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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921909/first-natural-endocranial-cast-of-a-fossil-snake-cretaceous-of-patagonia-argentina
#1
Laura N Triviño, Adriana M Albino, María T Dozo, Jorge D Williams
In this study, we describe a natural endocranial cast included in a partially preserved medium-sized skull of the Upper Cretaceous South American snake Dinilysia patagonica. The endocast is composed of sedimentary filling of the cranial cavity in which the posterior brain, the vessels, the cranial nerves, and the inner ear surrounded by delicate semicircular canals, are represented. It is simple in form, with little differentiation between the three main areas (Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain), and without flexures...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921418/coping-with-phantom-limb-pain
#2
Damien P Kuffler
Phantom limb pain is a chronic neuropathic pain that develops in 45-85% of patients who undergo major amputations of the upper and lower extremities and appears predominantly during two time frames following an amputation: the first month and later about 1 year. Although in most patients the frequency and intensity of pain diminish over time, severe pain persists in about 5-10%. It has been proposed that factors in both the peripheral and central nervous systems play major roles in triggering the development and maintenance of pain associated with extremity amputations...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920852/experimental-transmission-to-a-calf-of-an-isolate-of-spanish-classical-scrapie
#3
Rosa Bolea, Carlos Hedman, Óscar López-Pérez, Belén Marín, Enríc Vidal, Martí Pumarola, Fabien Corbière, Antonio Romero, Bernardino Moreno, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel, Olivier Andréoletti, Juan José Badiola
Multiple theories exist regarding the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). An early and prominent theory proposed that BSE was the result of the adaptation of sheep scrapie to cattle. The reports to date indicate that the distribution of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in experimental bovine scrapie is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we describe pathological findings in a calf intracerebrally inoculated with a Spanish classical scrapie isolate. While clinical disease was observed 30 months after inoculation and PrPSc was detected in the CNS, the corresponding phenotype differed from that of BSE...
September 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#4
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914525/two-distinct-polymorphic-folding-states-of-self-assembly-of-the-non-amyloid-%C3%AE-component-differ-in-the-arrangement-of-the-residues
#5
Maya Pollock-Gagolashvili, Yifat Miller
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nerves system. It is characterized by presence of Lew bodies (LBs), in which the main components of the LBs are α-synuclein (AS) aggregates. The central domain of AS, known as the "non-amyloid β component" (NAC) is responsible for the aggregation properties of AS. It is proposed that AS fibrillar structure is a well-packed cross-β structure of the NAC domains, while the N- and C-termini are disordered. Therefore, the study of the self-assembly of NAC domains are crucial in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of AS aggregation...
September 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912156/neutrophils-are-critical-for-myelin-removal-in-a-peripheral-nerve-injury-model-of-wallerian-degeneration
#6
Jane A Lindborg, Matthias Mack, Richard E Zigmond
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages that utilize the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our lab has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2(-/-) mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2(-/-) mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911884/anti-vegf-treatment-improves-neurological-function-in-tumors-of-the-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Na Zhang, Jie Chen, Gino Ferraro, Limeng Wu, Meenal Datta, Rakesh K Jain, Scott R Plotkin, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Lei Xu
Research of various diseases of the nervous system has shown that VEGF has direct neuroprotective effects in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and indirect effects on improving neuronal vessel perfusion which leads to nerve protection. In the tumors of the nervous system, VEGF plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. The effect of anti-VEGF treatment on nerve protection and function has been recently reported - by normalizing the tumor vasculature, anti-VEGF treatment is able to relieve nerve edema and deliver oxygen more efficiently into the nerve, thus reducing nerve damage and improving nerve function...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905812/carbon-fiber-on-polyimide-ultra-microelectrodes
#8
Wintrop F Gillis, Charles A Lissandrello, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Alket Mertiri, Felix Deku, Stuart Cogan, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy M Otchy, Timothy Gardner
OBJECTIVE: Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898914/-neuroanatomy-of-the-oculomotor-system
#9
Stephan Heermann
After just a clinical examination, the experienced neurologist can assign specific symptoms quite precisely to distinct lesions within the brain and other parts of the nervous system, on the basis of his neuroanatomical knowledge. This also holds true for lesions affecting the oculomotor system. The aim of this article is to give a comprehensive overview of the neuroanatomical basis of the oculomotor system, in order to facilitate the precise spatial assignment of potential lesions affecting the control of eye movements...
September 12, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#10
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#11
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888069/a-novel-missense-mutation-in-aifm1-results-in-axonal-polyneuropathy-and-misassembly-of-oxphos-complexes
#12
Bo Hu, Michael Wang, Ryan Castoro, Megan Simmons, Richard Dortch, Robin Yawn, Jun Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: AIFM1 (apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated-1) in mitochondria has captured a great attention due to its well-described function in apoptosis. Mutations in AIFM1 have resulted in multiple clinical phenotypes, including CMTX4. These syndromes usually involve multiple locations within the nervous system and/or multiple organs. This study describes a novel missense mutation in AIFM1 and its associated peripheral nerve disease. METHODS: Patients with AIFM1 mutation were characterized clinically, electrophysiologically, genetically and by MRI imaging...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887951/injectable-hyaluronan-methylcellulose-composite-hydrogel-crosslinked-by-polyethylene-glycol-for-central-nervous-system-tissue-engineering
#13
Fanlu Zhuo, Xujie Liu, Qin Gao, Ying Wang, Kun Hu, Qiang Cai
Spontaneous recovery ability of central nerves has inspired researchers to focus on tissue engineering techniques, especially scaffolds. To obtain a material with an appropriate degrading rate, an injectable composite hydrogel HAMC consisting of hyaluronic acid and methylcellulose was prepared using polyethylene glycol as a cross linker in this study. HAMC combined the advantages of two components to be fast-gelling, injectable, degradable, biocompatible, and it was able to meet some special shape requirement for injured tissue by in-situ forming...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887162/extrinsic-nerves-are-not-involved-in-branchial-5-ht-dynamics-or-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta
#14
Maria C Cartolano, Molly H B Amador, Velislava Tzaneva, William K Milsom, M Danielle McDonald
Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) can switch from continuously excreting ammonia as their primary nitrogenous waste to excreting predominantly urea in distinct pulses. Previous studies have shown that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in controlling this process, but it is unknown if 5-HT availability is under central nervous control or if the 5-HT signal originates from a peripheral source. Following up on a previous study, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) were sectioned to further characterize their role in controlling pulsatile urea excretion and 5-HT release within the gill...
September 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886934/transglutaminase-6-antibodies-in-gluten-neuropathy
#15
Panagiotis Zis, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Pascale Aeschlimann, Daniel P Aeschlimann, David Sanders, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: TG6 antibodies have been shown to be a marker of gluten ataxia but their presence in the context of other neurological manifestations of gluten sensitivity has not been explored. We investigated the presence of TG6 antibodies in gluten neuropathy (GN), defined as as an otherwise idiopathic peripheral neuropathy associated with serological markers of gluten sensitivity (one or more of antigliadin IgG and/or IgA, endomysial and transglutaminase-2 antibodies). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Sheffield Institute of Gluten Related Diseases, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK...
August 10, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886869/immunohistochemical-study-of-arginases-1-and-2-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-the-korean-roe-deer-capreolus-pygargus
#16
Jeongtae Kim, Meejung Ahn, Yuna Choi, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Taekyun Shin
Arginases are enzymes of the urea cycle that catalyze the hydrolysis of l-arginine to ornithine and urea. The enzymes are core components of the arginine-ornithine-glutamate-γ-amino butyric acid pathway of the central nervous system. In the present study, we immunohistochemically determined the localization of arginase 1 and 2 in the olfactory bulb (OB) of the roe dear (Capreolus pygargus). Reverse transcription PCR revealed that the mRNAs encoding both arginase 1 and 2 were expressed in the OB. Arginase 1 was localized to olfactory nerve axons, calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive mitral/tufted cells (excitatory neurons), and glutamate acid decarboxylase 65/67-immunopositive periglomerular cells of the main olfactory bulb...
September 5, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885938/hidden-hearing-injury-the-emerging-science-and-military-relevance-of-cochlear-synaptopathy
#17
Victoria Tepe, Christopher Smalt, Jeremy Nelson, Thomas Quatieri, Kenneth Pitts
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon recently described as "hidden hearing loss" was the subject of a meeting co-hosted by the Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence and MIT Lincoln Laboratory to consider the potential relevance of noise-related synaptopathic injury to military settings and performance, service-related injury scenarios, and military medical priorities. Participants included approximately 50 researchers and subject matter experts from academic, federal, and military laboratories...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884592/peripheral-nerve-intersectional-repair-by-bi-directional-induction-and-systematic-remodelling-biodegradable-conduit-tubulization-from-basic-research-to-clinical-application
#18
Zhang Peixun, Han Na, Yuhui Kou, Yin Xiaofeng, Baoguo Jiang
In terms of the clinical effect of peripheral nerve injury repair, the biological degradable conduit 2 mm small gap tubulization is far better than the traditional epineurial or perineurium neurorrhaphy. The assumption of the bi-directional induction between the central system and the terminal effector during peripheral nerve regeneration is purposed and proved in clinical by our group. The surgical approach of transferring a portion of or the whole contralateral C7 nerve to repair a part of or the whole ipsilateral brachial plexus injury is clinically promoted, in which the most important idea and practice is to use the cone conduit designed by the group to repair thick nerves with fine nerves...
September 8, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877142/adding-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-before-occipital-nerve-stimulation-in-fibromyalgia
#19
Hye Bin Yoo, Jan Ost, Wim Joos, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia is a type of chronic musculoskeletal pain without a clear peripheral origin of nociception, often associated with depression. The underlying pathophysiology involves changes in a functional network that is related to pain and emotional processing in the central nervous system. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the occipital nerve (ON) are non-invasive neuromodulation techniques capable of improving fibromyalgia symptoms...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875566/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-ii-sensory-compartments
#20
Sarah Kendroud, Ali Asgar Bohra, Philipp A Kuert, Bao Nguyen, Oriane Guillermin, Simon G Sprecher, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Volker Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain processes mechanosensory and gustatory sensory input from sensilla located on the head, mouth cavity and trunk. Motor output from the SEZ directly controls the movements involved in feeding behavior. In an accompanying paper (Hartenstein et al., 2017) we analyzed the systems of fiber tracts and secondary lineages to establish reliable criteria for defining boundaries between the four neuromeres of the SEZ, as well as discrete longitudinal neuropil domains within each SEZ neuromere...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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