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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742882/t-cell-intrinsic-tlr2-stimulation-promotes-il-10-expression-and-suppressive-activity-by-cd45rbhi-t-cells
#1
Janice C Jun, Mark B Jones, Douglas M Oswald, Edward S Sim, Amruth R Jonnalagadda, Lori S C Kreisman, Brian A Cobb
While Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent one of the best characterized innate immune pathways, evidence suggests that TLRs are not restricted to innate leukocytes and some epithelial cells, but are also expressed in T cells. Specifically, published evidence focusing on FoxP3+ regulatory T cells demonstrate that they express functional TLR2, which is already known among the TLR family for its association with immune suppression; however, little is known about the relationship between T cell-intrinsic TLR2 binding and cytokine production, T cell differentiation, or T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740496/evaluation-of-antigen-specific-igm-and-igg-production-during-an-in-vitro-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-culture-assay
#2
Yoshiko Matsuda, Ryoichi Imamura, Shiro Takahara
The recent attention given to diseases associated with memory B-cell (mBC)-produced antibodies (Abs) suggests the need for a similar in vitro assay to evaluate the functions of mBCs. Here, we cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the intent to collect mBC-derived Abs in vitro and maintain their cell-cell contact-dependent interactions with helper T-cells. PBMCs were cultured with interleukin (IL)-21, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and phytohemagglutinin/leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) in 24-well flat-bottom plates (5 × 10(5) cells/well)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739115/a-recombinant-protein-of-salmonella-typhi-induces-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-including-memory-responses
#3
Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Santasabuj Das
Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. The currently licensed vaccines are moderately efficacious with limited applicability, and no recommended vaccines exist for younger children...
July 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739077/t-bet-expressing-b-cells-during-hiv-and-hcv-infections
#4
James J Knox, David E Kaplan, Michael R Betts
T-bet-expressing B cells, first identified as perpetuators of autoimmunity, were recently shown to be critical for murine antiviral responses. While their role in human viral infections remains unclear, B cells expressing T-bet or demonstrating a related phenotype have been described in individuals chronically infected with HIV or HCV, suggesting these cells represent a component of human antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the induction of T-bet in B cells following both HIV and HCV infections, the factors driving T-bet(+) B cell expansions, T-bet's relationship to atypical memory B cells, and the consequences of T-bet induction...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738289/germinal-center-enhancement-by-extended-antigen-availability
#5
REVIEW
Kimberly M Cirelli, Shane Crotty
Vaccine elicitation of protective antibody responses has proved difficult for a number of important human pathogens, including HIV-1. The amount of somatic hypermutation associated with the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV has not been achieved using conventional immunization strategies. An underexplored aspect of vaccine design is modulation of antigen kinetics. Immunization strategies with extended antigen availability have recently been shown to enhance humoral responses. In this review, we explore the mechanisms through which sustained antigen availability can enhance germinal center responses and the potency of antibody responses...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738020/resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-skin-mediate-durable-immunity-to-melanoma
#6
Brian T Malik, Katelyn T Byrne, Jennifer L Vella, Peisheng Zhang, Tamer B Shabaneh, Shannon M Steinberg, Aleksey K Molodtsov, Jacob S Bowers, Christina V Angeles, Chrystal M Paulos, Yina H Huang, Mary Jo Turk
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been widely characterized in infectious disease settings; however, their role in mediating immunity to cancer remains unknown. We report that skin-resident memory T cell responses to melanoma are generated naturally as a result of autoimmune vitiligo. Melanoma antigen-specific TRM cells resided predominantly in melanocyte-depleted hair follicles and were maintained without recirculation or replenishment from the lymphoid compartment. These cells expressed CD103, CD69, and CLA (cutaneous lymphocyte antigen), but lacked PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) or LAG-3 (lymphocyte activation gene-3), and were capable of making IFN-γ (interferon-γ)...
April 14, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736941/in-vivo-neutralization-of-%C3%AE-4-and-%C3%AE-7-integrins-inhibits-eosinophil-trafficking-and-prevents-lung-injury-during-tropical-pulmonary-eosinophilia-in-mice
#7
Pankaj Sharma, Aditi Sharma, Mrigank Srivastava
Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Results show an intact lung barrier, significantly lower lung inflammation and reduced eosinophil counts in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs of mice receiving anti-α4(+) β7 treatment...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736829/clonal-analysis-of-regulatory-t-cell-defect-in-patients-with-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1-suggests-intrathymic-impairment
#8
Tuisku-Tuulia Koivula, Sini M Laakso, Heikki J Niemi, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Pia Laine, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen, T Petteri Arstila
Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene disrupt thymic T cell development and negative selection, leading to the recessively inherited polyendocrine autoimmune disease APS-1 (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1). The patients also have a functional defect in the FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell population, but its origin is unclear. Here we have used T cell receptor sequencing to analyze the clonal relationship of major CD4(+) T cell subsets in 3 patients and 3 healthy controls. The naive regulatory T cells showed little overlap with helper T cell subsets, supporting divergence in the thymus...
July 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736431/combined-blockade-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-3-and-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-results-in-durable-therapeutic-efficacy-in-mice-with-intracranial-gliomas
#9
Jinhu Li, Xiaodong Liu, Yijun Duan, Yueting Liu, Hongqin Wang, Shizhong Lian, Guotao Zhuang, Yimin Fan
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) evades immune surveillance by inducing immunosuppression via receptor-ligand interactions between immune checkpoint molecules. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a key checkpoint receptor responsible for exhaustion and dysfunction of T cells and plays a critical role in immunosuppression. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) has been recently identified as a heterophilic ligand for Tim-3. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established an intracranial GBM model using C57BL/6 mice and GL261 cells, and treated the mice with single or combined monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Tim-3/CEACAM1...
July 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736194/the-epigenetic-drug-trichostatin-a-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-via-t-cell-tolerance-induction-and-impaired-influx-of-t-cells-into-the-spinal-cord
#10
Arathi Jayaraman, Advait Soni, Bellur Prabhakar, Mark Holterman, Sundararajan Jayaraman
Multiple sclerosis is a T cell mediated chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although currently available therapies reduce relapses, they do not facilitate tolerization of myelin antigen-specific T lymphocytes to ensure prolonged protection against multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that treatment of NOD mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A affords robust protection against myelin peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735813/atypical-memory-b-cells-in-human-chronic-infectious-diseases-an-interim-report
#11
Silvia Portugal, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Susan Moir, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735808/autoimmunity-and-its-association-with-regulatory-t-cells-and-b-cell-subsets-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#12
G Azizi, H Abolhassani, F Kiaee, N Tavakolinia, H Rafiemanesh, R Yazdani, S A Mahdaviani, S Mohammadikhajehdehi, M Tavakol, V Ziaee, B Negahdari, J Mohammadi, A Mirshafiey, A Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which manifests a wide clinical variability such as autoimmunity, as well as T cell and B cell abnormalities. METHODS: A total of 72 patients with CVID were enrolled in this study. Patients were evaluated for clinical manifestations and classified according to the presence or absence of autoimmune disease. We measured regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B-cell subsets using flow cytometry, as well as specific antibody response (SAR) to pneumococcal vaccine, autoantibodies and anti-IgA in patients...
July 20, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734743/adjuvantation-of-inactivated-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-vaccine-with-il-15-expressing-plasmid-improves-the-immune-response-in-guinea-pigs
#13
Vijay Nagaraj, Lijo John, Singaram Bharatiraja, Hosur Joyappa Dechamma, Golla Ramalinga Reddy
Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. Vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. As the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. Inclusion of adjuvant which enhances B and T cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. Interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine which improves the cell mediated immune response and also involved in the maintenance of memory T and B cells...
July 19, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734175/cd8-t-cell-programming-by-cytomegalovirus-vectors-applications-in-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-vaccination
#14
REVIEW
Klaus Früh, Louis Picker
Vectors based on cytomegalovirus (CMV) represent a novel vaccine platform that maintains high frequencies of non-exhausted effector memory T cells in both CMV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals. In non-human primate models, CMV vectored vaccines provide unprecedented protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Moreover, CMV vectors can be genetically altered to program highly diverse CD8+ T cell responses that differ in their epitope targeting including conventional, MHC-I restricted CD8+ T cells as well as unconventional CD8+ T cells restricted by MHC class II or non-polymorphic MHC-E...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733665/human-intrahepatic-cd69%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cd8-t-cells-have-a-tissue-resident-memory-t-cell-phenotype-with-reduced-cytolytic-capacity
#15
Femke Stelma, Annikki de Niet, Marjan J Sinnige, Karel A van Dort, Klaas P J M van Gisbergen, Joanne Verheij, Ester M M van Leeuwen, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) have been identified in various tissues, however human liver TRM to date remain unidentified. TRM can be recognized by CD69 and/or CD103 expression and may play a role in the pathology of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatitis C virus infection (CHC). Liver and paired blood mononuclear cells from 17 patients (including 4 CHB and 6 CHC patients) were isolated and CD8+ T cells were comprehensively analysed by flowcytometry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The majority of intrahepatic CD8+ T cells expressed CD69, a marker used to identify TRM, of which a subset co-expressed CD103...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733576/mait-cells-accumulate-in-placental-intervillous-space-and-display-a-highly-cytotoxic-phenotype-upon-bacterial-stimulation
#16
Martin Solders, Laia Gorchs, Tom Erkers, Anna-Carin Lundell, Silvia Nava, Sebastian Gidlöf, Eleonor Tiblad, Isabelle Magalhaes, Helen Kaipe
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must tolerate the developing foetus, and yet retain a potent antimicrobial response to prevent infections. Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognize microbial-derived vitamin B metabolites presented on the MR1 molecule, but their presence and function at the foetal-maternal interface is not known. We here isolated mononuclear cells from paired samples of peripheral blood (PB), intervillous blood (IVB), and decidua parietalis (DP) following uncomplicated term pregnancies...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733529/immunotherapy-of-wap-tnp-mice-with-early-stage-mammary-gland-tumors
#17
Michael Bruns, Wolfgang Deppert
The SV40 transgenic BALB/c mouse based WAP-T/WAP-TNP model for triple-negative breast cancer allows the analysis of parameters influencing immunotherapeutic approaches. Except for WAP-TNP tumors expressing the immune-dominant LCMV NP-epitope within SV40 T-antigen (T-AgNP) which is not expressed by T-Ag of WAP-T tumors, the tumors are extremely similar. Comparative anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy of WAP-T and WAP-TNP mice supported the hypothesis that the immunogenicity of tumor antigen T-cell epitopes strongly influences the success of immune checkpoint blockade therapy, with highly immunogenic T-cell epitopes favoring rapid CTL exhaustion...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732781/immunoglobulin-and-b-cell-disturbances-in-patients-with-chronic-idiopathic-neutropenia
#18
Irene Mavroudi, Aristides G Eliopoulos, Charalampos Pontikoglou, Katerina Pyrovolaki, Athina Damianaki, Helen Koutala, Maria I Zervou, Maria Ximeri, Semeli Mastrodemou, Peggy Kanellou, George N Goulielmos, Helen A Papadaki
Chronic idiopathic neutropenia (CIN) is a granulocytic disorder associated with presence of activated, myelosuppressive T-lymphocytes. In the present study we have evaluated constituents of humoral immunity in CIN patients (n=48) compared to healthy controls (n=52). CIN patients displayed lower serum IgG levels due to a reduction in IgG1, IgG3, IgG4 but not IgG2, lower IgA and increased IgM levels compared to controls. The proportion of CD19(+) cells did not differ between patients and controls; however the proportion of the naïve IgD(+)/CD27(-) B-cells was increased and the proportion of class-switched memory IgD(-)/CD27(+) B-cells was decreased in the patients...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732506/new-insights-into-blimp-1-in-t-lymphocytes-a-divergent-regulator-of-cell-destiny-and-effector-function
#19
REVIEW
Shin-Huei Fu, Li-Tzu Yeh, Chin-Chen Chu, B Lin-Ju Yen, Huey-Kang Sytwu
B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) serves as a master regulator of the development and function of antibody-producing B cells. Given that its function in T lymphocytes has been identified within the past decade, we review recent findings with emphasis on its role in coordinated control of gene expression during the development, differentiation, and function of T cells. Expression of Blimp-1 is mainly confined to activated T cells and is essential for the production of interleukin (IL)-10 by a subset of forkhead box (Fox)p3(+) regulatory T cells with an effector phenotype...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732046/qualitative-differences-in-cellular-immunogenicity-elicited-by-hepatitis-c-virus-t-cell-vaccines-employing-prime-boost-regimens
#20
Wendy G Tan, Iryna Zubkova, Alla Kachko, Frances Wells, Heiko Adler, Gerd Sutter, Marian E Major
T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. We then tracked the vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses using pentamer binding and cytokine production analysis...
2017: PloS One
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