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Acute injury

L-Y Hu, J-B Cui, X-M Xu, Z-H Huang, H-T Jiao
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic lung injury (TLI) can cause inflammation and oxidative stress, or even leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signal pathway participates in disease occurrence and progression via regulating inflammatory and oxidative stress response, but with its expression and functional roles in TLI largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, TLI group by crushing method, and Nrf2 activation group which received Nrf2 specific agonist sulforaphane 30 min before TLI treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Emine Sekerdag, Ihsan Solaroglu, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir
As a result of ischemia or hemorrhage, blood supply to neurons is disrupted which subsequently promotes a cascade of pathophysiological responses resulting in cell loss. Many mechanisms are involved solely or in combination in this disorder including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial death pathways, and the release of free radicals, protein misfolding, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and inflammation. Besides neuronal cell loss, damage to and loss of astrocytes as well as injury to white matter contributes also to cerebral injury...
March 20, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Fabienne D Simonis, Carmen S V Barbas, Antonio Artigas-Raventós, Jaume Canet, Rogier M Determann, James Anstey, Goran Hedenstierna, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Greet Hermans, Michael Hiesmayr, Markus W Hollmann, Samir Jaber, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Gary H Mills, Rupert M Pearse, Christian Putensen, Werner Schmid, Paolo Severgnini, Roger Smith, Tanja A Treschan, Edda M Tschernko, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Hermann Wrigge, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
BACKGROUND: The majority of critically ill patients do not suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To improve the treatment of these patients, we aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with outcome of these patients. METHODS: The PRoVENT was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of consecutive patients under invasive mechanical ventilatory support. A predefined secondary analysis was to examine factors associated with mortality...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
S He, M Blombäck, F Boström, H Wallen, J Svensson, A Östlund
Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) diagnosed by prolongation of APTT and/or PT/INR involves alterations in platelet activity, coagulation and fibrinolysis. However, data showing the haemostatic situation in injured patients without ATC are scarce. To assess whether haemostatic impairment is also present in injured patients without ATC, ten injured patients without ATC and ten normal individuals were examined. The patients were sampled on arrival at the emergency department 0, 2, 12 h after surgical or other intervention...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Beverley Kok, Erica L W Lester, William M Lee, A James Hanje, R Todd Stravitz, Safwat Girgis, Vaishali Patel, Joshua R Peck, Christopher Esber, Constantine J Karvellas
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF-α) have been associated with drug-induced liver injury. However, cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure have only been rarely reported. AIMS: To identify cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure and evaluate patterns of liver injury and common characteristics to the cases. METHODS: The United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group database was searched from 1998 to 2014...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Maria A T Bortolini, Suellen M Feitosa, Andreisa P M Bilhar, Gisela G R Salerno, Edmar Zanoteli, Manuel J Simões, Rodrigo A Castro
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: An animal model of vaginal distention (VD) was developed to reproduce the acute urethral injury and deficiency underlying stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Data on the chronic effects of urethral trauma and the recovery process are still scarce. We investigated acute, short- and long-term histomorphological and molecular changes in the urethra of rats post 12-h intermittent VD. METHODS: We evaluated the urethra of four groups of female rats (n = 72): control without trauma, 1 h, 7 days and 30 days post VD...
March 21, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
John Gliatis, Konstantinos Anagnostou, Pantelis Tsoumpos, Evdokia Billis, Maria Papandreou, Spyridon Plessas
AIM: To present the long-term results of complex knee injuries, treated early using the Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System (LARS) artificial ligament to reconstruct posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). METHODS: From September 1997 to June 2010, thirty-eight complex knee injuries were treated, where early arthroscopic PCL reconstructions were undergone, using the LARS (Surgical Implants and Devices, Arc-sur-Tille, France) artificial ligament. Exclusion criteria were: Late (> 4 wk) reconstruction, open technique, isolated PCL reconstruction, knee degenerative disease, combined fracture or vascular injury and use of allograft or autograft for PCL reconstruction...
March 18, 2018: World Journal of Orthopedics
Toru Kotani, Masanori Hanaoka, Shinya Hirahara, Hisashi Yamanaka, Eckhard Teschner, Atsuko Shono
Background: Prone positioning may provide a uniform distribution of transpulmonary pressure and contribute to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury. However, despite moderate positive end-expiratory pressure and low tidal volumes, there is still a risk of regional overdistension. Case presentation: A man with refractory hypoxemia was mechanically ventilated with prone positioning. Although prone positioning with a plateau pressure of 18 cmH2 O and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cmH2 O promptly improved oxygenation, regional ventilation monitoring using electrical impedance tomography initially detected decreased distribution in the dorsal region but increased in the ventral, suggesting overdistension...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Guang-Dao Chen, Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Ju-Xing Zhang, Tao Wang, Qi-Yi Zeng
The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Bing Zhao, Qiao-Juan Shi, Zhen-Zhong Zhang, Shu-Yan Wang, Xi Wang, Hao Wang
Ischemic stroke is a highly complex pathological process that is divided into acute, subacute and chronic phases. Paeonol is a biologically active natural product with a variety of pharmacological effects, including those on neuronal activity. However, the effects of paeonol on subacute/chronic ischemic stroke have remained to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of paeonol against subacute and chronic cerebral ischemic injury and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Seong Heon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Su Young Kim
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is often encountered in children with acute kidney injury. Besides the well-known shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli -associated HUS, atypical HUS (aHUS) caused by genetic complement dysregulation has been studied recently. aHUS is a rare, chronic, and devastating disorder that progressively damages systemic organs, resulting in stroke, end-stage renal disease, and death. The traditional treatment for aHUS is mainly plasmapheresis or plasma infusion; however, many children with aHUS will progress to chronic kidney disease despite plasma therapy...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Bakulesh M Soni, Peter L Hughes, Tun Oo
Introduction: Over-distension of urinary bladder in a high spinal cord injury patient is a triggering factor for autonomic dysreflexia. Removing triggering factors is vital to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. Case presentation: A 36-year-old tetraplegic patient, who was managed by intermittent catheterizations performed by caregivers, developed recurrent autonomic dysreflexia during a week due to: 1) carers not performing intermittent catheterizations every night; 2) infrequent catheterizations during the day, leading to distension of urinary bladder...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Shusuke Hiragi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Kazuki Yoshida, Naoya Kondo, Takeshi Matsubara, Motoko Yanagita, Hiroshi Tamura, Tomohiro Kuroda
Background: Acetaminophen (APAP) is frequently used for analgesia and is considered safer than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the kidneys. However, there is little epidemiological evidence of the association between APAP and acute kidney injury (AKI). Objectives: To examine the association between APAP and AKI using the self-controlled case series (SCCS) method, which is a novel strategy to control between-person confounders by comparing the risk and reference periods in each patient...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Francesco Comacchio, M Ricca, G Martini, V Cecchin, Maria Elisabetta Zannin
A 14-year-old male teen presented with unilateral episcleritis, unresponsive to topical and systemic corticosteroid therapy, without a history of ocular trauma or evidence for systemic diseases. The presence of foreign bodies in the conjunctival mucus of the hyperemic fornix has been noticed during one of the follow-up examinations. The toxicological analysis of conjunctival mucus revealed the presence of ethylene glycolmonomethyl ether and triethilene glicolebuthyl ether, used as solvents in nail polish removers and all-purpose cleaners...
January 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Hiroshi Furukawa, Takeshi Honda, Takahiko Yamasawa, Kazuo Tanemoto
A 70-year-old man underwent emergent primary central repair for acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) with right upper extremity ischemia. Ascending aorta and hemi-arch replacement concomitant with additional right upper peripheral bypass was performed for persistent right upper arm ischemia. The early reperfusion injury (RI) of the right upper extremity was defined the next day, and managed by continuous hemodialysis (CHD) and infusion therapy, resulting in the arm being salvaged. This is an extremely rare adverse phenomenon, and we herein described its successful treatment with perioperative intensive management following central repair of AAAD...
March 22, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Miranda E Good, Stephanie A Eucker, Jun Li, Hannah M Bacon, Susan M Lang, Joshua T Butcher, Tyler J Johnson, Ronald P Gaykema, Manoj K Patel, Zhiyi Zuo, Brant E Isakson
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US; however, there currently exists only one effective acute pharmacological therapeutic intervention. Purinergic signaling has been shown to regulate vascular function and pathological processes, including inflammation and arterial myogenic reactivity, and plays a role in ischemic stroke outcome. Purinergic signaling requires extracellular purines; however, the mechanism of purine release from cells is unclear. Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels are potentially novel purine release channels expressed throughout the vascular tree that couples regulated purine release with purinergic signaling...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Laura DeVault, Tun Li, Sarah Izabel, Katherine L Thompson-Peer, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh Nung Jan
Dendrites possess distinct structural and functional properties that enable neurons to receive information from the environment as well as other neurons. Despite their key role in neuronal function, current understanding of the ability of neurons to regenerate dendrites is lacking. This study characterizes the structural and functional capacity for dendrite regeneration in vivo in adult animals and examines the effect of neuronal maturation on dendrite regeneration. We focused on the class IV dendritic arborization (c4da) neuron of the Drosophila sensory system, which has a dendritic arbor that undergoes dramatic remodeling during the first 3 d of adult life and then maintains a relatively stable morphology thereafter...
March 21, 2018: Genes & Development
Tianhua Fu, Shijie Wang, Jinping Liu, Enbo Cai, Haijun Li, Pingya Li, Yan Zhao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of α-mangostin against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury and discover its potential mechanisms in mice. Mice were continuously treated with α-mangostin (12.5 and 25mg/kg) by intragastric administration once daily for 6 days, and injected intraperitoneally with APAP (300mg/kg) after 1h of α-mangostin administration on the last day. After APAP exposure for 24h, the liver and serum were gathered to evaluate the hepatotoxicity. The results showed that α-mangostin effectively decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β and 6 (IL-1β, IL-6), and hepatic malondialdehyde level; and recovered hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase activities...
March 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Eugene Ng, Ian Campbell, Andrew Choong, Allan Kruger, Philip J Walker
Although penetrating neck trauma (PNT) is uncommon, it is associated with the significant morbidity and mortality. The management of PNT has changed significantly over the past 50 years. A radiological assessment now is a vital part of the management with a traditional surgical exploration. A 22 years old male was assaulted by a screwdriver and sustained multiple penetrating neck injuries. A contrast CT scan revealed a focal pseudoaneurysm in the left common carotid artery bulb. There was no active bleeding or any other vascular injuries and the patient remained haemodynamically stable...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
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