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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913529/a-pilot-study-evaluating-cerebral-vasculitis-in-kawasaki-s-disease
#1
Jung Sook Yeom, Young Hye Cho, Chung Mo Koo, Jin Su Jun, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Cerebral vasculitis is thought to be a possible underlying mechanism of severe neurological complications of Kawasaki's disease (KD), such as cerebral infarct or aneurysm rupture. To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD ( n  = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [ n  = 5], enteroviral meningitis [ n  = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [ n  = 10])...
June 18, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913520/subependymomas-characteristics-of-a-leave-me-alone-lesion
#2
Sara Kammerer, Monika Mueller-Eschner, Arne Lauer, Anna-Luisa Luger, Johanna Quick-Weller, Kea Franz, Patrick Harter, Joachim Berkefeld, Marlies Wagner
PURPOSE:  Intracranial subependymomas are rare, mostly asymptomatic tumours, which are often found incidentally and therefore did not receive much attention in previous literature. By being classified as benign grade I in the WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system, they are given a special status compared to the other ependymal tumours. Tumor recurrences are a rarity, spinal "drop metastases" do not occur. While etiological, pathological and therapeutic characteristics have been subject of several publications over the last few decades and have meanwhile been well studied, the imaging characteristics are much less well received...
June 18, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913285/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections
#3
Fatma Ben Abid, Mohammed Abukhattab, Hafedh Ghazouani, Obada Khalil, Ahmed Gohar, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Eman Al Masalamani, Said Al Dhahry, Samar Hashim, Faraj Howadi, Adeel A Butt
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar. DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Those with abnormal CSF finding were included in our study. We excluded those with missing medical records, no clinical evidence of viral CNS infection or proven bacterial, fungal or tuberculosis CNS infection...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913265/dipeptidylpeptidase-iv-of-streptococcus-suis-degrades-the-porcine-antimicrobial-peptide-pr-39-and-neutralizes-its-biological-properties
#4
Geneviève LeBel, Katy Vaillancourt, Li Yi, Marcelo Gottschalk, Daniel Grenier
Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen causing pathologies such as meningitis, sepsis, endocarditis, and arthritis. Several surface-bound and secreted proteases produced by S. suis have been identified and proposed as virulence factors. PR-39 is a proline/arginine-rich antimicrobial peptide produced by porcine leucocytes. In addition to play a role in innate immunity, this peptide possesses immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we hypothesized that proteases produced by S. suis inactivate PR-39...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913244/during-development-ng2-glial-cells-of-the-spinal-cord-are-restricted-to-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-but-generate-astrocytes-upon-acute-injury
#5
Wenhui Huang, Xianshu Bai, Laura Stopper, Bogdan Catalin, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
NG2 glia are self-renewal cells widely populating the entire central nervous system (CNS). The differentiation potential of NG2 glia in the brain has been systematically studied. However, the fate of NG2 glia in the spinal cord during development and after injury is still unclear. Here, we took advantage of faithful expression of Cre in NG2-CreERT2 knock-in mice to demonstrate that spinal NG2 glia remain committed to the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage and generate OLs, but not astrocytes or neurons, during development...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913215/mitochondrial-therapy-promotes-regeneration-of-injured-hippocampal-neurons
#6
Ling Chien, Min-Zong Liang, Chu-Yuan Chang, Chen Wang, Linyi Chen
Due to the inhibitory microenvironment and reduced intrinsic growth capacity of neurons, neuronal regeneration of central nervous system remains challenging. Neurons are highly energy demanding and require sufficient mitochondria to support cellular activities. In response to stimuli, mitochondria undergo fusion/fission cycles to adapt to environment. It is thus logical to hypothesize that the plasticity of mitochondrial dynamics is required for neuronal regeneration. In this study, we examined the role of mitochondrial dynamics during regeneration of rat hippocampal neurons...
June 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913197/low-dose-cisplatin-causes-growth-inhibition-and-loss-of-autophagy-of-rat-astrocytes-in-vitro
#7
Nan Jiang, Chengjie Meng, Xiao Han, Guo Jun, Haoming Li, Zhengquan Yu
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system. Defects in astrocyte function have been implicated in a variety of diseases. Cisplatin (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic drug that is widely used to treat various cancers. However, it causes neurocognitive impairment in patients. Little is known about the damaging effects of chemotherapeutic drugs like CDDP on astrocytes. Presently, we found that a low dose of CDDP distinctly inhibited astrocyte proliferation and induced delayed cell death...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913196/pntx2-6-or-%C3%AE-cntx-pn2a-a-toxin-from-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom-releases-l-glutamate-from-rat-brain-synaptosomes-involving-na-and-ca-2-channels-and-changes-protein-expression-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#8
Carolina Nunes da Silva, Rosângela Silva Lomeo, Fernanda Silva Torres, Marcia Helena Borges, Marta Cordeiro Nascimento, Maria Helena Rodrigues Mesquita-Britto, Catarina Rapôso, Adriano Monteiro de Castro Pimenta, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Dawidson Assis Gomes, Maria Elena de Lima
PhTx2 is the most toxic fraction from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, being responsible to sodium entry into cortical synaptosomes, increasing the release of neurotransmitters, such as l-glutamate (L-Glu) and; acetylcholine. In this study, we investigated the action of a toxin purified from; PhTx2 fraction, called PnTx2-6 or δ-CNTX-Pn2a, on L-Glu release from rat; brain cortex synaptosomes, as well as its ability to induce blood-brain barrier permeability. PnTx2-6 increased L-Glu release from rat cortical brain synaptosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner (EC50 = ∼20 nM; Tm = 16min), as measured by a fluorimetric method...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913187/behavioral-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-the-mlh-mutant-mice-lacking-otoconia
#9
Marianna Manes, Mariana de Souza Aranha Garcia-Gomes, Thaísa Meira Sandini, J Zaccarelli-Magalhães, J C Florio, Sandra Regina Alexandre-Ribeiro, Danilo Wadt, Maria Martha Bernardi, Silvia Maria Gomes Massironi, Claudia Madalena Cabrera Mori
Otoconia are crucial for the correct processing of positional information and orientation. Mice lacking otoconia cannot sense the direction of the gravity vector and cannot swim properly. This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Additionally, the central catecholamine levels were evaluated to investigate possible correlations between behaviors and central neurotransmitters. A sequence of behavioral tests was used to evaluate the parameters related to the general activity, sensory nervous system, psychomotor system, and autonomous nervous system, in addition to measuring the acquisition of spatial and declarative memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and swimming behavior of the mlh mutant mice...
June 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913178/deficiency-of-adenosine-deaminase-2-special-focus-on-central-nervous-system-imaging
#10
Elif Bulut, Abdulsamet Erden, Omer Karadag, Kader Karli Oguz, Seza Ozen
PURPOSE: To increase the knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) imaging features in deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) by examining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of a relatively large number of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively examined neuroimages of 12 patients (7 male, 5 female) diagnosed with DADA2. The mean age of the patients at the time of initial brain MRI was 16.7±10.2 years. Seven patients (58.3%) fulfilled the classification criteria of polyarteritis nodosa...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913164/structural-and-visual-functional-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-related-optic-neuritis
#11
Yuxin Zhang, Yiqin Bao, Wei Qiu, Lisheng Peng, Ling Fang, Ying Xu, Hui Yang
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune astrocytopathies in the central nervous system, which are mainly caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). In this study, we aimed to establish a model of NMOSD-related optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) and to evaluate the progressive changes of the optic nerve and visual function. AQP4 IgG-positive serum from NMOSD patients was injected into the subarachnoid space of the rat optic nerve to induce the NMOSD-ON model (AQP4 + group), and healthy serum was injected as the control...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913061/the-protein-biochemistry-of-the-postsynaptic-density-in-glutamatergic-synapses-mediates-learning-in-neural-networks
#12
Mary Kennedy
The strength of each excitatory synapse in the central nervous system is regulated by its prior activity in a process called synaptic plasticity. The initiation of synaptic plasticity occurs when calcium ions enter the postsynaptic compartment and encounter a subcellular structure called the postsynaptic density (PSD). The PSD is attached to the postsynaptic membrane just underneath the concentrated plague of neurotransmitter receptors. It is comprised of a core set of 30 to 60 proteins, approximately 20 of which are scaffold proteins...
June 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913011/anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-associated-central-nervous-system-demyelination-a-novel-disease-entity
#13
Martin S Weber, Tobias Derfuss, Wolfgang Brück
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912274/selective-ret-kinase-inhibition-for-patients-with-ret-altered-cancers
#14
V Subbiah, V Velcheti, B B Tuch, K Ebata, N L Busaidy, M E Cabanillas, L J Wirth, S Stock, S Smith, V Lauriault, S Corsi-Travali, D Henry, M Burkard, R Hamor, K Bouhana, S Winski, R D Wallace, D Hartley, S Rhodes, M Reddy, B J Brandhuber, S Andrews, S M Rothenberg, A Drilon
Purpose: Alterations involving the RET kinase are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung, thyroid and other cancers. However, the clinical activity of multikinase inhibitors with anti-RET activity in RET-altered patients appears limited, calling into question the therapeutic potential of targeting RET. LOXO-292 is a selective RET inhibitor designed inhibit diverse RET fusions, activating mutations and acquired resistance mutations. Patients and Methods: Potent anti-RET activity, high selectivity, and central nervous system coverage were confirmed preclinically using a variety of in vitro and in vivo RET-dependent tumor models...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911915/targeting-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911649/systemic-administration-of-wy-14643-a-selective-synthetic-agonist-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activator-receptor-alpha-alters-spinal-neuronal-firing-in-a-rodent-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#16
Bright N Okine, Clare Spicer, Paul Millns, Andrew Bennett, Victoria Chapman
Background and aims The clinical management of chronic neuropathic pain remains a global health challenge. Current treatments are either ineffective, or associated with unwanted side-effects. The development of effective, safe therapies requires the identification of novel therapeutic targets using clinically relevant animal models of neuropathic pain. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), is a member of the nuclear hormone family of transcription factors, which is widely distributed in the peripheral and central nervous systems...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911628/new-players-in-the-mechanism-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-neuropathic-pain
#17
A Lind, P Emami, M Sjödin, L Katila, M Wetterhall, T Gordh, K Kultima
Aims The aim of this study was to uncover possible proteins involved in the mechanism for neuropathic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) pain relief in humans. Methods Using two different proteomic protocols we compared the protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 14 SCS responsive neuropathic pain patients using a shotgun proteomic approach. The comparison was made between samples from the same individual taken when the stimulator had been off for 48 h, and after the stimulator had been used as normal for three weeks...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911589/perspectives-in-pain-research-2014-neuroinflammation-and-glial-cell-activation-the-cause-of-transition-from-acute-to-chronic-pain
#18
Brian E Cairns, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Paola Sacerdote
Background It is unknown why an acute pain condition under various circumstances can transition into a chronic pain condition. There has been a shift towards neuroinflammation and hence glial cell activations specifically in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord as a mechanism possibly driving the transition to chronic pain. This has led to a focus on non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. Besides infiltrating macrophages, Schwann cells and satellite glial cells release cytokines and therefore important mechanisms in the maintenance of pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911316/de-palmitoylation-by-n-tert-butyl-hydroxylamine-inhibits-ampar-mediated-synaptic-transmission-via-affecting-receptor-distribution-in-postsynaptic-densities
#19
Zhi-Xuan Xia, Zu-Cheng Shen, Shao-Qi Zhang, Ji Wang, Tai-Lei Nie, Qiao Deng, Jian-Guo Chen, Fang Wang, Peng-Fei Wu
AIMS: Palmitoylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) subunits or their "scaffold" proteins produce opposite effects on AMPAR surface delivery. Considering AMPARs have long been identified as suitable drug targets for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, targeting palmitoylation signaling to regulate AMPAR function emerges as a novel therapeutic strategy. However, until now, much less is known about the effect of palmitoylation-deficient state on AMPAR function...
June 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911000/vhl-associated-optic-nerve-hemangioblastoma-treated-with-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#20
Hiroshi Kanno, Seiki Osano, Masamichi Shinonaga
Central nervous system hemangioblastomas are generally restricted to the cerebellum, spinal cord, and brainstem. Supratentorial hemangioblastomas are uncommon, and optic nerve hemangioblastomas are extremely rare, with fewer than 25 reports including this case. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old woman with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease who presented with progressive diminution of vision in the left eye due to a retrobulbar optic nerve hemangioblastoma. The patient had a history of cerebellar/spinal hemangioblastomas and pancreatic cysts, and her father and brother were patients with VHL disease...
2018: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
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