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Maxim Verstraeten, Daan Van Hauwermeiren, Mario Hellings, Eline Hermans, Jeroen Geens, Chris Vervaet, Ingmar Nopens, Thomas De Beer
The implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) instruments is generally achieved stochastically. Sub-optimal PAT locations could introduce variation in the measurements which is not related to the analyte of interest. For this reason, rational approaches should be considered to establish an optimal sensor placement where relevant measurements are possible and the impact of disturbances is minimized. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how mechanistic modelling can support appropriate sensor implementation by means of a case study...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Manish Sharma, Kiran Bala Sharma, Shailendra Chauhan, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), two widely used anti-oxidants, were employed to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced autophagy, stress responses and replication. DPI and NAC exerted opposite effects on ROS levels in JEV infected mouse neuronal cells (Neuro2a), mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human epithelial cells (HeLa). While NAC effectively quenched ROS, DPI enhanced ROS levels, suggesting that DPI induces oxidative stress in JEV infected cells...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuting Zhao, Mingming Yang, Qiangqiang Fu, Hui Ouyang, Wei Wen, Yang Song, Chengzhou Zhu, Yuehe Lin, Dan Du
A transparent, lateral-flow test strip coupled with a smartphone-based ambient light sensor was first proposed for detect-ing enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation. The principle of the platform is based on the simultaneous measurement of the total amount of the enzyme and enzyme activity to biomonitor exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. In this study, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was adopted as the model enzyme and ethyl paraoxon was chosen as an analyte representing OP pesticides. The total amount of BChE was quantified by a sensitive colorimetric signal originating from a sandwich immunochromatographic assay utilizing PtPd nanoparticles as a polyphenol oxidase-mimicking probe, which provided a higher sensitivity than that of a peroxidase-like probe...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jiaqi Chen, Zhuo Chen, Farid Boussaid, Daquan Zhang, Xiaofang Pan, Huijuan Zhao, Amine Bermak, Chi-Ying Tsui, Xinran Wang, Zhiyong Fan
In this work, we present a high performance smart electronic nose (E-nose) system consisting of multiplexed tin dioxide (SnO2) nanotube sensor array, read-out circuit, wireless data transmission unit, mobile phone receiver and data processing application (App). Using the proposed nanotube sensor device structure in conjunction with multiple electrode materials, high sensitivity gas detection and discrimination have been achieved at room temperature, enabling a 1,000 times reduction of sensor's power consumption as compared to a conventional device using thin film SnO2...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Boyi Hu, Chong Kim, Xiaopeng Ning, Xu Xu
Low back pain remains one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders, while algorithms that able to recognize low back pain patients from healthy population using balance performance data are rarely seen. In this study, human balance and body sway performance during standing trials were utilized to recognize chronic low back pain populations using deep neural networks. To be specific, forty-four chronic LBP and healthy individuals performed static standing tasks while their spine kinematics and center of pressure were recorded...
May 24, 2018: Ergonomics
Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao
Psychologists have studied small-group and team effectiveness for decades, and although there has been considerable progress, there remain significant challenges. Meta-analyses and systematic research have provided solid evidence for core team cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral processes that contribute to team effectiveness and empirical support for interventions that enhance team processes (e.g., team design, composition, training, and leadership); there has been substantial evidence for a science of team effectiveness...
May 2018: American Psychologist
Lukasz Mendecki, Katherine A Mirica
This paper describes an unexplored property of conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as ion-to-electron transducers in the context of potentiometric detection. Several conductive two-dimensional MOF analogues were drop-cast onto a glassy carbon electrode and then covered with an ion-selective membrane to form a potentiometric sensor. The resulting devices exhibited excellent sensing properties toward anions and cations, characterized by a near-Nernstian response and over 4 orders of magnitude linear range...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ayyanu Ravikumar, Perumal Panneerselvam, Norhashimah Morad
In this paper, we propose a metal-polydopamine framework (MPDA) with specific molecular probe which appears to be the most promising approach to a strong fluorescence quencher. The MPDA framework quenching ability towards various organic fluorophore such as aminoethylcomarin acetate (AMCA), 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), carboxyteramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) and Cy5 are used to establish a fluorescent biosensor that can selectively recognize Hg2+ and Ag+ ion. The fluorescent quenching efficiency was sufficient to achieve more than 96%...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaojian Wu, Juliette Experton, Weihuang Xu, Charles R Martin
There are many applications that require the integration of a pump and a chemical sensor so that the solution being pumped can be analyzed in real time for a specific chemical species and the flow adjusted according to the measured concentration of that species. We describe here an alternative strategy - a chemo-responsive pump where a single device acts as both the sensor and pump simultaneously. We demonstrate this concept with a nanofluidic Pb2+ -responsive pump that uses electroosmotic flow (EOF) as the pumping technology, and a Pb2+ -binding ionophore that allows the device to selectively respond to Pb2+ ...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Forrest W Payne, Bradley Ledden, Greg Lamps
Insulin pumps allow patients to attain better blood glucose control with more lifestyle flexibility. Their size and cost, however, limit their usefulness. Current CSII pumps are bulky, intrusive, and expensive. SFC Fluidics is addressing these problems by developing a new type of wearable patch pump based on the patented electro-chemiosmotic (ECO) microfluidic pumping technology. This nonmechanical pumping technology allows accurate and precise delivery of very small amounts of insulin and/or other drugs, including concentrated insulin...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Stephanie Rose, Priscila C Campos, João T Marques, André Báfica, Glen Barber, Bernhard Ryffel, Sergio C Oliveira, Valerie F J Quesniaux
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a major public health concern. The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway contributes to the cytosolic surveillance of host cells. Most studies on the role of STING activation in Mtb infection have focused on macrophages. Moreover, a detailed investigation of the role of STING during Mtb infection in vivo is required. Here, we deciphered the involvement of STING in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and the host response to Mtb infection in vivo...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Lingxin Wang, Shannon G Zellmer, David M Printzenhoff, Neil A Castle
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pharmacological agents that either inhibit or enhance flux of ions through voltage gated sodium channels may provide opportunities for treatment of human health disorders. During studies to characterize agents that modulate Nav1.3 function we identified a compound that appears to exhibit both enhancement and inhibition of sodium ion conduction that appeared to be dependent on the gating state the channel was in. The objective of the current study was to determine if these different modulatory effects are mediated by the same or distinct interactions with the channel...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Pascale Tinguely, Marius Schwalbe, Torsten Fuss, Dominik P Guensch, Andreas Kohler, Iris Baumgartner, Stefan Weber, Daniel Candinas
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate precise local ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a setting of combined ablation and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), we evaluated accuracy and efficiency of a novel technique for navigated positioning of ablation probes using intrahepatic tumor referencing and electromagnetic (EM) guidance, in a porcine model. METHODS: An angiographic wire with integrated EM reference sensor at its tip was inserted via a transarterial femoral access and positioned in the vicinity of artificial liver tumors...
2018: PloS One
Roopa Venkataraj, Arindam Sarkar, C P Girijavallabhan, P Radhakrishnan, V P N Nampoori, M Kailasnath
The present work describes an energy-transfer-based fluoride sensor using the highly photo-stable Coumarin 540a (C540a)-Rhodamine 6g (Rh6g) dye pair. Rh6g exhibits a decrease in fluorescence emission, whereas C540a shows no change in response to fluoride. The increase in fluoride concentration decreases the energy transfer efficiency between the C540a donor and Rh6g acceptor in acetonitrile, leading to a subsequent recovery of fluorescence emission from C540a molecules. The sensing mechanism using fluorescence resonance energy transfer is found to be highly specific towards fluoride detection when compared to the response towards other anions...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Jia Liu, Pinggang Jia, Huixin Zhang, Xiaodan Tian, Hao Liang, Yingping Hong, Ting Liang, Wenyi Liu, Jijun Xiong
In this study, a novel batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor based on a low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for high-temperature applications. The sensor is fabricated by inserting a well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) into a zirconia fiber ferrule, followed by insertion of the overall structure into an alumina sensor head. The FP cavity in the sensor is formed by placing the end face of the SMF in parallel to the diaphragm. The external pressure can be detected by demodulating the FP cavity length of the sensor...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Rüdiger Beermann, Lorenz Quentin, Eduard Reithmeier, Markus Kästner
In the Collaborative Research Centre 1153, Tailored Forming, the geometry of hot measurement objects needs to be captured quickly, areally, and with high precision. The documentation of the hybrid components' shrinkage behavior directly after the forming process can yield insight into the development of residual stresses. In this paper, we present a fringe projection measurement setup designed for the topography measurement of high-temperature steel shafts, comprising two cameras with different lenses and a projector...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Ismail Bayrakli
An optoelectronic sensor system based on a thermoelectrically cooled (TEC) continuous-wave (CW) double-mode external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) is demonstrated for a multi-gas analysis in this paper. An ECDL that can simultaneously emit at two different wavelengths in the range from 1275 to 1340 nm was utilized as the excitation source for molecule absorption. Each wavelength can be independently tuned. The ECDL was combined with an off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OA-CEAS) cell to perform multi-gas sensing...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
JunJun Wu, Shuguang Li, Xinyu Wang, Min Shi, Xinxing Feng, Yundong Liu
We propose a D-shaped photonic crystal fiber (PCF) refractive index sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity and a wide detection range. The gold layer is deposited on the polished surface, avoiding filling or coating inside the air holes of the PCF. The influences of the gold layer thickness and the diameter of the larger air holes are investigated. The sensing characteristics of the proposed sensor are analyzed by the finite element method. The maximum sensitivity can reach 31,000  nm/RIU, and the refractive index detection range is from 1...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Petter Risholm, Jostein Thorstensen, Jens T Thielemann, Kristin Kaspersen, Jon Tschudi, Chris Yates, Chris Softley, Igor Abrosimov, Jonathan Alexander, Karl Henrik Haugholt
We present a range-gated camera system designed for real-time (10 Hz) 3D estimation underwater. The system uses a fast-shutter CMOS sensor (1280×1024) customized to facilitate gating with 1.67 ns (18.8 cm in water) delay steps relative to the triggering of a solid-state actively Q-switched 532 nm laser. A depth estimation algorithm has been carefully designed to handle the effects of light scattering in water, i.e., forward and backward scattering. The raw range-gated signal is carefully filtered to reduce noise while preserving the signal even in the presence of unwanted backscatter...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Tino Hausotte, Andreas Gröschl, Janik Schaude
This article presents a new robust, precise, high-frequency focal-distance-modulated confocal point sensor for probing in coordinate measuring systems (CMSs). While maintaining the known advantages of the confocal measurement principle, the sensor represents an innovative combination of a fiber-coupled confocal illumination and detection with a tuneable, acoustically driven gradient-index fluid lens for modulation of the focus distance and a novel signal processing utilizing a lock-in amplifier. The new arrangement is able to achieve an approximately linear characteristic curve for the optimized feedback control of the CMS in scanning sample mode...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
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