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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936095/dual-specificity-phosphatase-5-is-essential-for-t-cell-survival
#1
Raman G Kutty, Gang Xin, David M Schauder, Stephanie M Cossette, Michelle Bordas, Weiguo Cui, Ramani Ramchandran
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates many key cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. The final proteins in this pathway, ERK1/2, are regulated by dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5). DUSP5 is a nuclear, inducible phosphatase with high affinity and fidelity for ERK1/2. By regulating the final step in the MAPK signaling cascade, DUSP5 exerts strong regulatory control over a central cellular pathway. Like other DUSPs, DUSP5 plays an important role in immune function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934764/gliogenic-ltp-spreads-widely-in-nociceptive-pathways
#2
M T Kronschläger, R Drdla-Schutting, M Gassner, S D Honsek, H L Teuchmann, J Sandkühler
Learning and memory formation involve long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength. A fundamental feature of LTP induction in the brain is the need for coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity. This restricts LTP expression to activated synapses only (homosynaptic LTP) and leads to its input specificity. In the spinal cord, we discovered a fundamentally different form of LTP that is induced by glial cell activation and mediated by diffusible, extracellular messengers, including d-serine and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and that travel long distances via the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby affecting susceptible synapses at remote sites...
December 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932619/ontogeny-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-with-phenotypic-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-during-exclusive-and-non-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-hiv-1-exposed-ugandan-infants
#3
Elizabeth J McFarland, Tina M Powell, Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi, Weiming Zhang, Kelsey Melander, Prossy Naluyima, Samuel Okurut, Michael A Eller, Mary Glenn Fowler, Edward N Janoff
BACKGROUND: Among HIV-1-exposed infants, mixed breastfeeding is associated with higher postnatal HIV-1 transmission than exclusive breastfeeding, but the mechanisms of this differential risk are uncertain. METHODS: HIV-1-exposed, Ugandan infants were prospectively assessed over the first year of life for feeding practices and T cell maturation, intestinal homing (β7(hi)), activation, and HIV-1 co-receptor (CCR5) expression in peripheral blood. Infants receiving only breast milk and those with introduction of other foods prior to 6 months, categorized as exclusive and non-exclusive, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929135/early-life-vaccination-generation-of-adult-quality-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-infant-mice-using-non-replicating-adenoviral-vectors
#4
Loulieta Nazerai, Maria R Bassi, Ida E M Uddback, Peter J Holst, Jan P Christensen, Allan R Thomsen
Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927969/combined-single-cell-measurement-of-cytokine-mrna-and-protein-identifies-t-cells-with-persistent-effector-function
#5
Benoit P Nicolet, Aurelie Guislain, Monika C Wolkers
Effective T cell responses entail the coproduction of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. Cytokine production is determined by transcriptional and posttranscriptional events. However, increased transcript levels do not always translate into protein production, and therefore simultaneous transcripts and protein measurement are essential for the appropriate analysis of T cell responses. In this study, we optimized flow cytometry-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (Flow-FISH) for IFN-γ to multicolor flow cytometry that allows for single-cell measurement of mRNA and protein levels...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926546/the-effect-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-t-cell-alloimmunity
#6
Pamela D Winterberg, Mandy L Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Altered differentiation and activation of T-cell subsets occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the impact on graft rejection and protective immunity during transplantation are not fully understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with CKD have decreased frequency of naïve T cells, accumulation of activated, terminally differentiated memory cells, and skewed regulatory versus T helper 17 ratio. Naïve and memory T-cell subsets do not appear to improve following kidney transplantation...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925349/hepatitis-c-viremia-reversibly-maintains-subset-of-antigen-specific-t-bet-tissue-like-memory-b-cells
#7
Li-Yuan Chang, Yonghai Li, David E Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Chronic antigen exposure and/or aging increases the frequency of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet)-expressing B-lymphocytes in mice. The frequency and significance of B-cell T-bet expression during chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection in human subjects has never been described. METHODS: Healthy controls, cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic HCV-infected patients, and non-HCV patients with cirrhosis were recruited. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were phenotyped for expression of T-bet and related markers by flow cytometry...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923906/cd4-t-cell-effector-commitment-coupled-to-self-renewal-by-asymmetric-cell-divisions
#8
Simone A Nish, Kyra D Zens, Radomir Kratchmarov, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, William C Adams, Yen-Hua Chen, Bonnie Yen, Nyanza J Rothman, Avinash Bhandoola, Hai-Hui Xue, Donna L Farber, Steven L Reiner
Upon infection, an activated CD4(+) T cell produces terminally differentiated effector cells and renews itself for continued defense. In this study, we show that differentiation and self-renewal arise as opposing outcomes of sibling CD4(+) T cells. After influenza challenge, antigen-specific cells underwent several divisions in draining lymph nodes (LN; DLNs) while maintaining expression of TCF1. After four or five divisions, some cells silenced, whereas some cells maintained TCF1 expression. TCF1-silenced cells were T helper 1-like effectors and concentrated in the lungs...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923881/the-ligands-of-translocator-protein-inhibit-human-th1-responses-and-the-rejection-of-murine-skin-allografts
#9
Yannan Zhang, Sifei Yu, Xiaomin Li, Binyan Yang, Changyou Wu
The translocator protein (TSPO) ligands impacted inflammatory and immune responses. However, the exact effects of TSPO ligands on Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo are still unclear. In the current study, we found that TSPO ligands, FGIN1-27 and Ro5-4864, suppressed the cytokine production in a dose- dependent manner by purified human CD4(+) T cells from PBMCs after stimulation. TSPO ligands inhibited the production of IFN-γ by memory CD4(+) T cells and the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into Th1 cells via  suppressing the activity of the corresponding transcription factors as indicated by reduced expression of T-bet and downregulation of STAT1, STAT4 and STAT5 phosphorylation...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923570/recombinant-dna-vaccine-of-hantavirus-gn-and-lamp1-induced-long-term-immune-protection-in-mice
#10
Dong-Bo Jiang, Li-Juan Sun, Lin-Feng Cheng, Jin-Peng Zhang, Shao-Bo Xiao, Yuan-Jie Sun, Shu-Ya Yang, Jing Wang, Fang-Lin Zhang, Kun Yang
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis is widely adopted the best choice against Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantavirus. However, loss of memory immune response maintenance remains as major shortcoming in current HFRS vaccine. A recombinant DNA vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gn was previously proved efficient, requiring long-term evaluations. METHODS & RESULTS: Immune responses of Balb/c mice were assessed by specific and neutralizing antibodies, interferon-γ ELISpot assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay...
December 3, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922637/a-human-carboxypeptidase-e-nf-%C3%AE-1-gene-mutation-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-patient-leads-to-dementia-and-depression-in-mice
#11
Y Cheng, N X Cawley, T Yanik, S R K Murthy, C Liu, F Kasikci, D Abebe, Y P Loh
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common dementia among the aging population, often also suffer from depression. This comorbidity is poorly understood. Although most forms of AD are not genetically inherited, we have identified a new human mutation in the carboxypeptidase E (CPE)/neurotrophic factor-α1 (NF-α1) gene from an AD patient that caused memory deficit and depressive-like behavior in transgenic mice. This mutation consists of three adenosine inserts, introducing nine amino acids, including two glutamines into the mutant protein, herein called CPE-QQ...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921415/the-roles-of-t-helper-1-t-helper-17-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sarcoidosis
#12
Esmaeil Mortaz, Fatemeh Rezayat, Davar Amani, Arda Kiani, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Aliakbar Velayati
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unidentified etiology, with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is characterized by a reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin and common antigens. The balance between Th1, Th17 and Regulatory T(Treg) cells controls T-cell proliferation and activation.The Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluidis increased in patients with active sarcoidosis. Amplified IL-17A expression in granulomas and the presence of IL-17A+, IL-17A+IL-4+ and IL-17A+IFN-γ+ memory T helper cells in the circulation and BAL indicate Th17 cell involvement in granuloma induction and/or maintenance in sarcoidosis...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920277/the%C3%A2-diffuse%C3%A2-reduction%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-spleen%C3%A2-density-%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-indicator%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-severe%C3%A2-acute%C3%A2-pancreatitis
#13
Guangdong Shao, Yanmei Zhou, Zengfu Song, Maitao Jiang, Xiaoqian Wang, Xiangren Jin, Bei Sun, Xuewei Bai
BACKGROUND: We observed that acute pancreatitis (AP) was associated with diffuse reduction of spleen density (DROSD) in some patients. Furthermore, the condition of these patients was more serious, and the potential relationship between DROSD and structural and functional injury of the spleen remained unclear. Therefore, we performed a preliminary exploration of these factors. METHODS: We analysed pertinent clinical data for AP patients with normal spleen density (control group) and for those with DROSD (reduction group) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (2013...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918476/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-in-preterm-infants-is-associated-with-allergic-diseases-and-the-mental-development-index-in-children
#14
Wan-Ning Tseng, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hong-Ren Yu, Li-Tung Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo
Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916087/-the-regulatory-role-of-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-the-proliferation-and-activation-of-memory-t-cells
#15
Lei Luo, Guangheng Luo, Qian Fang, Shan Huang, Hui Chen
Objective To study the regulatory effect of Wnt signaling pathway on the activation and proliferation of memory T cells (TMs). Methods We established the mouse model of skin allograft transplantation (BALB/c-C57BL/6), and then we sorted and cultured immature dendritic cells (imDCs), mature dendritic cells (mDCs) and TMs from the C57BL/6 mice by immunomagnetic bead cell sorting. The imDCs or mDCs loading antigens from BALB/c mice were co-cultured with TMs in a 96-well plate or Transwell(TM) plate (MLR). The (3)H-TdR was used to detect the proliferation of TMs...
December 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914462/recombinant-mhc-tetramers-for-isolation-of-virus-specific-cd8-cells-from-healthy-donors-potential-approach-for-cell-therapy-of-posttransplant-cytomegalovirus-infection
#16
A S Vdovin, S Y Filkin, P R Yefimova, S A Sheetikov, N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, E S Egorov, E G Khamaganova, M Y Drokov, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, G A Efimov, V G Savchenko
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913304/effects-of-nongenetic-factors-on-immune-cell-dynamics-in-early-childhood-the-generation-r-study
#17
Diana van den Heuvel, Michelle A E Jansen, Kazem Nasserinejad, Willem A Dik, Ellen G van Lochem, Liesbeth E Bakker-Jonges, Halima Bouallouch-Charif, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herbert Hooijkaas, Jacques J M van Dongen, Henriëtte A Moll, Menno C van Zelm
BACKGROUND: . Numbers of blood leukocyte subsets are highly dynamic in childhood and differ greatly between individuals. Inter-individual variation is only partly accounted for by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Determine which nongenetic factors affect the dynamics of innate leukocytes, and naive and memory lymphocyte subsets. METHODS: . We performed six-color flow cytometry and linear mixed effect modeling to define the dynamics of 62 leukocyte subsets from birth to 6 years of age in 1,182 children with one to five measurements per individual...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912762/regulation-of-effector-function-of-cns-autoreactive-cd4-t-cells-through-inhibitory-receptors-and-il-7r%C3%AE
#18
Patrick K Nuro-Gyina, Elizabeth L Rieser, Marissa C Granitto, Wei Pei, Yue Liu, Priscilla W Lee, Saba Aqel, Jian Zhang, Amy E Lovett-Racke, Michael K Racke, Yuhong Yang
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic CNS autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal degeneration, where myelin-specific CD4 T cells play critical roles in the formation of acute MS lesions and disease progression. The suppression of IL-7Rα expression and the upregulation of inhibitory receptors (PD-1, etc.) are essential parts of the cell-intrinsic immunosuppressive program regulating T effector functions to prevent autoimmunity. However, little is known on the factors regulating IL-7Rα/PD-1 balance in myelin-specific CD4 T effector/memory cells during the development of CNS autoimmunity...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#19
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#20
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
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