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Ethanol and nicotine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455292/effects-of-the-nicotinic-agonist-varenicline-nicotinic-antagonist-r-bpidi-and-dat-inhibitor-r-modafinil-on-co-use-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-in-female-p-rats
#1
Sarah E Maggio, Meredith A Saunders, Thomas A Baxter, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A Prendergast, Guangrong Zheng, Peter Crooks, Linda P Dwoskin, Rachel D Slack, Amy H Newman, Richard L Bell, Michael T Bardo
RATIONALE: Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. OBJECTIVES: Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs...
February 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433673/codonopsis-lanceolata-extract-prevents-hypertension-in-rats
#2
A Young Han, Young Seok Lee, Soonho Kwon, Hui Su Lee, Kwang-Won Lee, Geun Hee Seol
BACKGROUND: Codonopsis lanceolata, a plant with antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and blood lipid improving effects, has been widely used as a therapeutic agent in traditional medicine. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the ability of an ethanol extract of Codonopsis lanceolata (ECL) to prevent hypertension in hypertensive rats. METHODS: Rats were orally administered daily doses of 0 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg ECL for 3 weeks...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423839/molecular-neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-interactions
#3
Paul M Klenowski, Andrew R Tapper
Ethanol and nicotine can modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems and signalling pathways. Interactions between ethanol and nicotine can also occur via common molecular targets including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These effects can induce molecular and synaptic adaptations that over time, are consolidated in brain circuits that reinforce drug-seeking behavior, contribute to the development of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and increase the susceptibility to relapse. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic effects of ethanol and nicotine within the mesolimbic reward pathway and brain circuits involved in learning, memory, and withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363042/potential-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathophysiology-of-drug-addiction
#4
REVIEW
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246856/the-behavioral-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-potential-of-lorcaserin-for-substance-use-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Gregory T Collins, Lisa R Gerak, Charles P France
Substance abuse is serious public health problem for which there are few effective pharmacotherapies. Traditional strategies for drug development have focused on antagonists to block the abuse-related effects of a drug at its site of action, and agonists to replace/mimic the effects of the abused substance. However, recent efforts have targeted receptors, such as serotonin (5-HT)2 receptors, that can indirectly modulate dopamine neurotransmission with the goal of developing a pharmacotherapy that might be effective at reducing the abuse-related effects of drugs more generally...
December 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179044/nicotine-as-a-discriminative-stimulus-for-ethanol-use
#6
Brett C Ginsburg, Simon A Levy, R J Lamb
Abused drugs reinforce behavior; i.e., they increase the probability of the behavior preceding their administration. Abused drugs can also act as discriminative stimuli; i.e., they can set the occasion for responding reinforced by another event. Thus, one abused drug could come to set the occasion for the use of another and this functional relationship may play a role in polysubstance abuse, where common patterns of use could result in this relationship. Here we establish nicotine (0.4mg/kg, ip 5-min pre-session) as a discriminative stimulus for behavior reinforced by ethanol (0...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168193/the-effects-of-long-term-varenicline-administration-on-ethanol-and-sucrose-seeking-and-self-administration-in-male-p-rats
#7
Cristine L Czachowski, Janice C Froehlich, Michael DeLory
BACKGROUND: Varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2 and full agonist at α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors, is FDA approved for treatment of smoking cessation and has been found to reduce alcohol craving in clinical populations. In rodents, varenicline decreases free-choice ethanol intake with somewhat mixed findings in operant paradigms that utilize a combined appetitive/consummatory response. METHODS: The present experiment utilized an operant paradigm that procedurally separates appetitive from consummatory responding and a "reward blocking" approach (i...
November 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157816/effect-of-ipomoea-aquatica-ethanolic-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#8
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Nur Sumirah Mohd Dom, Chandradevan Machap, Muhajir Hamid, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown. PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#9
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109060/cannabinoid-1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-reduces-binge-like-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-induced-accumbal-dopaminergic-signaling
#10
Andrea Balla, Bin Dong, Borehalli M Shilpa, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Subhash C Pandey, Henry Sershen, Raymond F Suckow, K Yaragudri Vinod
Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is associated with profound adverse effects on our health and society. Rimonabant (SR141716A), a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, was previously shown to be effective for nicotine cessation and obesity. However, studies using rimonabant were discontinued as it was associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety. In the present study, we examined the pharmacokinetics and effects of AM4113, a novel CB1 receptor neutral antagonist on binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice using a two-bottle choice drinking-in-dark (DID) paradigm...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#11
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046158/e-cigarettes-impact-of-e-liquid-components-and-device-characteristics-on-nicotine-exposure
#12
Elise E DeVito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased substantially in recent years. While e-cigarettes have been proposed as a potentially effective smoking cessation tool, dual-use in smokers is common and e-cigarettes are widely used by non-smokers, including youth and young-adult non-smokers. Nicotine, the primary addictive component in cigarettes, is present at varying levels in many e-liquids. E-cigarettes may lead to initiation of nicotine use in adult and youth non-smokers, re-initiation of nicotine dependence in ex-smokers or increased severity of nicotine dependence in dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994497/effects-of-vernonia-cinerea-compounds-on-drug-metabolizing-cytochrome-p450s-in-human-liver-microsomes
#13
Phisit Pouyfung, Songklod Sarapusit, Pornpimol Rongnoparut
Vernonia cinerea has been widely used in traditional medicines for various diseases and shown to aid in smoking abstinence and has anticancer properties. V. cinerea bioactive compounds, including flavonoids and hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, have shown an inhibition effect on the nicotine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme and hirsutinolides reported suppressing cancer growth. In this study, V. cinerea ethanol extract and its bioactive compounds, including four flavonoids and four hirsutinolides, were investigated for an inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 using cocktail inhibition assays combined with LC-MS/MS analysis...
October 10, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922393/a-set-of-nutrient-limitations-trigger-yeast-cell-death-in-a-nitrogen-dependent-manner-during-wine-alcoholic-fermentation
#14
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901722/%C3%AE-6-subunit-containing-nicotinic-receptors-mediate-low-dose-ethanol-effects-on-ventral-tegmental-area-neurons-and-ethanol-reward
#15
Scott C Steffensen, Samuel I Shin, Ashley C Nelson, Stephanie S Pistorius, Stephanie B Williams, Taylor J Woodward, Hyun Jung Park, Lindsey Friend, Ming Gao, Fenfei Gao, Devin H Taylor, M Foster Olive, Jeffrey G Edwards, Sterling N Sudweeks, Lori M Buhlman, J Michael McIntosh, Jie Wu
Dopamine (DA) neuron excitability is regulated by inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α6 subunit-containing nAChRs (α6*-nAChRs) in acute ethanol effects on ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA and DA neurons. α6*-nAChRs were visualized on GABA terminals on VTA GABA neurons, and α6*-nAChR transcripts were expressed in most DA neurons, but only a minority of VTA GABA neurons from GAD67 GFP mice...
September 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860980/chronic-nicotine-exposure-initiated-in-adolescence-and-unpaired-to-behavioral-context-fails-to-enhance-sweetened-ethanol-seeking
#16
Aric C Madayag, Kyle S Czarnecki, Lynde M Wangler, Donita L Robinson
Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833225/the-glycine-receptor-a-functionally-important-primary-brain-target-of-ethanol
#17
REVIEW
Bo Söderpalm, Helga H Lidö, Mia Ericson
Identification of ethanol's (EtOH) primary molecular brain targets and determination of their functional role is an ongoing, important quest. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, that is, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 , and the glycine receptor (GlyR), are such targets. Here, aspects of the structure and function of these receptors and EtOH's interaction with them are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on the GlyR and the importance of this receptor and its ligands for EtOH pharmacology...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799486/development-and-validation-of-chemometric-spectrophotometric-methods-for-simultaneous-determination-of-simvastatin-and-nicotinic-acid-in-binary-combinations
#18
Shoeb Alahmad, Hamed M Elfatatry, Mokhtar M Mabrouk, Sherin F Hammad, Fotouh R Mansour
BACKGROUND: The development and introduction of combined therapy represent a challenge for analysis due to severe overlapping of their UV spectra in case of spectroscopy or the requirement of a long tedious and high cost separation technique in case of chromatography. Quality control laboratories have to develop and validate suitable analytical procedures in order to assay such multi component preparations. METHOD: New spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin (SIM) and nicotinic acid (NIA) in binary combinations were developed...
August 10, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#19
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589264/habitual-nicotine-seeking-in-rats-following-limited-training
#20
A Loughlin, D Funk, K Coen, A D Lê
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A potential reason that cigarette smoking can persist despite multiple quit attempts is that repeated voluntary nicotine intake may facilitate a transition from goal-directed to habitual behavioral control. Although accelerated habit formation for self-administered ethanol or cocaine has been previously demonstrated, this phenomenon has not been extensively studied with nicotine. We therefore examined the liability of nicotine self-administration to become habitual, while also examining that of orally consumed saccharin as an experimental control...
June 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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