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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944751/fitness-costs-of-plasmids-a-limit-to-plasmid-transmission
#1
Alvaro San Millan, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids mediate the horizontal transmission of genetic information between bacteria, facilitating their adaptation to multiple environmental conditions. An especially important example of the ability of plasmids to catalyze bacterial adaptation and evolution is their instrumental role in the global spread of antibiotic resistance, which constitutes a major threat to public health. Plasmids provide bacteria with new adaptive tools, but they also entail a metabolic burden that, in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits, reduces the competitiveness of the plasmid-carrying clone...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944478/invasive-alien-plants-benefit-more-from-clonal-integration-in-heterogeneous-environments-than-natives
#2
Yong-Jian Wang, Heinz Müller-Schärer, Mark van Kleunen, Ai-Ming Cai, Ping Zhang, Rong Yan, Bi-Cheng Dong, Fei-Hai Yu
What confers invasive alien plants a competitive advantage over native plants remains open to debate. Many of the world's worst invasive alien plants are clonal and able to share resources within clones (clonal integration), particularly in heterogeneous environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that clonal integration benefits invasive clonal plants more than natives and thus confers invasives a competitive advantage. We selected five congeneric and naturally co-occurring pairs of invasive alien and native clonal plants in China, and grew pairs of connected and disconnected ramets under heterogeneous light, soil nutrient and water conditions that are commonly encountered by alien plants during their invasion into new areas...
September 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941453/development-of-a-dna-aptamer-for-screening-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-by-cell-selex
#3
Kimia Mirzakhani, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Iraj Rasooli, Samaneh Rasoulinejad
Background: Artificial oligonucleotides like DNA or RNA aptamers can be used as biodiagnostic alternatives for antibodies to detect pathogens. Comparing to antibodies, artificial oligonucleotides are produced easily at lower costs and are more stable. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningitis, is responsible for about 1% of infections in an epidemic period. Specific DNA aptamers that bind to N. meningitidis serogroup B were identified by whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX)...
September 24, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941017/beating-the-odds-the-poisson-distribution-of-all-input-cells-during-limiting-dilution-grossly-underestimates-whether-a-cell-line-is-clonally-derived-or-not
#4
Yizhou Zhou, David Shaw, Cynthia Lam, Joni Tsukuda, Mandy Yim, Danming Tang, Salina Louie, Michael W Laird, Brad Snedecor, Shahram Misaghi
Establishing that a cell line was derived from a single cell progenitor and defined as clonally-derived for the production of clinical and commercial therapeutic protein drugs has been the subject of increased emphasis in cell line development (CLD). Several regulatory agencies have expressed that the prospective probability of clonality for CHO cell lines is assumed to follow the Poisson distribution based on the input cell count. The probability of obtaining monoclonal progenitors based on the Poisson distribution of all cells suggests that one round of limiting dilution may not be sufficient to assure the resulting cell lines are clonally-derived...
September 23, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939948/heat-shock-cognate-70-gene-in-haliotis-diversicolor-responses-to-pathogen-infection-and-environmental-stresses-and-its-transcriptional-regulation-analysis
#5
Yuting Li, Tao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Guodong Wang, Yilei Wang, Ziping Zhang
Heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is a class of highly conserved proteins which functions as a molecular chaperon, participates in tolerance processes, and is involved in protein folding, degradation, targeting, translocation, and protein complex remodeling. In this study, the mRNA expression level of the Haliotis diversicolor HSC70 (HdHSC70) gene was detected by quantitative real-time PCR in different tissues and under different stresses. The results showed that the HdHSC70 gene was ubiquitously expressed in seven selected tissues...
September 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939757/pd-1-blockade-promotes-epitope-spreading-in-anticancer-cd8-t-cell-responses-by-preventing-fratricidal-death-of-subdominant-clones-to-relieve-immunodomination
#6
Arash Memarnejadian, Courtney E Meilleur, Christopher R Shaler, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Jack R Bennink, Todd D Schell, S M Mansour Haeryfar
The interactions between programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands hamper tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) responses, and PD-1-based "checkpoint inhibitors" have shown promise in certain cancers, thus revitalizing interest in immunotherapy. PD-1-targeted therapies reverse TCD8 exhaustion/anergy. However, whether they alter the epitope breadth of TCD8 responses remains unclear. This is an important question because subdominant TCD8 are more likely than immunodominant clones to escape tolerance mechanisms and may contribute to protective anticancer immunity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939548/icams-support-b-cell-interactions-with-t-follicular-helper-cells-and-promote-clonal-selection
#7
Irina Zaretsky, Ofir Atrakchi, Roei D Mazor, Liat Stoler-Barak, Adi Biram, Sara W Feigelson, Alexander D Gitlin, Britta Engelhardt, Ziv Shulman
The germinal center (GC) reaction begins with a diverse and expanded group of B cell clones bearing a wide range of antibody affinities. During GC colonization, B cells engage in long-lasting interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a process that depends on antigen uptake and antigen presentation to the Tfh cells. How long-lasting T-B interactions and B cell clonal expansion are regulated by antigen presentation remains unclear. Here, we use in vivo B cell competition models and intravital imaging to examine the adhesive mechanisms governing B cell selection for GC colonization...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939478/use-of-whole-genome-deep-sequencing-to-define-emerging-minority-variants-in-virus-envelope-genes-in-herpesvirus-treated-with-novel-antimicrobial-k21
#8
Joshua G Tweedy, Bhupesh K Prusty, Ursula A Gompels
New antivirals are required to prevent rising antimicrobial resistance from replication inhibitors. The aim of this study was to analyse the range of emerging mutations in herpesvirus by whole genome deep sequencing. We tested human herpesvirus 6 treatment with novel antiviral K21, where evidence indicated distinct effects on virus envelope proteins. We treated BACmid cloned virus in order to analyse mechanisms and candidate targets for resistance. Illumina based next generation sequencing technology enabled analyses of mutations in 85 genes to depths of 10,000 per base detecting low prevalent minority variants (<1%)...
September 19, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937296/comparison-of-e-cadherin-with-stat3-and-apoptosis-regulators-bak-and-bcl-xl-in-endometrioid-adenocarcinomas-of-different-er-alpha-immunoprofile
#9
Urszula Sulkowska, Andrzej Wincewicz, Luiza Kanczuga-Koda, Mariusz Koda, Stanislaw Sulkowski
E-cadherin is a factor of good prognosis in endometrioid adenocarcinomas, while STAT3 is an oncogenic driver of carcinogenesis. E-cadherin, Bak, Bcl-xL and STAT3 were immunohistochemically detected in 78 human endometrioid adenocarcinomas. E-cadherin correlated with STAT3 (p <. 001, r = 0.537) as well as Bak (p = .005, r = 0.314) and Bcl-xL (p = .002, r = 0.340) in the whole study group. In G2 tumors, E-cadherin associated with Bak (p = .021, r = 0.319), Bcl-xL (p = .026, r = 0...
September 22, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935935/igg1-memory-b-cells-keep-the-memory-of-ige-responses
#10
Jin-Shu He, Sharrada Subramaniam, Vipin Narang, Kandhadayar Srinivasan, Sean P Saunders, Daniel Carbajo, Tsao Wen-Shan, Nur Hidayah Hamadee, Josephine Lum, Andrea Lee, Jinmiao Chen, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Juan J Lafaille, Maria A Curotto de Lafaille
The unique differentiation of IgE cells suggests unconventional mechanisms of IgE memory. IgE germinal centre cells are transient, most IgE cells are plasma cells, and high affinity IgE is produced by the switching of IgG1 cells to IgE. Here we investigate the function of subsets of IgG1 memory B cells in IgE production and find that two subsets of IgG1 memory B cells, CD80(+)CD73(+) and CD80(-)CD73(-), contribute distinctively to the repertoires of high affinity pathogenic IgE and low affinity non-pathogenic IgE...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935259/module-based-systematic-construction-of-plasmids-for-episomal-gene-expression-in-fission-yeast
#11
Keita Kiriya, Hayato Tsuyuzaki, Masamitsu Sato
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a powerful model organism for cell biology and molecular biology, as genetic manipulation is easily achieved. Introduction of exogenous genes cloned in episomal plasmids into yeast cells can be done through well-established transformation methods. For expression of genes in S. pombe cells, the multi-copy plasmid pREP1 and its derivatives, including pREP41 and pREP81, have been widely used as vectors. Although recent advancement of technology brought a number of useful genetic elements such as new promoters, selection marker genes and fluorescent protein tags, introduction of those elements into conventional pREP1 requires a large commitment of both time and effort because cloning procedures need to be repeated until the final products are constructed...
September 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932628/a-novel-in-silico-framework-to-improve-mhc-i-epitopes-and-break-the-tolerance-to-melanoma
#12
Cristian Capasso, Aniket Magarkar, Victor Cervera-Carascon, Manlio Fusciello, Sara Feola, Martin Muller, Mariangela Garofalo, Lukasz Kuryk, Siri Tähtinen, Lucio Pastore, Alex Bunker, Vincenzo Cerullo
Tolerance toward tumor antigens, which are shared by normal tissues, have often limited the efficacy of cancer vaccines. However, wild type epitopes can be tweaked to activate cross-reactive T-cell clones, resulting in antitumor activity. The design of these analogs (i.e., heteroclitic peptides) can be difficult and time-consuming since no automated in silico tools are available. Hereby we describe the development of an in silico framework to improve the selection of heteroclitic peptides. The Epitope Discovery and Improvement System (EDIS) was first validated by studying the model antigen SIINFEKL...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932215/identification-characterization-and-full-length-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-polerovirus-associated-with-wheat-leaf-yellowing-disease
#13
Peipei Zhang, Yan Liu, Wenwen Liu, Mengji Cao, Sebastien Massart, Xifeng Wang
To identify the pathogens responsible for leaf yellowing symptoms on wheat samples collected from Jinan, China, we tested for the presence of three known barley/wheat yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-GAV, -PAV, WYDV-GPV) (most likely pathogens) using RT-PCR. A sample that tested negative for the three viruses was selected for small RNA sequencing. Twenty-five million sequences were generated, among which 5% were of viral origin. A novel polerovirus was discovered and temporarily named wheat leaf yellowing-associated virus (WLYaV)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931674/natural-reassortants-between-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n1-and-h9n2-from-egypt-display-distinct-pathogenic-phenotypes-in-experimentally-infected-chickens-and-ferrets
#14
Mahmoud M Naguib, Reiner Ulrich, Elisa Kasbohm, Christine L P Eng, Donata Hoffmann, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Co-circulation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 and AIV of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least six years should render this country a hypothetical hotspot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants between Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 and H9N2 of the G1-B lineage can be generated by co-amplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and had acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931074/genetic-and-phenotypic-effects-of-chromosome-segments-introgressed-from-gossypium-barbadense-into-gossypium-hirsutum
#15
Weiwu Song, Mi Wang, Wei Su, Quanwei Lu, Xianghui Xiao, Juan Cai, Zhen Zhang, Shaoqi Li, Pengtao Li, Juwu Gong, Wankui Gong, Haihong Shang, Aiying Liu, Junwen Li, Tingting Chen, Qun Ge, Yuzhen Shi, Youlu Yuan
MBI9915 is an introgression cotton line with excellent fiber quality. It was obtained by advanced backcrossing and continuous inbreeding from an interspecific cross between the upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivar CCRI36 as the recurrent parent and the sea island cotton (G. barbadense) cultivar Hai1, as the donor parent. To study the genetic effects of the introgressed chromosome segments in G. hirsutum, an F2 secondary segregating population of 1537 individuals was created by crossing MBI9915 and CCRI36, and an F2:3 population was created by randomly selecting 347 individuals from the F2 generation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930971/determination-of-the-optimal-chromosomal-location-s-for-a-dna-element-in-escherichia-coli-using-a-novel-transposon-mediated-approach
#16
Jakob Frimodt-Møller, Godefroid Charbon, Karen A Krogfelt, Anders Løbner-Olesen
The optimal chromosomal position(s) of a given DNA element was/were determined by transposon-mediated random insertion followed by fitness selection. In bacteria, the impact of the genetic context on the function of a genetic element can be difficult to assess. Several mechanisms, including topological effects, transcriptional interference from neighboring genes, and/or replication-associated gene dosage, may affect the function of a given genetic element. Here, we describe a method that permits the random integration of a DNA element into the chromosome of Escherichia coli and select the most favorable locations using a simple growth competition experiment...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929019/heterologous-expression-of-plasmodium-vivax-apical-membrane-antigen-1-pvama1-for-binding-peptide-selection
#17
Ching Hoong Chew, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Kek Heng Chua
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium is an obligate intracellular parasite. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is the most prominent and well characterized malarial surface antigen that is essential for parasite-host cell invasion, i.e., for sporozoite to invade and replicate within hepatocytes in the liver stage and merozoite to penetrate and replicate within erythrocytes in the blood stage. AMA1 has long served as a potent antimalarial drug target and is a pivotal vaccine candidate. A good understanding of the structure and molecular function of this Plasmodium protein, particularly its involvement in host-cell adhesion and invasion, is of great interest and hence it offers an attractive target for the development of novel therapeutics...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925953/transesterification-synthesis-of-chloramphenicol-esters-with-the-lipase-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#18
Fengying Dong, Lingmeng Li, Lin Lin, Dannong He, Jingwen Chen, Wei Wei, Dongzhi Wei
This work presents a synthetic route to produce chloramphenicol esters by taking advantage the high enantio- and regio-selectivity of lipases. A series of chloramphenicol esters were synthesized using chloramphenicol, acyl donors of different carbon chain length and lipase LipBA (lipase cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens). Among acyl donors with different carbon chain lengths, vinyl propionate was found to be the best. The influences of different organic solvents, reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme loading and water content on the synthesis of the chloramphenicol esters were studied...
September 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923688/expression-and-activity-analysis-of-%C3%AE-gallinacin-3-in-arabidopsis
#19
Libo Jin, Yunpeng Wang, Nuo Xu, Dezhong Wang, Xiuming Liu, Renyi Peng, Chao Jiang, Xiaokun Li
β Gallinacin-3 (β Gal-3) is an antimicrobial peptide with strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, the β Gal-3 gene was transferred into a plant genome by genetic engineering techniques. These transgenic plants can be used as feed additives to prevent poultry diseases and them might replace the antibiotics used in poultry industry. To ensure the β Gal-3 expresses effectively in Arabidopsis seeds, the expression was driven by promoter Ppha cloned from the β-phaseolin storage protein gene...
September 16, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923077/development-and-evaluation-of-an-efficient-heterologous-gene-knock-in-reporter-system-in-lactococcus-lactis
#20
Yifei Lu, Hongxiang Yan, Jiezhong Deng, Zhigang Huang, Xurui Jin, Yanlan Yu, Qiwen Hu, Fuquan Hu, Jing Wang
BACKGROUND: Lactococcus lactis is a food grade probiotics and widely used to express heterologous proteins. Generally, target genes are knocked into the L. lactis genome through double-crossover recombination to express heterologous proteins stably. However, creating marker-less heterologous genes knocked-in clones is laborious. In this study, an efficient heterologous gene knock-in reporter system was developed in L. lactis NZ9000. RESULTS: Our knock-in reporter system consists of a temperature-sensitive plasmid pJW and a recombinant L...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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