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central nerve system

Nicholas J Strausfeld, Xiaoya Ma, Gregory D Edgecombe
The discovery of fossilized brains and ventral nerve cords in lower and mid-Cambrian arthropods has led to crucial insights about the evolution of their central nervous system, the segmental identity of head appendages and the early evolution of eyes and their underlying visual systems. Fundamental ground patterns of lower Cambrian arthropod brains and nervous systems correspond to the ground patterns of brains and nervous systems belonging to three of four major extant panarthropod lineages. These findings demonstrate the evolutionary stability of early neural arrangements over an immense time span...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Tian Tian, Linying Guo, Jing Xu, Shun Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Chengxia Liu, Yuanyuan Qin, Wenzhen Zhu
Peripheral nerve damage does not fully explain the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Central nervous system changes can follow trigeminal nerve dysfunction. We hypothesized that brain white matter and functional connectivity changes in TN patients were involved in pain perception, modulation, the cognitive-affective system, and motor function; moreover, changes in functional reorganization were correlated with white matter alterations. Twenty left TN patients and twenty-two healthy controls were studied...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shun Wang, Zhe Dong, Shen Li, Haotian Yin, Zhifu Zhao, Dongmei Gao, Guimin Ren, Xuexiang Bao
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was stained in the central nervous system of the Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida), using sheep anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antibody by the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that the TPH is distributed in the brain and ventral nerve cord, which is consistent with that of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that labeled by anti-serotonin antibody. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, TPH cDNA cloned from Neanthes japonica's central nervous system was 1778bp, which encodes predicted protein of 463 amino acid residues...
October 24, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Seo Ki Kim, Jung-Woo Woo, Inhye Park, Jun Ho Lee, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim
PURPOSE: The da Vinci surgical robot system was developed to overcome the weaknesses of endoscopic surgery. However, whether robotic surgery is superior to endoscopic surgery remains uncertain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surgical and oncologic outcomes between endoscopic and robotic thyroidectomy using bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA). METHODS: Between January 2008 and June 2015, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection using endoscopic (n = 480) or robotic (n = 705) BABA were primarily reviewed...
October 24, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Erik H Van Iterson, Courtney Gramm, Nicholas R Randall, Thomas P Olson
Although pathophysiologic links between postmenopause and healthy aging remain unclear, both factors are associated with increased blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in women. Activation of polymodal musculoskeletal neural afferents originating within adventia of venules modulates SNA and blood pressure control during exercise in healthy adults. We hypothesized transient subsystolic regional circulatory occlusion (RCO) during exercise sensitizes these afferents leading to augmented systemic vascular resistance (SVR) mediated increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in postmenopause versus premenopause...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Christian M Felix, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is often associated with retinal abnormalities including thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and microcystic changes. Here, we demonstrate that passive transfer of an anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) produces primary retinal pathology. METHODS: AQP4-IgG was delivered to adult rat retinas by intravitreal injection. Rat retinas and retinal explant cultures were assessed by immunofluorescence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Girish Rajadhyaksha, Charulata Limaye, Ameena Meah, Sushma Gaikwad, Shubham Jain
Rare complications have been documented due to inadvertent intravascular administration of penicillin such as Nicolau syndrome (lipoatrophy), transverse myelitis, injury to sciatic nerve as well as Hoigne syndrome (transient central nervous system dysfunction).1 We present a case report where a young male developed Nicolau syndrome and transverse myelitis after receiving benzathine penicillin injection.
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Bruno Law-Ye, Chloé Hangard, Adrien Felter, Dominique Safa, Philippe Denormandie, François Genet, Robert-Yves Carlier
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic Myositis Ossificans (NMO) is a rare disabling pathology characterized by peri-articular heterotopic ossifications following severe peripheral or central nervous system injuries. It results in ankylosis and vessels or nerves compressions. Our study aimed to describe the pre-operative findings of patients with NMO of the hip using biphasic computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: Between 2006 and 2012, we retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive patients with hip NMO...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Akira Nishiyama, Hirofumi Hitomi, Daisuke Nakano, Yoshihide Fujisawa
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies have indicated that renal denervation (RDN) suppresses sympathetic overactivity in hypertensive patients, suggesting that afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) enhances sympathetic outflow via central nervous system. To investigate the possible role of ARNA in the pathophysiology of renovascular hypertension, we examined the effect of RDN on blood pressure and urinary norepinephrine in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Wister-Kyoto rats were divided 3 groups: sham, 2K1C and 2K1C with RDN...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Alexander U Brandt, Elena Meinert-Bohn, Jan Leo Rinnenthal, Hanna Zimmermann, Janine Mikolajczak, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Sebastian Papazoglou, Caspar F Pfüller, Johann Schinzel, Björn Tackenberg, Friedemann Paul, Katrin Hahn, Judith Bellmann-Strobl
BACKGROUND: The PMP22 gene encodes a protein integral to peripheral myelin. Its deletion leads to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). PMP22 is not expressed in the adult central nervous system, but previous studies suggest a role in CNS myelin development. The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in HNPP patients. METHODS: Twenty HNPP patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in a cross-sectional study...
2016: PloS One
André Luis Bombeiro, Rodolfo Thomé, Sérgio Luiz Oliveira Nunes, Bárbara Monteiro Moreira, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161463.].
2016: PloS One
Lauren E Cornelison, Jordan L Hawkins, Paul L Durham
Orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and migraine are characterized by peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the development of central sensitization, the pathway by which elevated spinal cord CGRP levels promote peripheral sensitization of primary trigeminal nociceptive neurons is not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of CGRP in promoting bidirectional signaling within the trigeminal system to mediate sensitization of primary trigeminal ganglion nociceptive neurons...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Giuseppe Lanza, Cornelius G Bachmann, Imad Ghorayeb, Yuping Wang, Raffale Ferri, Walter Paulus
Neurophysiological techniques have been applied in restless legs syndrome (RLS) to obtain direct and indirect measures of central and peripheral nervous system excitability, as well as to probe different neurotransmission pathways. Data converge on the hypothesis that, from a pure electrophysiological perspective, RLS should be regarded as a complex sensorimotor disorder in which cortical, subcortical, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve generators are all involved in a network disorder, resulting in an enhanced excitability and/or decreased inhibition...
August 27, 2016: Sleep Medicine
Nayeli Rivera-Ramírez, Wilber Montejo-López, María-Cristina López-Méndez, Agustín Guerrero-Hernández, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Ubaldo García-Hernández, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is abundantly expressed in the Central Nervous System where it regulates several functions pre and postsynaptically. H3Rs couple to Gαi/o proteins and trigger or modulate several intracellular signaling pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway and the opening of N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In transfected cells, activation of the human H3R of 445 amino acids (hH3R445) results in phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation and release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores...
October 12, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Julia C Quindlen, Henryk K Stolarski, Matthew D Johnson, Victor H Barocas
The Pacinian corpuscle (PC) is a dermal mechanoreceptor that responds to high-frequency (20-1000 Hz) vibrations. The PC's structure allows transmission of vibrations through its layers (lamellae) to the centrally-located nerve fiber (neurite). This work combines mechanical models of the PC with an electrochemical model of peripheral nerves to simulate the tactile response of the entire system. A three-stage model of response to a vibratory input was developed, consisting of (1) outer core mechanics, (2) inner core mechanics, and (3) neurite electrochemistry...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Daniel Horák, Milan Beneš, Zuzana Procházková, Miroslava Trchová, Arsenii Borysov, Artem Pastukhov, Konstantin Paliienko, Tatiana Borisova
Changes in cholesterol concentration in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals nonspecifically modulate glutamate transport and homeostasis in the central nervous system. Reduction of the cholesterol content in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) using cholesterol-depleting agents decreases the glutamate uptake and increases the extracellular level of glutamate in nerve terminals. Extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and its further removal from the synaptosomes by external magnetic field can be achieved by means of magnetic nanoparticles with immobilized cholesterol-depleting agent such as O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD)...
October 4, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Marta Silva, José Tiago Costa-Pereira, Daniel Martins, Isaura Tavares
Diabetic neuropathy has a profound impact in the quality of life of patients who frequently complain of pain. The mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are no longer ascribed only to damage of peripheral nerves. The effects of diabetes at the central nervous system are currently considered causes of DPN. Management of DNP may be achieved by antidepressants that act on serotonin (5-HT) uptake, namely specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key pain control center involved in descending pain modulation at the spinal cord through local release of 5-HT and plays a peculiar role in the balance of bidirectional control (i...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Weituan Xu, Min Zhu, Shaoting Yuan, Wenli Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is identified to be crucial in the development of neuropathic pain, whereas definite molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Recently, chemokine CXCL5 is manifested to participate in the inflammatory process of central nervous system, however, little is known about the potential effect of spinal CXCL5 on pathogenesis of pain. This study investigated whether and how CXCL5 and its receptor CXCR2 regulated neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerves...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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