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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228131/synaptic-potentiation-at-basal-and-apical-dendrites-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-involves-activation-of-a-distinct-set-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-molecular-cues
#2
Patrycja Brzdak, Olga Wójcicka, Monika Zareba-Koziol, Daniel Minge, Christian Henneberger, Jakub Wlodarczyk, Jerzy W Mozrzymas, Tomasz Wójtowicz
In the central nervous system, several forms of experience-dependent plasticity, learning and memory require the activity-dependent control of synaptic efficacy. Despite substantial progress in describing synaptic plasticity, mechanisms related to heterogeneity of synaptic functions at local circuits remain elusive. Here we studied the functional and molecular aspects of hippocampal circuit plasticity by analyzing excitatory synapses at basal and apical dendrites of mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells (CA1 region) in acute brain slices...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227554/simple-and-rapid-tissue-clearing-method-for-three-dimensional-histology-of-the-pancreas
#3
Hang Sheung Wong, Patrick Ka Kit Yeung, Hei Ming Lai, Karen Siu Ling Lam, Wu Wutian, Sookja Kim Chung
Previously, high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of a whole and intact pancreas was not possible, since light is scattered when it passes through cell compartments with different refractive indices. CLARITY is one of the tissue clearing techniques that has yielded success with the central nervous system. To preserve tissue integrity after delipidation, conventional protocols embed tissue in an acrylamide-based hydrogel, which involves the use of specialized equipment. Recently, we determined that the hydrogel-embedding step could be simplified and replaced by passive tissue fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA)...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227527/m2-muscarinic-receptor-activation-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-migration-of-rat-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Roberta Piovesana, Simona Melfi, Mario Fiore, Valerio Yi, Ada Maria Tata
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as stromal mesenchymal stem cells, are multipotent cells, which can be found in many tissues and organs as bone marrow, adipose tissue and other tissues. In particular MSCs derived from Adipose tissue (ADSCs) are the most frequently used in regenerative medicine because they are easy to source, rapidly expandable in culture and excellent differentiation potential into adipocytes, chondrocytes and other cell types. Acetylcholine (ACh), is one of the most important neurotransmitter in central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), playing important roles also in non-neural tissue, but its functions in MSCs are still not investigated...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227525/functional-electrical-stimulation-and-ankle-foot-orthoses-provide-equivalent-therapeutic-effects-on-foot-drop-a-meta-analysis-providing-direction-for-future-research
#5
Sarah Prenton, Kristen L Hollands, Laurence P J Kenney, Pornsuree Onmanee
OBJECTIVE: To compare the randomized controlled trial evidence for therapeutic effects on walking of functional electrical stimulation and ankle foot orthoses for foot drop caused by central nervous system conditions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, REHABDATA, PEDro, NIHR Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus and clinicaltrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: One reviewer screened titles/abstracts...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227037/prospective-transfrontal-sheep-model-of-skull-base-reconstruction-using-vascularized-mucosa
#6
Sarina K Mueller, George Scangas, Mansor M Amiji, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: No high-fidelity animal model exists to examine prospective wound healing following vascularized reconstruction of the skull base. Such a model would require the ability to study the prospective behavior of vascularized mucosal repairs of large dural and arachnoid defects within the intranasal environment. The objective of this study was to therefore develop and validate a novel, in vivo, transfrontal sheep model of cranial base repair using vascularized sinonasal mucosa. METHODS: Twelve transfrontal craniotomy and 1...
December 11, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226998/antisense-suppression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-as-a-treatment-for-alexander-disease
#7
Tracy L Hagemann, Berit Powers, Curt Mazur, Aneeza Kim, Steven Wheeler, Gene Hung, Eric Swayze, Albee Messing
OBJECTIVE: Alexander disease is a fatal leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein primarily expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system. A key feature of pathogenesis is over-expression and accumulation of GFAP, with formation of characteristic cytoplasmic aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers. Here we investigate whether suppressing GFAP with antisense oligonucleotides could provide a therapeutic strategy for treating Alexander disease...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226988/cns-high-grade-neuroepithelial-tumor-with-bcor-internal-tandem-duplication-a-comparison-with-its-counterparts-in-the-kidney-and-soft-tissue
#8
Yuka Yoshida, Sumihito Nobusawa, Satoshi Nakata, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Yoshiki Arakawa, Yohei Mineharu, Yasuo Sugita, Takako Yoshioka, Asuka Araki, Yuichiro Sato, Hideo Takeshima, Masahiko Okada, Akira Nishi, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Kenichi Kohashi, Yoshinao Oda, Junko Hirato, Hideaki Yokoo
Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR) are a recently reported rare entity, identified as a small fraction of tumors previously institutionally diagnosed as so-called CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Their genetic characteristic is a somatic internal tandem duplication in the 3' end of BCOR (BCOR ITD), which has also been found in clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) and soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcomas/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumors of infancy (URCS/PMMTI), and these BCOR ITD-positive tumors have been reported to share similar pathological features...
December 11, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226564/-lowe-syndrome-a-particularly-severe-phenotype-without-clinical-kidney-involvement
#9
Abdalla Etesam, El-Beheiry Ahmed, Dieterich Klaus, Thevenon Julien, Fauré Julien, Rendu John
Lowe syndrome (LS) is a very rare disorder of phosphatidylinositol metabolism, which manifests with a complex phenotype comprising a clinical triad encompassing major abnormalities of the eyes, the kidneys, and the central nervous system. We are reporting a 23-year-old Egyptian male with a severe phenotype of LS with a minimal kidney disease. Direct sequencing of the OCRL gene detected a p.His375Arg mutation in the catalytic domain of the protein. The patient suffered from bilateral congenital cataracts and glaucoma, striking growth deficiency, severe psychomotor disability, a severe osteopathy, and seizures, but only minimal renal dysfunction...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226552/spontaneously-regressing-brain-lesions-in-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#10
An N Dang Do, Eva H Baker, Katherine E Warren, Simona E Bianconi, Forbes D Porter
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a metabolic disorder caused by an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis that affects the development of many organ systems. Malformations in the central nervous system typically involve midline structures and reflect abnormal growth and differentiation of neurons and supporting cells. Despite these defects in central nervous system development, brain tumor formation has only rarely been reported in association with SLOS. We present three individuals with SLOS and lesions in the basal ganglia or brainstem detected by MRI that were concerning for tumor formation...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226492/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-monosynaptic-sensory-motor-circuit-development-in-the-spinal-cord
#11
REVIEW
Fumiyasu Imai, Yutaka Yoshida
Motor behaviors are precisely controlled by the integration of sensory and motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Proprioceptive sensory neurons, key components of the sensory system, are located in the dorsal root ganglia and project axons both centrally to the spinal cord and peripherally to muscles and tendons, communicating peripheral information about the body to the CNS. Changes in muscle length detected by muscle spindles, and tension variations in tendons conveyed by golgi tendon organs, are communicated to the CNS through group Ia/II, and Ib proprioceptive sensory afferents, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226242/intracerebroventricular-delivery-of-hematopoietic-progenitors-results-in-rapid-and-robust-engraftment-of-microglia-like-cells
#12
Alessia Capotondo, Rita Milazzo, Jose M Garcia-Manteiga, Eleonora Cavalca, Annita Montepeloso, Brian S Garrison, Marco Peviani, Derrick J Rossi, Alessandra Biffi
Recent evidence indicates that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can serve as vehicles for therapeutic molecular delivery to the brain by contributing to the turnover of resident myeloid cell populations. However, such engraftment needs to be fast and efficient to exert its therapeutic potential for diseases affecting the central nervous system. Moreover, the nature of the cells reconstituted after transplantation and whether they could comprise bona fide microglia remain to be assessed. We demonstrate that transplantation of HSPCs in the cerebral lateral ventricles provides rapid engraftment of morphologically, antigenically, and transcriptionally dependable microglia-like cells...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226139/stochastic-dosimetry-for-the-assessment-of-children-exposure-to-uniform-50%C3%A2-hz-magnetic-field-with-uncertain-orientation
#13
E Chiaramello, S Fiocchi, P Ravazzani, M Parazzini
This study focused on the evaluation of the exposure of children aging from five to fourteen years to 50 Hz homogenous magnetic field uncertain orientation using stochastic dosimetry. Surrogate models allowed assessing how the variation of the orientation of the magnetic field influenced the induced electric field in each tissue of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of children. Results showed that the electric field induced in CNS and PNS tissues of children were within the ICNIRP basic restrictions for general public and that no significant difference was found in the level of exposure of children of different ages when considering 10000 possible orientations of the magnetic field...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226044/neuroanatomy-and-neuropsychology-of-pain
#14
REVIEW
Shehzad Khalid, R Shane Tubbs
We have reviewed here the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature of the human brain and have proposed the various pain mechanisms that we currently know of. Essentially when tissue is damaged, peripheral nociceptors are activated continuously and prostanoids are hence produced. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and medications aim to target these prostanoids to treat the inflammatory component of pain. Normal pain tends to have a protective response. It is important for the nervous system to learn and recognize this painful stimulus earlier and quicker with repeated exposure to avoid tissue damage...
October 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225979/waldenstrom-s-macroglobulinemia-a-report-of-two-cases-one-with-severe-retinopathy-and-one-with-renal-failure
#15
Naoko Kudo, Masakatsu Usui, Yukiharu Nakabo, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Kenji Miki, Takashi Osafune, Keisuke Nishimura, Shinsaku Imashuku
We report here two cases of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), one with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and severe retinopathy and one with renal failure. In both cases, the serum IgM levels exceeded 3,000 mg/dL and monoclonal IgM-kappa was observed in the blood. At onset, Case 1, a 63-year-old female, developed CNS symptoms-namely, drowsiness and syncope. Case 2, a 58-year-old male, had nausea and dysgeusia on admission associated with renal failure, which is quite rare in patients with WM. Both patients exhibited hyperviscosity-related retinopathy, but it was particularly severe in Case 1: she suddenly lost her vision after admission...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225572/adaptive-changes-in-the-sensitivity-of-the-dorsal-raphe-and-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nuclei-to-acute-exercise-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-may-contribute-to-the-antidepressant-effect-of-regular-treadmill-running-in-rats
#16
Ayu Nishii, Seiichiro Amemiya, Natsuko Kubota, Takeshi Nishijima, Ichiro Kita
Increasing clinical evidence suggests that regular physical exercise can prevent or reduce the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including depressive symptoms. Antidepressant effect of regular exercise may be implicated in monoaminergic transmission including serotonergic transmission, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but few general concepts regarding the optimal exercise regimen for stimulating neural mechanisms involved in antidepressant properties have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225568/age-dependent-subunit-specific-action-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-glun1-2a-and-glun1-2b-nmda-receptors
#17
Aleksey V Yakovlev, Evgeniya D Kurmasheva, Yevheniia Ishchenko, Rashid Giniatullin, Guzel F Sitdikova
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced neuroactive gas implicated in many key processes in the peripheral and central nervous system. Whereas the neuroprotective role of H2S has been shown in adult brain, the action of this messenger in newborns remains unclear. One of the known targets of H2S in the nervous system is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor which can be composed of different subunits with distinct functional properties. In the present study, using patch clamp technique, we compared the effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 100 μM) on hippocampal NMDA receptor mediated currents in rats of the first and third postnatal weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225251/successful-treatment-of-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-associated-with-neuro-sweet-disease-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#18
Satoko Oka, Kazuo Ono, Masaharu Nohgawa
Sweet disease may occur in several organs, and central nervous system involvement, known as Neuro-Sweet disease (NSD), is rare. The clinical features of NSD include recurrent encephalomeningitis accompanied by fever and erythematous plaques; systemic corticosteroid therapy is highly effective. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is an important electrolyte abnormality because it can be life-threatening. We describe the first case of SIADH and NSD associated with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome that was successfully treated with corticosteroids and cyclosporine...
December 8, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225135/adult-spinal-ependymomas-an-epidemiological-study
#19
Syed I Khalid, Ryan Kelly, Owoicho Adogwa, Ankit Metha, Carlos Bagley, Joseph Cheng, John O'Toole
OBJECTIVE: In adults, spinal ependymomas constitute only 3-6% of central nervous system tumors. Due to their rarity and poor prognosis, large population-based studies are needed to assess the epidemiology and survival risk factors associated with these tumors in the hope of improving outcome. The authors undertook this retrospective study to explore factors that may influence survival in adult patients with spinal ependymomas. METHODS: Utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, a prospective cancer registry, the authors retrospectively assessed survival in histologically confirmed spinal ependymomas in patients 18 years of age and older...
December 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225007/high-sensitivity-quantitative-analysis-reveals-the-non-linear-relationship-between-the-dose-and-deposition-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system-following-its-subchronic-exposure
#20
Tomoyuki Masuda, Kazuhiro Ishii, Tomohiro Nakayama, Nobuaki Iwasaki, Yasuyuki Shibata, Akira Tamaoka
In the year 2003, the residents of Kamisu, Japan, were exposed to pentavalent organic arsenic diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA[V]) via their normal drinking water. Following the exposure, they developed cerebellar and brainstem symptoms. Although the relatively high dose of DPAA(V) is assumed to have caused their symptoms, the relationship between the exposed dose of DPAA(V) and the level of their deposition in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we examined the deposition of DPAA(V) and its pentavalent metabolites in the CNS tissues of Crl:CD(SD) rats following the administration of DPAA(V) for 28days...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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