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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078103/the-potential-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-based-retinal-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y Y Lai, Carsten H Meyer, Dean Eliott
BACKGROUND: Biomarker", a merged word of "biological marker", refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise for personalized medicine as information gained from diagnostic or progression markers can be used to tailor treatment to the individual for highly effective intervention in the disease process. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proved useful in identifying various biomarkers in ocular and systemic diseases...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#2
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076019/viral-and-prion-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-radiologic-pathologic-correlation-from-the-radiologic-pathology-archives
#3
Kelly K Koeller, Robert Y Shih
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) range in clinical severity, with the most severe proving fatal within a matter of days. Some of the more than 100 different viruses known to affect the brain and spinal cord are neurotropic with a predilection for producing CNS infection. The host response to viral infection of the CNS is responsible for the pathophysiology and imaging findings seen in affected patients. Viral CNS infections can take the form of meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, or, when involving the spinal cord and nerve roots, encephalomyeloradiculitis...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070123/a-meta-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
X-Y Qin, H-T Wu, C Cao, Y P Loh, Y Cheng
Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062081/neonatal-hypoxia-results-in-peripheral-nerve-abnormalities
#5
Benjamin L L Clayton, Aaron Huang, Danuta Dukala, Betty Soliven, Brian Popko
Although the adverse effects of neonatal hypoxia associated with premature birth on the central nervous system are well known, the contribution of hypoxic damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has not been addressed. We demonstrate that neonatal hypoxia results in hypomyelination and delayed axonal sorting in mice leading to electrophysiological and motor deficits that persist into adulthood. These findings support a potential role for PNS hypoxic damage in the motor impairment that results from premature birth and suggest that therapies designed to protect the PNS may provide clinical benefit...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060988/-neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-concomitantly-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-report-of-one-case
#6
Felipe Suárez H, Daniela Urrutia E, Felipe Canales P, Camila Gutiérrez O
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which preferentially attacks the optic nerve and spinal cord. It is associated with antibodies against aquaporin 4. Morbidity and mortality are higher than in multiple sclerosis and its treatment focuses on immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulators are contraindicated. We report a previously healthy 35-year-old man, presenting with NMO concomitantly with systemic lupus erythematosus. His evolution was torpid with three outbreaks in the 10 months after the diagnosis, requiring a first-line therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide and then a second-line therapy with rituximab...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057164/role-of-pregabalin-in-management-of-pruritus-a-literature-review
#7
Nazanin Foroutan, Naemeh Nikvarz
Pruritus can be one of the distressing symptoms of many dermatologic, systemic, neurologic or psychiatric disorders. In each case, the origin of itch is in the skin and/or the nervous system. Involvement of the nervous system causes neurogenic, psychogenic or neuropathic itch. Itch sensation is transferred to the central nervous system via unmyelinated C-type nerve fibers, and many mediators and receptors engage in the its induction and transmission. Also it has been demonstrated that there are similarities and interactions between neurotransmitters and pathways of pain and itch sensation...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057070/distinct-pattern-of-enteric-phospho-alpha-synuclein-aggregates-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Martina Barrenschee, Dimitri Zorenkov, Martina Böttner, Christina Lange, François Cossais, Amelie Bernadette Scharf, Günther Deuschl, Susanne A Schneider, Mark Ellrichmann, Annette Fritscher-Ravens, Thilo Wedel
Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-α-syn) containing Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the central nervous system (CNS). Since they have been also demonstrated in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of PD patients, the aim of the study was to analyze enteric p-α-syn positive aggregates and intestinal gene expression. Submucosal rectal biopsies were obtained from patients with PD and controls and processed for dual-label-immunohistochemistry for p-α-syn and PGP 9...
January 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054365/mapping-for-acute-transvenous-phrenic-nerve-stimulation-study-maps-study
#9
Lukas R C Dekker, Bart Gerritse, Avram Scheiner, Lilian Kornet
AIMS: Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome, correlated with the occurrence of heart failure, is characterized by periods of insufficient ventilation during sleep. This acute study in 15 patients aims to map the venous system and determine, if diaphragmatic movement can be achieved by phrenic nerve stimulation at various locations within the venous system. METHODS: Subjects underwent a scheduled catheter ablation procedure. During the procedural waiting time, one multi-electrode EP catheter was subsequently placed at the the superior and inferior vena cava and the junctions of the left jugular and left brachiocephalic vein and right jugular and right brachiocephalic vein, for phrenic nerve stimulation (1-2 seconds ON / 2-3 seconds OFF, 40 Hz, pulse width 210 μs)...
January 5, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050051/discordant-dry-eye-disease-an-american-ophthalmological-society-thesis
#10
Roni M Shtein, Daniel E Harper, Vincent Pallazola, Steven E Harte, Munira Hussain, Alan Sugar, David A Williams, Daniel J Clauw
PURPOSE: To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations...
August 2016: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049028/morphine-exposure-during-early-life-alters-thermal-and-mechanical-thresholds-in-rats
#11
Ellen A Nunes, Liciane Fernandes Medeiros, Joice Soares de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Macedo, Jonnsin Kuo, Andressa de Souza, Joanna Rippol Rozisky, Wolnei Caumo, Iraci L S Torres
BACKGROUND: Morphine is an opioid analgesic used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain, including pain in neonates at the intensive care unit. In our previous study, we showed that repeated morphine exposure during early life could trigger long-lasting implications on the developing nervous system, such as long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations in adult rats. AIMS: The aim of our study was to determine the short-, intermediate-, and long-term effects of repeated morphine administration during early life on the thermal and mechanical thresholds and on the central levels (cerebral cortex and brainstem) of neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]) and cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-10)...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048583/su-f-t-503-trajectory-modulated-arc-therapy-of-intracranial-lesions-development-of-a-standardized-path-based-technique-for-fully-dynamic-couch-gantry-modulated-treatments
#12
S Khan, E Chin, K Otto, L Xing, D Hristov, B Fahimian
PURPOSE: The integration of couch motion during arc delivery is necessitated to enable irradiation trajectories such as coronal arcs, and to enhance the geometrical sampling for dynamic deliveries to the highest extent. To enable such capability, a platform of Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT) is developed in conjunction with standardized noncollisional dynamic path-set for irradiation of intracranial lesions. METHODS: A generalized path-set was constructed through the combination of sagittal arcs (45 degrees from the CAX), axial arcs, and coronal arcs produced through modulation of the dynamic rotation of couch...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046297/su-f-e-21-change-in-retinal-arteriole-diameter-with-visual-simulation
#13
N Tellapragada, S Burns
PURPOSE: Neural activity and blood flow in the brain are tightly coupled. This coupling allows the brain to respond to periods of increased neural activity with increased blood flow. This coupling is known as neurovascular coupling. Many vascular based imaging techniques such as Functional MRI scans provide maps of signals of brain activity but they are limited by the resolution of fMRI to a few mm. The fMRI signal is indirect because the scanner is not tracking the neural activity directly but are measuring the changes in the blood oxygen levels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043810/renal-sympathetic-nerve-blood-flow-and-epithelial-transport-responses-to-thermal-stress
#14
REVIEW
Thad E Wilson
Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state...
December 24, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043031/liver-5-ht7-receptors-a-novel-regulator-target-of-fibrosis-and-inflammation-induced-chronic-liver-injury-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#15
Beyzagul Polat, Zekai Halici, Elif Cadirci, Emre Karakus, Yasin Bayir, Abdulmecit Albayrak, Deniz Unal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and liver fibrosis is strongly associated with HCC. Treatment options are limited, and preventive strategies should be developed. An important step in the beginning of liver fibrosis is a strong inflammatory response. 5-HT7 is the last recognized member of the serotonin receptor family and is expressed in both central nerve system and peripheral system and have a lot of functions like learning, memory, smooth muscular relaxation, in the control of circadian rhythms and thermoregulation, pain and migraine, schizophrenia, anxiety, cognitive disturbances, and even inflammation...
December 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038987/adaptive-reorganization-of-retinogeniculate-axon-terminals-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-experimental-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Vishal C Patel, Christopher W D Jurgens, Thomas E Krahe, John T Povlishock
The pathologic process in traumatic brain injury marked by delayed axonal loss, known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI), leads to partial deafferentation of neurons downstream of injured axons. This process is linked to persistent visual dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), however, examination of deafferentation in humans is impossible with current technology. To investigate potential reorganization in the visual system following mTBI, we utilized the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) mouse model of mTBI...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#17
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034352/development-of-a-novel-carbon-11-labeled-pet-radioligand-for-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-1
#18
Hideyuki Igawa, Vladimir Stepanov, Lenke Tari, Shoki Okuda, Syunsuke Yamamoto, Shizuo Kasai, Yasutaka Nagisa, Jenny Häggkvist, Marie Svedberg, Miklós Tóth, Akihiro Takano, Christer Halldin
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an attractive target for antiobesity agents and many drug discovery programs have been dedicated to identify small-molecule antagonists of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1). The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for MCHR1 for translation of preclinical pharmacology to clinic to enhance success rate of drug discovery programs. We identified 4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-N-[8-methyl-3-({[(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl]amino}ethyl)quinolin-7-yl]benzamide (Compound II) from Takeda MCHR1 antagonist library by utilizing binding affinity, log D value, physicochemical parameters ideal for a central nerve system agent, and synthetic feasibility of corresponding carbon-11 labeled radioligands as selection parameters for tracer candidates...
December 30, 2016: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031844/refractory-rheumatoid-vasculitis
#19
Ashok Kumar, Anshul Goel, Mehul Lapsiwala, Suman Singhal
Systemic rheumatoid vasculitis (SRV) can develop in rheumatoid arthritis of long duration and high disease activity. It most commonly manifests as cutaneous vasculitis and mononeuritis multiplex. This can involve any organ of the body and carries very high mortality. We report a case of a young male who had rheumatoid arthritis for the past 15 years and became refractory to standard drugs and anti-TNF agents. He subsequently developed SRV, which started as mononeuritis multiplex. Disease progressed to result in gangrene of hands and feet despite receiving intravenous cyclophosphamide...
November 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031726/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-medical-and-legal-ramifications-of-clinical-variability-and-experience-and-perspective-of-a-practicing-clinician
#20
R P Lazaro
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ramifications of clinical variability of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and how they can affect the various aspects of this condition, favorably or unfavorably, for both patients and participating medical and legal professionals. METHODS: Twelve patients diagnosed with CRPS at different times in the past 25 years were followed up, and their signs and symptoms were reviewed for variability. None had preexisting or ongoing medical disorders and prior injury to the peripheral nerves or musculoskeletal tissues...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
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