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Vascular smooth muscle cells

Jian Shi, Francesc Miralles, Lutz Birnbaumer, William A Large, Anthony P Albert
In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), stimulation of TRPC1-based SOCs mediate Ca(2+) entry pathways which regulate contractility, proliferation and migration. It is therefore important to understand how these channels are activated. Studies have shown that stimulation of TRPC1-based SOCs requires Gαq/PLCβ1 activities and PKC phosphorylation, but it is unclear how store depletion stimulates this gating pathway. The present work examines this issue by focusing on the role of STIM1, an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jeganathan Manivannan, Manjunath Prashanth, Venkatesan Saravana Kumar, Manickaraj Shairam, Jayachandran Subburaj
Since there is no precise therapy for treating vascular calcification by directly targeting the vascular wall, we aim to unveil novel drug targets through mining the molecular effect of a high phosphate environment on vascular cells through computational methods. Here, we hypothesize that manipulation of the vascular pathogenic network by small molecule therapeutics predicted from prior knowledge might offer great promise. With this, we intend to understand the publicly available transcriptomic data of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exposed to the high phosphate induced vascular calcification milieu and to re-examine the above published experiments for reasons different from those examined in the previous studies through multilevel systems biological understanding...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Y Xiao, Y Y DU, C Gao, W Kong
OBJECTIVE: To study the change of microRNA during the early stage of high phosphorus induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and its related mechanism. METHODS: The in vitro calcification model was created through stimulating VSMC cell line A7r5 with high Pi (2.6 mmol/L) for 7 d. The calcification was validated through ocresolphthalein complexone colorimetry to detect the cellular calcium content, real-time PCR to measure the calcification-related gene expression and alizarin red staining to observe the formation of calcium nodules...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Kangkang Wu, Rui Huang, Hongyan Wu, Yong Liu, Chenchen Yang, Shufeng Cao, Xianglin Hou, Bing Chen, Jianwu DaI, Chao Wu
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves an important role in promoting angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. However, the lack of an effective delivery system that can target this growth factor to the injured site reduces its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, in the current study, collagen‑binding VEGF was constructed by fusing a collagen‑binding domain (CBD) to the N‑terminal of native VEGF. The CBD‑VEGF can specifically bind to collagen which is the major component of the extracellular matrix in fibrotic liver...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Li-Jie Wang, Wei-Dong Liu, Liang Zhang, Ke-Tao Ma, Lei Zhao, Wen-Yan Shi, Wen-Wen Zhang, Ying-Zi Wang, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si
Niflumic acid (NFA) is a novel gap junction (GJ) inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of NFA on GJ communication and the expression of connexin (Cx) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of mesenteric arterioles of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Whole‑cell patch clamp recording demonstrated that NFA at 1x10‑4 M significantly inhibited the inward current and its effect was reversible. The time for charging and discharging of cell membrane capacitance (Cinput) reduced from 9...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Estelle R Simo-Cheyou, George Vardatsikos, Ashok K Srivastava
We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (NR-PTK) c-Src is an upstream regulator of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II-induced activation of protein kinase B (PKB) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We have also demonstrated that ET-1 potently induces the expression of the early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), a zinc finger transcription factor that is overexpressed in models of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of c-Src in ET-1‑induced Egr-1 expression has not yet been investigated and its role in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling remains controversial...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xie Ge, Si-Yu Chen, Mei Liu, Ting-Ming Liang, Chang Liu
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a key event in the development of in‑stent restenosis. Evodiamine is an indole alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicine, evodia, and has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and protect the cardiovascular system. However, whether evodiamine affects VSMC proliferation remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study examined the effects and the mechanisms of action of evodiamine on the proliferation of rat VSMCs. The cells were treated with evodiamine alone or in combination with platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) stimulation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nadia Soudani, Crystal M Ghantous, Zein Farhat, Wassim N Shebaby, Kazem Zibara, Asad Zeidan
Background and Aims: Hypertension and obesity are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. They are both associated with high leptin levels and have been shown to promote vascular hypertrophy, through the RhoA/ROCK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Calcineurin/NFAT activation also induces vascular hypertrophy by upregulating various genes. This study aimed to decipher whether a crosstalk exists between the RhoA/ROCK pathway, Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT pathway, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the process of mechanical stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy and leptin synthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Lingfang Li, Yifan Li, Ziyu Dai, Meitong Liu, Bing Wang, Shuiping Liu, Lili Wang, Liyu Chen, Yurong Tan, Guojun Wu
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to observe the infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and the effect of viral infection on lipid metabolism in VSMCs. METHODS: The cytopathic effects were observed by inverted microscopy and viral infection were examined by electron microscopy and RT-PCR. The lipid metabolism related gene profiling of VSMCs after HCMV infection was assayed by cDNA assay and the abnormal expression of genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Tianjia Li, Leng Ni, Xinnong Liu, Zhanqi Wang, Changwei Liu
Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in mineral metabolism and the inflammatory response while diabetes mellitus is associated with severe and extensive vascular calcification. Therefore, we speculated that OPN could be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of blood vessels exposed to high glucose. To identify the relationship between high glucose and OPN, we used high glucose medium to stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and diabetic rats for in vivo analyses...
October 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Amanda J Kennedy, Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Rhoda E Kuc, Lucy Yang, Emily J A Taylor, Colin W Taylor, Janet J Maguire, Anthony P Davenport
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of chemerin are significantly higher in hypertensive patients and positively correlate with blood pressure. Chemerin activates chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1 or ChemR23) and is proposed to activate the "orphan" G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), which has been linked with hypertension. Our aim was to localize chemerin, CMKLR1, and GPR1 in the human vasculature and determine whether 1 or both of these receptors mediate vasoconstriction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistry and molecular biology in conduit arteries and veins and resistance vessels, we localized chemerin to endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia and found that CMKLR1 and GPR1 were widely expressed in smooth muscle...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Renpeng Zhou, Lei Zhu, Shibo Fu, Yunliang Qian, Danru Wang, Chen Wang
Bioengineering of small-diameter blood vessels offers a promising approach to reduce the morbidity associated with coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease. The aim of this study was to construct a two-layered small-diameter blood vessel using smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The outer layer was constructed with biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin mesh seeded with SMCs, and this complex was then rolled around a silicone tube under pulsatile stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hyunhoo Cho, Seong Ho Ok, Seong Chun Kwon, Soo Hee Lee, Jiseok Baik, Sebin Kang, Jiah Oh, Ju-Tae Sohn
BACKGROUND: The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of lipid emulsion on vasodilation caused by toxic doses of bupivacaine and mepivacaine during contraction induced by a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), in an isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. METHODS: The effects of lipid emulsion on the dose-response curves induced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine in an isolated aorta precontracted with PDBu were assessed...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
E David Bell, Anthony J Donato, Kenneth L Monson
Cerebral blood vessels are vital to maintaining the health of the brain. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in autoregulatory dysfunction and associated failure of cerebral vessels to maintain homeostasis in the brain. While post-injury changes to brain biochemistry are known to contribute to this dysfunction, tissue deformation may also directly alter vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) function. As a first step toward understanding stretch-induced dysfunction, this study investigates the effect of overstretch on the contractile behavior of SMCs in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
K V Firsov, A S Kotov
Fabry disease (Anderson-Fabry disease) is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficient activity of lysosomal hydrolase, alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), which leads to progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in various cells, predominantly endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, with clinical manifestations affecting major organs including the central nervous system. Manifestations of Fabry disease include progressive renal and cardiac insufficiency, neuropathic pain, stroke and cerebral disease, skin and gastrointestinal symptoms...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Mei Wang, Youyang Hu, Yifei Fan, Yan Guo, Fanglin Chen, Shuo Chen, Qinglin Li, Zhiwu Chen
BACKGROUND/AIM: H2S is a novel vasoactivator. To verify the hypothesis that H2S may act as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the rat cerebrovasculature, the role of H2S in endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-mediated responses was investigated. METHODS: Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was knocked down with an siRNA technique. Artery diameter, hyperpolarization and Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) current were measured. RESULTS: CSE knockdown was indicated by a decrease in protein and mRNA expression in the rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) and cerebral basilar artery (CBA)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
Maik Gollasch
Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ with multiple humoral and metabolic roles in regulating whole-body physiology. However, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) also plays a functional role in regulating the contractile state of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Work during the past decade has shown that this adipose-vascular coupling is achieved by production of numerous substances released from PVAT...
October 10, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Yaping Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lars Edvinsson, Cang-Bao Xu
Abnormal contraction of vessels termed "vasospasm" is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is a well-known risk factor that increases vasospasm. However, the molecular mechanisms by which smoking leads to vasospasm and cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. The present study was designed to examine if DMSO-extracted cigarette smoke particles (DSP) could induce up-regulation of vascular endothelin type A (ETA ) receptors, and if ETA receptor is up-regulated through activation of extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signal pathways...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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