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Ethanol and nicotine

Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
While the co-morbidity of alcohol (ethanol) and tobacco (nicotine) dependence is well described, the processes that underpin this strong connection are still under debate. With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), it is now becoming more important to look to the neurobiological mechanisms involving alcohol and nicotine interactions to effectively treat a new generation of co-dependent individuals. Researchers have already recognized that the neuropathology produced by the combination of nicotine and ethanol is likely to produce an addictive nature very different to that of either one alone, and are employing a mixture of pre-clinical techniques to establish and investigate every stage in the development of both nicotine and ethanol-seeking behaviors...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Chang You, Devinder S Arora, Maureen A McElvain, Bertha J Vandegrift, Mark S Brodie, John J Woodward
Drugs of abuse increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and output from the VTA is critical for both natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Ethanol and the abused inhalant toluene both enhance VTA neuronal firing, but the mechanisms of this effect is not fully known. In this study, we used extracellular recordings to compare the actions of toluene and ethanol on DA VTA neurons. Both ethanol and toluene increased the firing rate of DA neurons, although toluene was ~100 times more potent than ethanol...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Laura Micheli, Mario Maresca, Giancarlo Cravotto, Maria Bellumori, Marzia Innocenti, Nadia Mulinacci, Carla Ghelardini
Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery)...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Omkar L Patkar, Arnauld Belmer, Josephine R Tarren, Joan Y Holgate, Selena E Bartlett
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has previously shown that the smoking-cessation agent varenicline, an agonist/partial agonist of α4β2*, α3β4*, α3β2*, α6β2* (* indicates the possibility of additional subunits) and α7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), reduces ethanol consumption in rats only after long-term exposure (12 weeks). As compounds having partial agonistic activity on α3β4* nAChRs were shown to decrease ethanol consumption in rodents, we assessed here the involvement of the β4 subunit in the effect of varenicline in the reduction of short- and long-term binge-like ethanol drinking in mice...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
AIMS: The chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Youwen Xu, Sung Won Kim, Dohyun Kim, David Alexoff, Michael J Schueller, Joanna S Fowler
A rapid, mild radiosynthesis of freebase [(11)C]nicotine was developed by the methylation of freebase nornicotine with [(11)C]methyl triflate in acetone (5min, 45°C). A basic (pH 10.5-11.0) HPLC system reproducibly yielded freebase [(11)C]nicotine as a well-defined single peak. The freebase [(11)C]nicotine was concentrated by solid phase extraction and formulated in 50µL ethanol (370MBq/50µL) without evaporative loss suitable for a cigarette spiking study. A radiochemical yield of 60.4±4.7% (n=3), radiochemical purity ≥99...
August 29, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Mohsen Basiri, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Masoud Ezzatabdipour, Arash Sarv Azad, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahimahani
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is habitually accompanied by the use of other psychoactive substances, mostly tobacco. Nicotine and alcohol affect male accessory reproductive glands function. Most studies have been done on pathologic features of prostate, but there has been no systematic study on the seminal vesicle. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors-beta (ER-β) immune reactivities following long-term treatment of alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances...
2016: Cell Journal
Jeffrey Aalders, Shaukat Ali, Tom J de Jong, Michael K Richardson
In previous publications, we described the population incidence of abnormalities in zebrafish larvae exposed to toxicants. Here, we examine the phenomenon of clustering or co-occurrence of abnormalities in individual larva. Our aim is to see how this clustering can be used to assess the specificity and severity of teratogenic effect. A total of 11,214 surviving larvae, exposed continuously from 1 day postfertilization (dpf) to one of 60 toxicants, were scored at 5 dpf for the presence of eight different abnormal phenotypes...
August 25, 2016: Zebrafish
Chandrika Abburi, Shannon L Wolfman, Ryan A E Metz, Rinya Kamber, Daniel S McGehee, John McDaid
Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration...
July 2016: ENeuro
Mohamad Sleiman, Jennifer M Logue, V Nahuel Montesinos, Marion L Russell, Marta I Litter, Lara A Gundel, Hugo Destaillats
Use of electronic cigarettes has grown exponentially over the past few years, raising concerns about harmful emissions. This study quantified potentially toxic compounds in the vapor and identified key parameters affecting emissions. Six principal constituents in three different refill "e-liquids" were propylene glycol (PG), glycerin, nicotine, ethanol, acetol, and propylene oxide. The latter, with mass concentrations of 0.4-0.6%, is a possible carcinogen and respiratory irritant. Aerosols generated with vaporizers contained up to 31 compounds, including nicotine, nicotyrine, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycidol, acrolein, acetol, and diacetyl...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
John McDaid, Chandrika Abburi, Shannon L Wolfman, Keith Gallagher, Daniel S McGehee
UNLABELLED: Nicotine and ethanol (EtOH) are among the most widely co-abused substances, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute to the behavioral effects of both drugs. Along with their role in addiction, nAChRs also contribute to motor control circuitry. The α7 nAChR subtype is highly expressed in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), a brainstem cholinergic center that contributes to motor performance through its projections to thalamic motor relay centers, including the mediodorsal thalamus...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cassandra L Versaggi, Christopher P King, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. OBJECTIVES: To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers")...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
Victor Ruberio Lincha, Bing-Tian Zhao, Mi-Hee Woo, In-Jun Yang, Heung-Mook Shin
This study investigated the effects of compounds isolated from 70% ethanol (EtOH) extraction of Smilax china L. (SCE), a plant belonging to the family Smilacaceae on nicotine-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We isolated 10 compounds from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of 70% EtOH extract of SCE and investigated their inhibitory effect on nicotine-induced ED in endothelial cells. Kaempferol, kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, puerarin and ferulic acid showed strong inhibition of nicotine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression while kaempferol, kaempferin, and caffeic acid attenuated intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
C R Kasten, A M Frazee, S L Boehm
Although United States smoking rates have been on the decline over the past few decades, cigarette smoking still poses a critical health and economic threat. Very few treatment options for smoking exist, and many of them do not lead to long-term abstinence. Preclinical models are necessary for understanding the effects of nicotine and developing treatments. Current self-administration models of nicotine intake may require surgical procedures and often result in low levels of intake. Further, they do not lend themselves to investigating treatments...
September 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
John J Kristofic, Jeffrey D Chmiel, George F Jackson, Shawn P Vorce, Justin M Holler, Stephen L Robinson, Thomas Z Bosy
An accidental death associated with the use of the designer drug, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe), is reported. A 23-year-old Caucasian male experienced severe respiratory distress and died after being subdued by military law enforcement. At autopsy, remarkable findings upon internal examination included mild to moderate coronary atherosclerosis, biventricular dilation, mild right ventricular hypertrophy and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. The decedent's blood contained no drugs, ethanol or other volatile compounds...
July 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jorge Regueiro, Anupam Giri, Thomas Wenzl
Fast market penetration of electronic cigarettes is leading to an exponentially growing number of electronic refill liquids with different nicotine contents and an endless list of flavors. Therefore, rapid and simple methods allowing a fast screening of these products are necessary to detect harmful substances which can negatively impact the health of consumers. In this regard, the present work explores the capabilities of differential ion mobility spectrometry coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for high-throughput analysis of nicotine and 11 related compounds in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes...
June 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Kinning Poon, Sarah F Leibowitz
Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol, and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake of these substances, induce other behavioral changes, and affect neurochemical systems in several brain areas that are known to control behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Zhongli Yang, Tanseli Nesil, Kaitlyn P Connaghan, Ming D Li, Sulie L Chang
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat is a non-infectious rodent model for HIV-1 infection which develops altered immune-responses similar to those in persons infected with HIV-1. HIV-1Tg and F344 rats respond significantly different to morphine, ethanol, nicotine and other psychostimulants, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences remain largely undetermined. Here, we compared expression of 52 immune-related genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of HIV-1Tg and F344 rats treated with either nicotine (0...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Joanneke E L VanDerNagel, Marion Kiewik, Marike van Dijk, Robert Didden, Hubert P L M Korzilius, Job van der Palen, Jan K Buitelaar, Donald R A Uges, Remco A Koster, Cor A J de Jong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with mild or borderline intellectual disability (MBID) are at risk of substance use (SU). At present, it is unclear which strategy is the best for assessing SU in individuals with MBID. This study compares three strategies, namely self-report, collateral-report, and biomarker analysis. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In a sample of 112 participants with MBID from six Dutch facilities providing care to individuals with intellectual disabilities, willingness to participate, SU rates, and agreement between the three strategies were explored...
April 25, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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