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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452209/prolactin-improves-hepatic-steatosis-via-cd36-pathway
#1
Pengzi Zhang, Zhijuan Ge, Hongdong Wang, Wenhuan Feng, Xitai Sun, Xuehui Chu, Can Jiang, Yan Wang, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional polypeptide with effects on metabolism; however, little is known about its effect on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: The serum PRL levels of 456 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and 403 non-NAFLD controls diagnosed by ultrasound, and 85 subjects with liver histology obtained during metabolic surgery (44 female and 30 male NAFLD patients and 11 age-matched non-NAFLD female subjects) were evaluated...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451858/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-brain-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Alena Kopkova, Jiri Sana, Pavel Fadrus, Ondrej Slaby
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid that has many important functions and is in direct contact with the extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS). CSF serves as both the communication channel allowing the distribution of various substances among the CNS cells and the storage facility for the waste products these cells release. For these reasons, CSF is a potential source of diagnostic biomarkers of many CNS diseases, including brain tumors. Recent studies have revealed that CSF also contains circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs that have been described as biomarkers in many cancers...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451456/clival-meningocele-causing-bilateral-hearing-loss-in-a-child-due-to-superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-report
#3
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451228/a-persistent-cough-as-atypical-clinical-presentation-of-intrathoracic-extramedullary-hematopoiesis-emh-in-a-female-with-thalassemia-intermedia
#4
Mohammad Aj Abdulla, Mohamed A Yassin, Mohamed Abdelrazek, Deena Mudawi, Firyal Ibrahim, Dina S Soliman, Halima ElOmri, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Liam Fernihough, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare disorder, defined as the appearance of hematopoietic elements outside the bone marrow or peripheral blood. The most common sites of EMH are liver and spleen, but it has been documented in other organs such as the mediastinum, lymph nodes, breast, and central nervous system. EMH occurs as a compensatory mechanism for bone marrow dysfunction in severe thalassemia. We report a case of EMH presenting as a posterior mediastinal mass in a 34-year-old woman with thalassemia intermedia with chronic cough and shortness of breath on exertion...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451218/pten-knockdown-with-the-y444f-mutant-aav2-vector-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-the-adult-optic-nerve
#5
Zheng-Ru Huang, Hai-Ying Chen, Zi-Zhong Hu, Ping Xie, Qing-Huai Liu
The lack of axonal regeneration is the major cause of vision loss after optic nerve injury in adult mammals. Activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to enhance the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and to facilitate axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after injury. The deletion of the mTOR negative regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) enhances regeneration of adult corticospinal neurons and ganglion cells. In the present study, we used a tyrosine-mutated (Y444F) AAV2 vector to efficiently express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing PTEN expression in retinal ganglion cells...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451034/cytochrome-p450-in-the-central-nervous-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
Cynthia Navarro-Mabarak, Rafael Camacho-Carranza, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) constitute a family of enzymes that can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria or the cell surface of the cells. CYPs are characterized by carrying out the oxidation of organic compounds and they are mainly recognized as mediators of the biotransformation of xenobiotics to polar hydrophilic metabolites that can be eliminated from the organism. However, these enzymes play a key role in many other physiological processes, being involved in diverse indispensable metabolic pathways since they metabolize many endogenous substrates...
February 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450696/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-mice-via-anti-oxidative-stress-activity
#8
Ting Long, Yuan Yang, Ling Peng, Zuoxiao Li
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and hard to heal. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used MS model, and its potential mechanism underlying the action of MT on anti-oxidative stress. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with MOG35-55 peptide to set up the EAE model, and for detection of the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) on the development and progression of EAE...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450650/access-to-the-cns-biomarker-strategies-for-dopaminergic-treatments
#9
REVIEW
Willem Johan van den Brink, Semra Palic, Isabelle Köhler, Elizabeth Cunera Maria de Lange
Despite substantial research carried out over the last decades, it remains difficult to understand the wide range of pharmacological effects of dopaminergic agents. The dopaminergic system is involved in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. This complex system features multiple pathways implicated in emotion and cognition, psychomotor functions and endocrine control through activation of G protein-coupled dopamine receptors. This review focuses on the system-wide effects of dopaminergic agents on the multiple biochemical and endocrine pathways, in particular the biomarkers (i...
February 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450561/cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-on-sacubitril-valsartan-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
R De Vecchis, C Ariano, G Di Biase, M Noutsias
BACKGROUND: Sacubitril, a neprilysin inhibitor in the combination molecule sacubitril/valsartan, slows down degradation of endogenous natriuretic peptides, thereby enhancing their beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, sacubitril might also promote neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) treated with sacubitril/valsartan, due to possible neprilysin inhibition at the level of Central Nervous System. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to detect the effects exerted by sacubitril/valsartan on cognitive function in CHF patients...
February 15, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450391/citicoline-a-neuroprotector-with-proven-effects-on-glaucomatous-disease
#11
REVIEW
Chitu Iulia, Tudosescu Ruxandra, Leasu-Branet Costin, Voinea Liliana-Mary
Citicoline is the generic name of cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), an endogenous compound that is able to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system by interacting with the synthesis of cellular membranes phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine. Exogenous Citicoline, administered by ingestion or injection, is hydrolyzed and dephosphorylated in order to form cytidine and choline, which resynthesize CDP-choline inside brain cells. It has proven neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease, as well as in glaucoma and amblyopia...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449898/targeted-therapy-of-brain-metastases-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Rodica Di Lorenzo, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Brain metastases (BM) occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and 60-75% of patients with BM become symptomatic. Due to an aging population and advances in the treatment of primary cancers, patients are living longer and are more likely to experience complications from BM. The diagnosis of BM drastically worsens long-term survival rates, with multiple metastases being a poor prognostic factor. Until recently, the mainstay of treatment consisted of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), surgical resection, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), or a combination of these modalities...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449807/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-acts-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-in-vitro-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-via-up-regulation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#13
Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Eugenia Pittaluga, Federica Andreola, Simona Rossi, Mauro Cozzolino, Giuseppe Nicotera, Gianluca Sferrazza, Pasquale Pierimarchi, Annalucia Serafino
In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449802/sparc-and-glua1-containing-ampa-receptors-promote-neuronal-health-following-cns-injury
#14
Emma V Jones, Yann Bernardinelli, Juan G Zarruk, Sabrina Chierzi, Keith K Murai
The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449735/alk-positive-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung-expressing-neuroendocrine-markers-and-presenting-as-a-pituitary-adenoma
#15
M C Mengoli, F Bertolini, M Maur, F Barbieri, L Longo, P Gasparri, M Tiseo, G Rossi
We report an ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as a pituitary metastasis, clinically simulating a pituitary adenoma. The patient, a 50 year-old, former-smoking woman was admitted with a Parinaud's syndrome characterized by progressive oculomotor impairment of visual verticality, bitemporal hemianopsia and nystagmus. Imaging studies showed a sellar tumor and the biopsy revealed a TTF-1 and napsin positive lung adenocarcinoma strongly expressing synaptophysin and CD56, also harboring ALK rearrangement...
December 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449593/hemopexin-is-required-for-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-olfactory-bulb-pathway
#17
Yanling Zhu, Yang Qiu, Mengjia Chen, Yi Zhang, Li Cao, Zhida Su, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Yinyan Pu, Cheng He
The neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ) reside within a specialized niche critical for neurogenesis. Hemopexin, a plasma glycoprotein, has been extensively studied as a heme scavenger at the systemic level. However, little is known about its function in the central nervous system, especially in neurogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that deletion of hemopexin leads to neurogenic abnormalities in the SVZ/olfactory bulb (OB) pathway. The lateral ventricle is enlarged in hemopexin-deficient mice, and more apoptosis was observed in Dcx+ cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449437/dynamic-clonal-progression-in-xenografts-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-intrachromosomal-amplification-of-chromosome-21
#18
Paul B Sinclair, Helen H Blair, Sarra L Ryan, Lars Buechler, Joanna Cheng, Jake Clayton, Rebecca Hanna, Shaun Hollern, Zoe Hawking, Matthew Bashton, Claire J Schwab, Lisa Jones, Lisa J Russell, Helen Marr, Peter Carey, Christina Halsey, Olaf Heidenreich, Anthony V Moorman, Christine J Harrison
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a heterogeneous chromosomal rearrangement occurring in 2% of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are no cell lines with iAMP21 and these abnormalities are too complex to faithfully engineer in animal models. As a resource for future functional and pre-clinical studies, we have created xenografts from intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 leukemia patient blasts and characterised them by in-vivo and ex-vivo luminescent imaging, FLOW immunophenotyping, and histological and ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow and the central nervous system...
February 15, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449193/phase-i-trial-of-intrathecal-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Violaine K Harris, James Stark, Tamara Vyshkina, Leslie Blackshear, Gloria Joo, Valentina Stefanova, Gabriel Sara, Saud A Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. Cell therapy is emerging as a therapeutic strategy to promote repair and regeneration in patients with disability associated with progressive MS. METHODS: We conducted a phase I open-label clinical trial investigating the safety and tolerability of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitor (MSC-NP) treatment in 20 patients with progressive MS...
February 3, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449109/arsenic-containing-hydrocarbons-disrupt-a-model-in-vitro-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier
#20
S M Müller, F Ebert, J Bornhorst, H-J Galla, K A Francesconi, T Schwerdtle
Lipid-soluble arsenicals, so-called arsenolipids, have gained a lot of attention in the last few years because of their presence in many seafoods and reports showing substantial cytotoxicity emanating from arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a prominent subgroup of the arsenolipids. More recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that some arsenolipids might have adverse effects on brain health. In the present study, we focused on the effects of selected arsenolipids and three representative metabolites on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B), a brain-regulating interface...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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