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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823098/modified-rapid-immunohistochemical-staining-for-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-malignant-brain-tumors
#1
Akane Suzuki, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Soko Ikuta, Takakazu Kawamata, Yoshihiro Muragaki
Rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) has been developing mainly as a support technique in the rapid diagnosis of central nervous system tumors; however, there have been problems regarding instability in specimen preparation and immunostaining. To overcome the weakness of this technology, the instability of immunostaining, we developed a modified R-IHC. This was achieved by switching to 4% paraformaldehyde as the fixative solution and utilizing a commercially available Polymer Refine Detection Kit, as a high-sensitivity kit, in place of the secondary antibodies...
August 19, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823036/muscular-responses-appear-to-be-associated-with-existence-of-kinesthetic-perception-during-combination-of-tendon-co-vibration-and-motor-imagery
#2
Eriko Shibata, Fuminari Kaneko, Masaki Katayose
The afferent inputs from peripheral sensory receptors and efferent signals from the central nervous system that underlie intentional movement can contribute to kinesthetic perception. Previous studies have revealed that tendon vibration to wrist muscles elicits an excitatory response-known as the antagonist vibratory response-in muscles antagonistic to the vibrated muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to further investigate the effect of tendon vibration combined with motor imagery on kinesthetic perception and muscular activation...
August 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822986/insights-in-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-nitric-oxide-may-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-of-oligodendrocytes
#3
Minghong Lan, Xiaoyi Tang, Jie Zhang, Zhongxiang Yao
Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), are kinds of common diseases in the central nervous system (CNS), and originated from myelin loss and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte dysfunction is the direct reason of demyelinating lesions in the CNS. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the pathological process of demyelinating diseases. Although the neurotoxicity of NO is more likely mediated by peroxynitrite rather than NO itself, NO can impair oligodendrocyte energy metabolism through mediating the damaging of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial membrane and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes...
August 21, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822947/cell-metabolomics-reveals-the-neurotoxicity-mechanism-of-cadmium-in-pc12-cells
#4
Li Zong, Junpeng Xing, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822835/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mice-involvement-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#5
Filiz Kazak, Gul Fatma Yarim
Neuroinflammation is the inflammation of nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which affects growth, function and survival of neurons, enhances the stabilization of synapses, regulates synaptic function and branching of dendrites and axons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases associated with neuroinflamation. The aim of this study was to investigate new protective and therapeutic effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in neuroinflammation...
August 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822786/leptin-is-essential-for-spinal-microglial-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-after-preganglionic-cervical-root-avulsion
#6
Kai-Ting Chang, Yi-Lo Lin, Chi-Te Lin, Chen-Jei Hong, May-Jywan Tsai, Wen-Cheng Huang, Yang-Hsin Shih, Yi-Yen Lee, Henrich Cheng, Ming-Chao Huang
AIMS: Preganglionic cervical root avulsion (PCRA) affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems and is often associated with neuropathic pain. Unlike peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), central lesions caused by disruption of cervical roots from the spinal cord following PCRA contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Leptin is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after PNI by affecting neurons. However, whether leptin is involved in microglial activation leading to neuropathic pain after PCRA is unknown...
August 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822326/second-malignant-neoplasms-after-childhood-non-central-nervous-system-embryonal-tumours-in-north-america-a%C3%A2-population-based-study
#7
Xuchen Zong, Jason D Pole, Paul E Grundy, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Louise Parker, Rayjean J Hung
BACKGROUND: Few studies in North America have quantified the risks of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) among survivors of childhood non-central nervous system (non-CNS) embryonal tumours due to their rarity. We aimed to investigate these risks by combining population-based data from the United States of America and Canada. METHODS: We evaluated patients with childhood non-CNS embryonal tumours reported to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program and eight Canadian cancer registries from 1969 to 2010...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822197/-systematic-review-of-kudiezi-injection-drug-safety
#8
Shan-Shan Gao, Rui-Zhao Cui, Yan-Ming Xie, Xing Liao, Xiao-Yan Gao, Ji-Dong Wang
To systematically evaluate the safety of Kudiezi injection. Databases such as Cochrane library, Medline, EMbase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang and Chinese Clinical Trial Register were searched to collect the literature on all the study types of Kudiezi injection. Two researchers screened literature, assessed quality and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were assessed by using internationally recognized methodological quality assessment tools or reporting quality evaluation criteria; Meta-analysis of adverse drug reaction/adverse events (ADR/AE) of Kudiezi injection was performed by using Stata 12...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822119/five-questions-answered-a-review-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system leading to demyelination, and axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in progressive disability. More intensive therapies such as immunodepletion with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue are being used at a time prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled. Over the last 15 years, there has been a shift away from using autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (aHSCT) to treat patients with progressive MS, towards treating those with active inflammation and relapses...
August 18, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#10
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822061/co-ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-luteolin-facilitates-the-development-of-differentiating-and-undifferentiated-rat-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#11
Stephen D Skaper, Massimo Barbierato, Laura Facci, Mila Borri, Gabriella Contarini, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have limited capability to bring about repair in chronic CNS neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions are characterized by a compromised pool of undifferentiated oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) unable to mature into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. An attractive strategy may be to replace lost OLs and/or promote their maturation. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide signaling molecule with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821749/dna-methylation-in-demyelinated-multiple-sclerosis-hippocampus
#12
Anthony M Chomyk, Christina Volsko, Ajai Tripathi, Sadie A Deckard, Bruce D Trapp, Robert J Fox, Ranjan Dutta
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). Memory impairments and hippocampal demyelination are common features in MS patients. Our previous data have shown that demyelination alters neuronal gene expression in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modifier of gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is altered in MS hippocampus following demyelination. Our results show that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase were increased in demyelinated MS hippocampus, while de-methylation enzymes were decreased...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821665/molecular-and-functional-properties-of-regional-astrocytes-in-the-adult-brain
#13
Lydie Morel, Ming Sum R Chiang, Haruki Higashimori, Temitope Shoneye, Lakshmanan K Iyer, Julia Yelick, Albert Tai, Yongjie Yang
The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult central nervous system (CNS) remain largely undefined. By employing translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) followed by RNA-seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1-TRAP mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821659/stim1-regulates-somatic-ca-2-signals-and-intrinsic-firing-properties-of-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons
#14
Changhyeon Ryu, Dong Cheol Jang, Dayoon Jung, Yong Gyu Kim, Hyun Geun Shim, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Yong-Seok Lee, David J Linden, Paul F Worley, Sang Jeong Kim
Control of Ca(2+) flux between the cytosol and intracellular Ca(2+) stores is essential for maintaining normal cellular function. It has been well established in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) initiates and regulates refilling Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we describe a novel, additional role for STIM1, regulation of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and consequent control of spike firing in neurons. Among central neurons, cerebellar Purkinje neurons express the highest level of STIM1 and they fire continuously in the absence of stimulation, making somatic Ca(2+) homeostasis of particular importance...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821323/post-mortem-magnetic-resonance-pmmr-imaging-of-the-brain-in-fetuses-and-children-with-histopathological-correlation
#15
REVIEW
S C Shelmerdine, J C Hutchinson, N J Sebire, T S Jacques, O J Arthurs
Post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging is rapidly emerging as an alternative, "less invasive", and more widely accepted investigative approach for perinatal deaths in the UK. PMMR has a high diagnostic accuracy for congenital and acquired fetal neuropathological anomalies compared to conventional autopsy, and is particularly useful when autopsy is non-diagnostic. The main objectives of this review are to describe and illustrate the range of common normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) findings encountered during PMMR investigation...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821266/endogenous-hydrogen-sulphide-attenuates-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-neuroinflammation-by-suppressing-the-p2x7-receptor-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage-in-rats
#16
Hengli Zhao, Pengyu Pan, Yang Yang, Hongfei Ge, Weixiang Chen, Jie Qu, Jiantao Shi, Gaoyu Cui, Xin Liu, Hua Feng, Yujie Chen
BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have demonstrated the important physiological and pathophysiological roles of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as a gasotransmitter for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-associated neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. However, the effects of H2S on neuroinflammation after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), especially on the NLRP3 inflammasome, remain unknown. METHODS: We employed a Sprague-Dawley rat of collagenase-induced ICH in the present study...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821261/main-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-dogs-due-to-leishmania-infantum-infection
#17
Weline Lopes Macau, Joicy Cortez de Sá, Ana Patrícia de Carvalho da Silva, Alessandra Lima Rocha, Renata Mondêgo-Oliveira, Fábio Henrique Evangelista de Andrade, Caroline Magalhães Cunha, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Ana Lucia Abreu-Silva
BACKGROUND: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in São Luís Maranhão/Brazil and it leads a varied clinical picture, including neurological signs. RESULTS: Histopathological evaluation showed that 14 dogs exhibited pathological alterations in at least one of the analyzed areas. Of these, mononuclear inflammatory reaction was the most frequent, although other lesions, such as hemorrhage, chromatolysis and gliosis were also observed. The presence of L...
August 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820724/neurologic-complications-in-persons-with-hiv-infection-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Dennis Kolson
Neurologic complications in persons with HIV infection are less severe in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy but remain highly prevalent. Prior to the use of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and CNS malignancy were common. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), however, remains a diagnostic challenge in HIV-infected individuals, and no effective antiviral treatment for PML is currently available. Primary neurologic complications of acute HIV infection include aseptic meningitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820719/central-nervous-system-infection-associated-with-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-south-korea
#19
Han Sang Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Seon-Jae Ahn, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ah Lim, Jin-Sun Jun, Woo-Jin Lee, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Orientia tsutsugamushi is a major cause of vector-borne infection in Asia. Prompt recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial because of its potentially fatal complications and lack of response to beta-lactam antibiotics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 16 patients with scrub typhus-related central nervous system (CNS) infections. Single titers ≥ 1:40 of total serum antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi detected by an indirect immunofluorescent assay were considered as positive results...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820708/clinical-spectrum-etiology-and-outcome-of-neurological-disorders-in-the-rural-hospital-of-mosango-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Deby Mukendi, Jean-Roger Lilo Kalo, Alain Mpanya, Luigi Minikulu, Tharcisse Kayembe, Pascal Lutumba, Barbara Barbé, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs, Harry Van Loen, Cedric P Yansouni, François Chappuis, Raffaella Ravinetto, Kristien Verdonck, Marleen Boelaert, Andrea S Winkler, Emmanuel Bottieau
There is little published information on the epidemiology of neurological disorders in rural Central Africa, although the burden is considered to be substantial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern, etiology, and outcome of neurological disorders in children > 5 years and adults admitted to the rural hospital of Mosango, province of Kwilu, Democratic Republic of Congo, with a focus on severe and treatable infections of the central nervous system (CNS). From September 2012 to January 2015, 351 consecutive patients hospitalized for recent and/or ongoing neurological disorder were prospectively evaluated by a neurologist, subjected to a set of reference diagnostic tests in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and followed-up for 3-6 months after discharge...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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