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Xiao-Yan Yang, Li-Li Long, Bo Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of video electroencephalogram (VEEG) versus regular electroencephalogram (REEG) in the diagnosis of epilepsy and localization of origin of epileptic discharge in children through a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 223 children with clinical paroxysmal symptoms in the past and suspected epilepsy. VEEG and REEG were compared from the aspects of monitoring of clinical seizures, interictal epileptiform discharge (IED), localization of the origin of IED, and identification of non-epileptic seizures, and the detection rate of IED during awakening and sleep stages was also compared...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Burak Yulug, Lutfu Hanoglu, Ahmet Mithat Tavli, Tansel Cakır, Elmir Khanmammadov, Oktay Olmuscelik
BACKGROUND: Studies have already shown that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance is significantly associated with the impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism that may secondary lead to cognitive disturbances. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the neurometabolic correlates of diabetes in a patient with Intermittent explosive disorder (IED). METHODS: We have investigated the cerebral glucose metabolism via 2-[18F]-fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a diabetic patient with aggressive outbursts...
September 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Emil F Coccaro, Sarah K Keedy, Stephanie M Gorka, Andrea C King, Jennifer R Fanning, Royce J Lee, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED) were previously found to exhibit amygdala (AMYG) hyperactivation to anger faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, acute alcohol consumption, and/or life history of alcoholism, may blunt amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Thus, we examined the influence of a past history of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) on the fMRI BOLD AMYG response to anger faces in IED. METHOD: Forty-two IED participants, 18 with a past history of AUD (IED+AUD) and 24 without Past AUD (IED), and 32 healthy control (HC) participants, underwent fMRI scanning while viewing blocks of angry, fearful, and happy faces...
September 9, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Daniel San-Juan, Dulce Anabel Espinoza López, Rafael Vázquez Gregorio, Carlos Trenado, Maricarmen Fernández-González Aragón, León Morales-Quezada, Axel Hernandez Ruiz, Flavio Hernandez-González, Alejandro Alcaraz-Guzmán, David J Anschel, Felipe Fregni
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been evaluated in medication refractory epilepsy patients. The results have been inconclusive and protocols have varied between studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of two protocols of tDCS in adult patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). METHODS: This is a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, with 3 arms, 3 sessions, 5 sessions and placebo stimulation...
August 31, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Sanja Ramirez, Travis Allen, Lindsay Villagracia, Yooree Chae, Jan M Ramirez, Daniel D Rubens
Infants that succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have been identified with inner ear dysfunction (IED) at birth and on autopsy. We previously investigated whether IED could play a mechanistic role in SIDS. We discovered that animals with IED displayed significant suppression of movement arousal to a hypoxic-hypercarbic gas mixture under light anesthesia. In the current study we investigated the role of each gas in triggering movements and the response to hypercarbia during natural sleep without anesthesia...
September 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Gong-Jun Ji, Yang Yu, Huan-Huan Miao, Zhong-Jin Wang, Ye-Lei Tang, Wei Liao
Purpose To investigate the functional connectome alterations in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes with respect to the occurrence of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) during functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. All participants were consecutively enrolled with written informed consent. Forty-three right-handed patients were classified into IED (n = 20, 13 girls and seven boys; mean age ± standard deviation, 9...
September 15, 2016: Radiology
Jennifer R Fanning, Royce Lee, Emil F Coccaro
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both aggressive and suicidal behavior. Recent research suggests that the diagnosis of intermittent explosive disorder (IED), an impulse-control disorder characterized by repeated impulsive aggressive behavior, may help to identify individuals at risk for attempting suicide. Given the relationship between anger and PTSD, there is likely to be an increased prevalence of IED among individuals with PTSD; however, little is known about the overlap in these two disorders, including how individuals with comorbid IED and PTSD may differ from those with either disorder alone...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Emil F Coccaro, Jennifer R Fanning, Sarah K Keedy, Royce J Lee
Social-emotional information processing (SEIP) was assessed in individuals with current DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 100) and in healthy (n = 100) and psychiatric (n = 100) controls using a recently developed and validated self-rated questionnaire. SEIP vignettes depicted both direct aggressive and relationally aggressive scenarios of a socially ambiguous nature and were followed by questions assessing subjects' reactions and judgments about the vignettes. IED subjects differed from both healthy and psychiatric controls in all SEIP components...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Matthew Wordsworth, Rachael Thomas, John Breeze, Demetrius Evriviades, James Baden, Shehan Hettiaratchy
INTRODUCTION: The recent Afghanistan conflict caused a higher proportion of casualties with facial injuries due to both the increasing effectiveness of combat body armour and the insurgent use of the improvised explosive device (IED). The aim of this study was to describe all injuries to the face sustained by UK service personnel from blast or gunshot wounds during the highest intensity period of combat operations in Afghanistan. METHODS: Hospital records and Joint Theatre Trauma Registry data were collected for all UK service personnel killed or wounded by blast and gunshot wounds in Afghanistan between 01 April 2006 and 01 March 2013...
August 20, 2016: Injury
Brandon W Godfrey, Ashley Martin, Paul J Chestovich, Gordon H Lee, Nichole K Ingalls, Vilas Saldanha
INTRODUCTION: Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) are the primary wounding mechanism for casualties in Operation Enduring Freedom. Patients can sustain devastating traumatic amputations, which are unlike injuries seen in the civilian trauma sector. This is a database analysis of the largest patient registry of multiple traumatic amputations. METHODS: The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried for patients with a traumatic amputation from 2009 to 2012. Data obtained included the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), blood products, transfer from theatre, and complications including DVT, PE, infection (Acinetobacter and fungal), acute renal failure, and rhabdomyolysis...
August 17, 2016: Injury
K M Scott, C C W Lim, I Hwang, T Adamowski, A Al-Hamzawi, E Bromet, B Bunting, M P Ferrand, S Florescu, O Gureje, H Hinkov, C Hu, E Karam, S Lee, J Posada-Villa, D Stein, H Tachimori, M C Viana, M Xavier, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: This is the first cross-national study of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). METHOD: A total of 17 face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of adults were conducted in 16 countries (n = 88 063) as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) assessed DSM-IV IED, using a conservative definition. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of IED ranged across countries from 0...
August 30, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Juan Pablo Zapata, Juan David Palacio
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is aan externalizing externalising disorder characterized characterised by recurrent aggression episodes. Even though this disorder was described several decades ago, and it carries personal and social consequences, there is little in the medical scientific literature on this. bibliographic production about it is scanty. OBJECTIVE: To perform a conceptualization conceptualisation of this disorder, through the review and bibliometric analysis of the available scientific articles...
July 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Elhum A Shamshiri, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Kelly St Pier, Ronit M Pressler, David J Sharp, Suejen Perani, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
Patients with focal epilepsy have been shown to have reduced functional connectivity in intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), which has been related to neurocognitive development and outcome. However, the relationship between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and changes in ICNs remains unclear, with evidence both for and against their influence. EEG-fMRI data was obtained in 27 children with focal epilepsy (mixed localisation and aetiologies) and 17 controls. A natural stimulus task (cartoon blocks verses blocks where the subject was told "please wait") was used to enhance the connectivity within networks corresponding to ICNs while reducing potential confounds of vigilance and motion...
August 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Paula Banca, Neil A Harrison, Valerie Voon
Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED), individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), alcohol dependence (AD) and pathological video-gaming (VG) were tested with two computerized tasks: the probabilistic reversal task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors) and the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task (IED)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jennifer M Glennon, Louise Weiss-Croft, Sue Harrison, J Helen Cross, Stewart G Boyd, Torsten Baldeweg
OBJECTIVES: The relative contribution of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) to cognitive dysfunction in comparison with the underlying brain pathology is not yet understood in children with lesional focal epilepsy. METHODS: The current study investigated the association of IEDs with intellectual functioning in 103 children with medication-resistant focal epilepsy. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent contribution of IED features on intellectual functioning, after controlling for effects of lesional pathology, epilepsy duration, and medication...
September 2016: Epilepsia
T Murta, L Hu, T Tierney, U J Chaudhary, M C Walker, D W Carmichael, P Figueiredo, L Lemieux
In current fMRI studies designed to map BOLD changes related to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED), which are recorded on simultaneous EEG, the information contained in the morphology and field extent of the EEG events is exclusively used for their classification. Usually, a BOLD predictor based on IED onset times alone is constructed, effectively treating all events as identical. We used intracranial EEG (icEEG)-fMRI data simultaneously recorded in humans to investigate the effect of including any of the features: amplitude, width (duration), slope of the rising phase, energy (area under the curve), or spatial field extent (number of contacts over which the sharp wave was observed) of the fast wave of the IED (the sharp wave), into the BOLD model, to better understand the neurophysiological origin of sharp wave-related BOLD changes, in the immediate vicinity of the recording contacts...
August 3, 2016: NeuroImage
Vera Dinkelacker, Xu Xin, Michel Baulac, Séverine Samson, Sophie Dupont
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has widespread effects on structural and functional connectivity and often entails cognitive dysfunction. EEG is mandatory to disentangle interactions in epileptic and physiological networks which underlie these cognitive comorbidities. Here, we examined how interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) affect cognitive performance. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (right TLE=17, left TLE=17) were examined with 24-hour video-EEG and a battery of neuropsychological tests to measure intelligence quotient and separate frontal and temporal lobe functions...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yongfu Hao, Hui Ming Khoo, Nicolas von Ellenrieder, Jean Gotman
PURPOSE: Recent studies have applied the new magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) sequence to the study of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of epileptic patients. However, there are no criteria to quantitatively evaluate different processing methods, to properly use the new sequence. METHODS: We evaluated different processing steps of this new sequence under the common generalized linear model (GLM) framework by assessing the reliability of results...
August 4, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Harim Lee, Stefan Rampp, Tino Zaehle, Lars Buentjen, Juergen Voges, Martin Holtkamp, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Friedhelm C Schmitt
The relationships between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in the anterior (ANT) and dorsomedial nuclei (DMNT) of the thalamus and electro-clinical parameters in pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes for deep brain stimulation (DBS) were investigated. Thalamus-localized IEDs (LIEDs) and surface EEG (sEEG)-IEDs were evaluated in eight patients who underwent ANT-DBS. Occurrence and frequency of ANT- and DMNT-LIEDs and pre-operative sEEG-IEDs were examined with respect to seizure onset location and seizure outcome following ANT-DBS...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
Emil F Coccaro, Daniel J Fridberg, Jennifer R Fanning, Jon E Grant, Andrea C King, Royce Lee
BACKGROUND: A relationship between substance use and aggression has been noted for decades. While substance use appears to be associated with an increased risk of aggressive behavior, no study has yet reported on the pattern of comorbidity and temporal relationship between impulsive aggression (i.e., intermittent explosive disorder) and substance use disorders (SUD), specifically. METHODS: To specify these relationships, we examined DSM-5 diagnosis data from diagnostic interviews of 1355 adults who met one of five non-overlapping diagnostic subgroups: those with intermittent explosive disorder (IED; n = 339), those with SUD (n = 136), IED+SUD (n = 280), adults with psychiatric disorders but no SUD or IED (n = 320), and healthy CONTROLS: HC, n = 282)...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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