-central-nervous-system-autoimmune-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Massimo Costanza, Rosetta Pedotti
The higher prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in females, along with the modulation of disease activity observed during pregnancy and the post-partum period, has suggested a hormonal influence in MS. Even if prolactin (PRL) does not belong to the sex hormones family, its crucial role in female reproduction and lactation has prompted great efforts to understand if PRL could represent a gender factor in the pathogenesis of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for this disease...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918315/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-visceral-pain
#17
Siobhain M O' Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Visceral pain is a significant and prevalent feature of several disorders including the functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Treatment strategies are limited and often unsatisfactory which has opened up new research avenues into the aetiology of visceral pain. This research has led to an increased appreciation of the role of the brain gut axis in modulating viscera pain responses. More recently, the interactions between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system have emerged indicating that visceral pain related disorders may be prospective candidates for symptom relief via microbial manipulation...
November 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918235/comprehensive-mapping-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-epigenetic-dynamics-in-axon-regeneration
#18
Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Andrew Koemeter-Cox, Mattéa Finelli, Li Shen, Roland H Friedel, Hongyan Zou
In contrast to central nervous system neurons, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons can switch to a regenerative state after peripheral axotomy. In a screen for chromatin regulators of the regenerative responses in this conditioning lesion paradigm, we identified Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 3 (Tet3) as upregulated in DRG neurons, along with increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC). We generated genome-wide 5 hmC maps in adult DRG, which revealed that peripheral and central axotomy (leading to no regenerative effect) triggered differential 5 hmC changes that are associated with distinct signaling pathways...
December 5, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917626/association-of-new-putative-epitopes-of-myelin-proteolipid-protein-58-74-with-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Zahra Zamanzadeh, Ghasem Ahangari, Mitra Ataei, Samie Pouragahi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Mehdi Sadeghi, Mohammad Hossein Sanati
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which auto-reactive T cells react with self-antigens expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). The main cause of MS is unknown. Nonetheless, the most probable theory is based on molecular mimicry, which suggests that some infections can activate T cells against brain auto-antigens like myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and initiate the disease cascade. This study is conducted to evaluate the activatory effects of PLP58-74 on T lymphocytes and humoral immunity...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917451/reversal-learning-reveals-cognitive-deficits-and-altered-prediction-error-encoding-in-the-ventral-striatum-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
Katharina Nickchen, Rebecca Boehme, Maria Del Mar Amador, Thomas D Hälbig, Katharina Dehnicke, Patricia Panneck, Joachim Behr, Konstantin Prass, Andreas Heinz, Lorenz Deserno, Florian Schlagenhauf, Josef Priller
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition characterized by a triad of movement disorder, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. The striatum is particularly vulnerable to the effects of mutant huntingtin, and cell loss can already be found in presymptomatic stages. Since the striatum is well known for its role in reinforcement learning, we hypothesized to find altered behavioral and neural responses in HD patients in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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