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Ethanol and nicotine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179044/nicotine-as-a-discriminative-stimulus-for-ethanol-use
#1
Brett C Ginsburg, Simon A Levy, R J Lamb
Abused drugs reinforce behavior; i.e., they increase the probability of the behavior preceding their administration. Abused drugs can also act as discriminative stimuli; i.e., they can set the occasion for responding reinforced by another event. Thus, one abused drug could come to set the occasion for the use of another and this functional relationship may play a role in polysubstance abuse, where common patterns of use could result in this relationship. Here we establish nicotine (0.4mg/kg, ip 5-min pre-session) as a discriminative stimulus for behavior reinforced by ethanol (0...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168193/the-effects-of-long-term-varenicline-administration-on-ethanol-and-sucrose-seeking-and-self-administration-in-male-p-rats
#2
Cristine L Czachowski, Janice C Froehlich, Michael DeLory
BACKGROUND: Varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2 and full agonist at α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors, is FDA approved for treatment of smoking cessation and has been found to reduce alcohol craving in clinical populations. In rodents, varenicline decreases free-choice ethanol intake with somewhat mixed findings in operant paradigms that utilize a combined appetitive/consummatory response. METHODS: The present experiment utilized an operant paradigm that procedurally separates appetitive from consummatory responding and a "reward blocking" approach (i...
November 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157816/effect-of-ipomoea-aquatica-ethanolic-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#3
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Nur Sumirah Mohd Dom, Chandradevan Machap, Muhajir Hamid, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown. PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#4
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109060/cannabinoid-1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-reduces-binge-like-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-induced-accumbal-dopaminergic-signaling
#5
Andrea Balla, Bin Dong, Borehalli M Shilpa, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Subhash C Pandey, Henry Sershen, Raymond F Suckow, K Yaragudri Vinod
Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is associated with profound adverse effects on our health and society. Rimonabant (SR141716A), a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, was previously shown to be effective for nicotine cessation and obesity. However, studies using rimonabant were discontinued as it was associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety. In the present study, we examined the pharmacokinetics and effects of AM4113, a novel CB1 receptor neutral antagonist on binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice using a two-bottle choice drinking-in-dark (DID) paradigm...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#6
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046158/e-cigarettes-impact-of-e-liquid-components-and-device-characteristics-on-nicotine-exposure
#7
Elise E DeVito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased substantially in recent years. While e-cigarettes have been proposed as a potentially effective smoking cessation tool, dual-use in smokers is common and e-cigarettes are widely used by non-smokers, including youth and young-adult non-smokers. Nicotine, the primary addictive component in cigarettes, is present at varying levels in many e-liquids. E-cigarettes may lead to initiation of nicotine use in adult and youth non-smokers, re-initiation of nicotine dependence in ex-smokers or increased severity of nicotine dependence in dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994497/effects-of-vernonia-cinerea-compounds-on-drug-metabolizing-cytochrome-p450s-in-human-liver-microsomes
#8
Phisit Pouyfung, Songklod Sarapusit, Pornpimol Rongnoparut
Vernonia cinerea has been widely used in traditional medicines for various diseases and shown to aid in smoking abstinence and has anticancer properties. V. cinerea bioactive compounds, including flavonoids and hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, have shown an inhibition effect on the nicotine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme and hirsutinolides reported suppressing cancer growth. In this study, V. cinerea ethanol extract and its bioactive compounds, including four flavonoids and four hirsutinolides, were investigated for an inhibitory effect on human liver microsomal CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 using cocktail inhibition assays combined with LC-MS/MS analysis...
October 10, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922393/a-set-of-nutrient-limitations-trigger-yeast-cell-death-in-a-nitrogen-dependent-manner-during-wine-alcoholic-fermentation
#9
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901722/%C3%AE-6-subunit-containing-nicotinic-receptors-mediate-low-dose-ethanol-effects-on-ventral-tegmental-area-neurons-and-ethanol-reward
#10
Scott C Steffensen, Samuel I Shin, Ashley C Nelson, Stephanie S Pistorius, Stephanie B Williams, Taylor J Woodward, Hyun Jung Park, Lindsey Friend, Ming Gao, Fenfei Gao, Devin H Taylor, M Foster Olive, Jeffrey G Edwards, Sterling N Sudweeks, Lori M Buhlman, J Michael McIntosh, Jie Wu
Dopamine (DA) neuron excitability is regulated by inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α6 subunit-containing nAChRs (α6*-nAChRs) in acute ethanol effects on ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA and DA neurons. α6*-nAChRs were visualized on GABA terminals on VTA GABA neurons, and α6*-nAChR transcripts were expressed in most DA neurons, but only a minority of VTA GABA neurons from GAD67 GFP mice...
September 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860980/chronic-nicotine-exposure-initiated-in-adolescence-and-unpaired-to-behavioral-context-fails-to-enhance-sweetened-ethanol-seeking
#11
Aric C Madayag, Kyle S Czarnecki, Lynde M Wangler, Donita L Robinson
Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833225/the-glycine-receptor-a-functionally-important-primary-brain-target-of-ethanol
#12
REVIEW
Bo Söderpalm, Helga H Lidö, Mia Ericson
Identification of ethanol's (EtOH) primary molecular brain targets and determination of their functional role is an ongoing, important quest. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, that is, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 , and the glycine receptor (GlyR), are such targets. Here, aspects of the structure and function of these receptors and EtOH's interaction with them are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on the GlyR and the importance of this receptor and its ligands for EtOH pharmacology...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799486/development-and-validation-of-chemometric-spectrophotometric-methods-for-simultaneous-determination-of-simvastatin-and-nicotinic-acid-in-binary-combinations
#13
Shoeb Alahmad, Hamed M Elfatatry, Mokhtar M Mabrouk, Sherin F Hammad, Fotouh R Mansour
BACKGROUND: The development and introduction of combined therapy represent a challenge for analysis due to severe overlapping of their UV spectra in case of spectroscopy or the requirement of a long tedious and high cost separation technique in case of chromatography. Quality control laboratories have to develop and validate suitable analytical procedures in order to assay such multi component preparations. METHOD: New spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin (SIM) and nicotinic acid (NIA) in binary combinations were developed...
August 10, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589264/habitual-nicotine-seeking-in-rats-following-limited-training
#15
A Loughlin, D Funk, K Coen, A D Lê
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: A potential reason that cigarette smoking can persist despite multiple quit attempts is that repeated voluntary nicotine intake may facilitate a transition from goal-directed to habitual behavioral control. Although accelerated habit formation for self-administered ethanol or cocaine has been previously demonstrated, this phenomenon has not been extensively studied with nicotine. We therefore examined the liability of nicotine self-administration to become habitual, while also examining that of orally consumed saccharin as an experimental control...
June 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585068/a-novel-nitrilase-from-ralstonia-eutropha-h16-and-its-application-to-nicotinic-acid-production
#16
Haiyang Fan, Lifeng Chen, Huihui Sun, Hualei Wang, Yuhong Ren, Dongzhi Wei
A novel aliphatic nitrilase, REH16, was found in Ralstonia eutropha H16 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and its enzymatic properties were studied. The temperature and pH optima were 37 °C and 6.6, respectively, and the best thermostability of the nitrilase was observed at 25 °C, which preserved 95% of activity after 120 h of incubation. REH16 has a broad hydrolytic activity toward aliphatic and heterocyclic nitriles and showed high tolerance of 3-cyanopyridine; this enzyme could hydrolyze as high as 100 mM 3-cyanopyridine completely...
August 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554528/lobeline-attenuates-ethanol-abstinence-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-mice
#17
Monzurul Amin Roni, Shafiqur Rahman
Evidence indicates that the brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) ligand lobeline reduces depression-like behaviors, ethanol drinking, and nicotine withdrawal-induced depression-like behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of lobeline on ethanol abstinence-induced depression-like behavior and associated neuroadaptive changes in mice. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were allowed to drink 10% ethanol for 4 weeks using a two-bottle choice procedure. Mice were tested after 24 h and 14 days of ethanol abstinence in a forced swim test (FST), a measure for depression-like behavior...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549967/hippocampal-nicotinic-receptors-have-a-modulatory-role-for-ethanol-and-mdma-interaction-in-memory-retrieval
#18
Maryam Rostami, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Khadijeh Alsadat Sharifi
The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498868/a-drosophila-model-for-developmental-nicotine-exposure
#19
Norma Andrea Velazquez-Ulloa
Despite the known health risks of tobacco smoking, many people including pregnant women continue smoking. The effects of developmental nicotine exposure are known, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism that can be used for uncovering genetic and molecular mechanisms for drugs of abuse. Here I show that Drosophila can be a model to elucidate the mechanisms for nicotine's effects on a developing organism. Drosophila reared on nicotine food display developmental and behavioral effects similar to those in mammals including decreased survival and weight, increased developmental time, and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine and ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457669/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-influence-locomotor-activity-and-ethanol-consumption
#20
Helen M Kamens, Colette Peck, Caitlin Garrity, Alex Gechlik, Brenita C Jenkins, Akshat Rajan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach...
June 2017: Alcohol
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