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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054040/myelin-plasticity-and-behaviour-connecting-the-dots
#1
REVIEW
Malte Sebastian Kaller, Alberto Lazari, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Myelin sheaths in the vertebrate nervous system enable faster impulse propagation, while myelinating glia provide vital support to axons. Once considered a static insulator, converging evidence now suggests that myelin in the central nervous system can be dynamically regulated by neuronal activity and continues to participate in nervous system plasticity beyond development. While the link between experience and myelination gains increased recognition, it is still unclear what role such adaptive myelination plays in facilitating and shaping behaviour...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053903/galectin-3-an-emerging-biomarker-in-stroke-and-cerebrovascular-diseases
#2
Anand Venkatraman, Shalaka Hardas, Nirav Patel, Navkaranbir Singh Bajaj, Garima Arora, Pankaj Arora
BACKGROUND: The carbohydrate-binding molecule Galectin-3 has garnered significant attention recently as a biomarker for various conditions ranging from cardiac disease to obesity. Though there have been several recent studies investigating its role in stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases, awareness of this emerging biomarker in the wider neurology community is limited. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Clinicaltrials...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053779/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Neil J Scolding, Marcelo Pasquini, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis...
July 21, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053683/new-application-of-an-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-jet-as-a-neuro-protective-agent-against-glucose-deprivation-induced-injury-of-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Xu Yan, Zhaozhong Meng, Jiting Ouyang, Yajun Qiao, Fang Yuan
The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has attracted the attention of many researchers from multiple disciplines in recent years because its emissions include multiple types of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our previous study has shown the cytoprotective effect of the APPJ against oxidative stress-induced injuries. The aim of the present study is to provide a detailed in vitro treatment protocol regarding the neuroprotective applications of helium APPJs on glucose deprivation-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053133/-ophthalmic-disorders-as-a-manifestation-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
N B Chesnokova, T A Pavlenko, M V Ugrumov
Parkinson's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease accompanied with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease can still be made only on the stage of irreversible and nearly total degeneration of the nigrostriatum dopaminergic system and exhaustion of brain compensatory mechanisms that explains the low efficacy of therapy. Ophthalmic pathology is one of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This can be explained firstly by the fact that eye is a 'peripheral part of brain' and secondly by the involvement of dopaminergic neurons (dopamine-producing cells) that are subject to the selective degeneration during Parkinson's disease in the regulation of visual function in the eye and brain...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052770/extrapulmonary-involvement-in-pediatric-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Supika Kritsaneepaiboon, Mariaem M Andres, Vincent R Tatco, Cielo Consuelo Q Lim, Nathan David P Concepcion
Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052458/the-vogt-family-creators-of-diverse-paths-for-women-in-biological-research
#7
Ronald P Rubin
The life and careers of Cecile, Marthe and Marguerite Vogt are chronicled in this article during an era where women were not readily accepted in the upper echelons of academia. By exploring important questions, these women made major contributions to the broad base of scientific knowledge which impacted the fields of neurobiology in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, infectious disease, and oncogenesis. As a result, each was considered the elite of her respective field and achieved an enduring legacy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052315/identification-and-evolution-of-latrophilin-receptor-gene-involved-in-tribolium-castaneum-devolopment-and-female-fecundity
#8
Shanshan Gao, Xing Liu, Juanjuan Liu, Wenfeng Xiong, Xiaowen Song, Wu Wei, Luting Wei, Bin Li
Latrophilins (LPHs) are adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors comprising three paralogous forms (LPH-1, LPH-2 and LPH-3) and known receptors for α-latrotoxin, which are involved in growth, development, adaptability and schizophrenia and other diseases in vertebrates. However, the functions of LPH are poorly understood in most insects. Here, phylogenetic and synteny analysis indicated that LPH-1 and LPH-3 evolved separately from a common ancestor LPH-2. Then, latrophilin (Tclph) was cloned in Tribolium castaneum, and three alternatively spliced transcripts (Tclpha, Tclphb and Tclphc) were identified...
October 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051763/il-12p35-inhibits-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Jin Kyeong Choi, Ivy M Dambuza, Chang He, Cheng-Rong Yu, Anita N Uche, Mary J Mattapallil, Rachel R Caspi, Charles E Egwuagu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which cytokines produced by immune cells that infiltrate the brain and spinal cord play a central role. We show here that the IL-12p35, the alpha subunit of IL-12 or IL-35 cytokine, might be an effective biologic for suppressing neuroinflammatory responses and ameliorating the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of human MS. We further show that IL-12p35 conferred protection from neuropathy by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the brain and spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051736/novel-peripherally-restricted-cannabinoid-1-receptor-selective-antagonist-txx-522-with-prominent-weight-loss-efficacy-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
Wei Chen, Fengchun Shui, Cheng Liu, Xinbo Zhou, Wei Li, Zhibing Zheng, Wei Fu, Lili Wang
The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects. In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522) was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051603/quantitative-assessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-opening-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-hyaluronidase-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#11
Su Luo, Qing Cao, Ke Ma, Zhaofei Wang, Guangjin Liu, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Streptococcus agalactiae is a pathogen causing meningitis in animals and humans. However, little is known about the entry of S. agalactiae into brain tissue. In this study, we developed a BALB/c mouse model based on the intravenous injection of β-galactosidase-positive Escherichia coli M5 as an indicator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. Under physiological conditions, the BBB is impermeable to E. coli M5. In pathological conditions caused by S. agalactiae, E. coli M5 is capable of penetrating the brain through a disrupted BBB...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050838/three-children-of-meningoencephalitis-with-kikuchi-necrotizing-lymphadenitis
#12
Joung-Hee Byun, Su Eun Park, Sang Ook Nam, Young A Kim, Young Mi Kim, Gyu Min Yeon, Yun-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis (KNL) is a rare and benign cause of lymphadenopathy, most often cervical. The etiology of KNL remains unknown. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, such as in meningoencephalitis, is a very rare clinical manifestation of KNL, especially in children. CASE REPORTS: A 12-year-old boy presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Histopathological findings led to the diagnosis of KNL. He revisited due to severe headache and vomiting one week later...
October 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050825/neuroimaging-findings-in-infantile-pompe-patients-treated-with-enzyme-replacement-therapy
#13
Paul T McIntosh, Lisa D Hobson-Webb, Zoheb B Kazi, Sean N Prater, Suhrad G Banugaria, Stephanie Austin, Raymond Wang, David S Enterline, Donald P Frush, Priya S Kishnani
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has prolonged survival in infantile Pompe disease (IPD), but has unmasked central nervous system (CNS) changes. METHODS: Brain imaging, consisting of computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was performed on 23 patients with IPD (17 CRIM-positive, 6 CRIM-negative) aged 2-38months. Most patients had baseline neuroimaging performed prior to the initiation of ERT...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050706/endocrine-sequelae-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#14
Paula Casano Sancho
Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered...
November 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050399/diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#15
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050380/inflammasomes-in-neurological-diseases-emerging-pathogenic-and-therapeutic-concepts
#16
Manmeet K Mamik, Christopher Power
Inflammasome activation in the central nervous system occurs in both health and disease. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that sense specific infectious or host stimuli and initiate inflammatory responses through caspase activation. Assembly of inflammasomes results in caspase-1-mediated proteolytic cleavage and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, with initiation of pyroptosis, an inflammatory programmed cell death. Recent developments in the inflammasome field have uncovered novel molecular mechanisms that contribute to a broad range of neurological disorders including those associated with specific mutations in inflammasome genes as well as diseases modulated by inflammasome activation...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050334/detection-of-active-proteasome-structures-in-brain-extracts-proteasome-features-of-august-rat-brain-with-violations-in-monoamine-metabolism
#17
Pavel A Erokhov, Yulia V Lyupina, Alexandra S Radchenko, Anna A Kolacheva, Yulia O Nikishina, Natalia P Sharova
The aim of this work was to detect changes in proteasome pools of brain parts of August rats with monoamine metabolism violations in comparison with that of control Wistar rats. To reveal active proteasome structures, a method of native electrophoresis for the analysis of crude tissue fractions was developed. By means of this method and following Western blotting, the most pronounced changes in reorganization of proteasome structures were detected in proteasome pool of the brain cortex of August rats. Main findings are the enhanced expression of immune proteasome subtypes containing proteolytic subunit LMP2 and activator PA28αβ as well as immune proteasome subtypes containing proteolytic subunit LMP7 and activator PA700 and simultaneously decreased expression of subtypes with subunit LMP2 and activator PA700 in the brain cortex of August rats compared to that of Wistar rats...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050202/phosphodiesterase-10a-is-overexpressed-in-lung-tumor-cells-and-inhibitors-selectively-suppress-growth-by-blocking-%C3%AE-catenin-and-mapk-signaling
#18
Bing Zhu, Ashley Lindsey, Nan Li, Kevin Lee, Veronica Ramirez-Alcantara, Joshua C Canzoneri, Alexandra Fajardo, Luciana Madeira da Silva, Meagan Thomas, John T Piazza, Larry Yet, Brian T Eberhardt, Evrim Gurpinar, Dennis Otali, William Grizzle, Jacob Valiyaveettil, Xi Chen, Adam B Keeton, Gary A Piazza
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) is a cyclic nucleotide (e.g. cGMP) degrading enzyme highly expressed in the brain striatum where it plays an important role in dopaminergic neurotransmission, but has limited expression and no known physiological function outside the central nervous system. Here we report that PDE10 mRNA and protein levels are strongly elevated in human non-small cell lung cancer cells and lung tumors compared with normal human airway epithelial cells and lung tissue, respectively. Genetic silencing of PDE10 or inhibition by small molecules such as PQ10 was found to selectively inhibit the growth and colony formation of lung tumor cells...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050167/-serum-procalcitonin-in-patients-with-pulmonary-infection-and-central-nervous-system-injury
#19
J C Li, L Y Wang, Y F Wang, M H Mei, L Shi, M L Yao, X D Guan, B Ouyang
Objective: To evaluate the influence of serum procalcitonin in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary infection in patients with central nervous system injury. Methods: From October 2014 to February 2017, a retrospective study was performed. A total of 1 852 patients were screened in Department of Intensive Care Unite, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.Among them, 173 patients were identified with different kinds of infection. Finally, a total of 42 patients with pulmonary infection were enrolled...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050112/-clinical-pathologic-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-19-relapsed-pediatric-b-cell-lymphoma
#20
S Huang, L Jin, J Yang, Y L Duan, M Zhang, C J Zhou, X L Ma, Y H Zhang
Objective: To review the clinical-pathology characteristics of 19 relapsed pediatric mature B cell lymphoma and to find the risk factors for recurrence and the feasible treatment after relapse. Method: Data of 212 pediatric B cell lymphomas cases in Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2006 to June 2015 were collected retrospectively. All the patients were treated according to the B cell lymphoma regimen of Beijing Children's Hospital. During the study period, 19 of 212 cases were relapsed; the clinio-pathological characteristics of relapsed patients before treatment and after relapse were analyzed retrospectively, the treatment outcomes after relapse were summarized and the patients were followed-up...
October 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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