keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ethanol and nicotine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#1
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#2
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#3
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844059/developmental-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-long-term-deficits-in-attention-and-its-underlying-prefrontal-circuitry
#4
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834390/varenicline-reduces-context-induced-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-through-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#5
F Lacroix, A Pettorelli, J-Mn Maddux, A Heidari-Jam, N Chaudhri
Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826631/determination-of-volatile-organic-compounds-including-alcohols-in-refill-fluids-and-cartridges-of-electronic-cigarettes-by-headspace-solid-phase-micro-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#6
Hyun-Hee Lim, Ho-Sang Shin
An analytical method for the detection of 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was developed to investigate VOCs in refill fluids and cartridges of electronic cigarettes (EC) using headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 14 VOCs were identified and quantified in 283 flavored liquids, 21 nicotine liquids, and 12 disposable cartridges. The detected concentration ranges of the VOCs are as follows: benzene (0.008-2.28 mg L(-1)), toluene (0...
November 9, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793544/modulation-of-ethanol-reward-sensitivity-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-containing-the-%C3%AE-6-subunit
#7
Melissa J Guildford, Anthony V Sacino, Andrew R Tapper
The prevalent co-abuse of nicotine and alcohol suggests a common neural mechanism underlying the actions of the two drugs. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco, activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α6 subunit (α6* nAChRs) in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region known to be crucial for drug reward. Recent evidence suggests that ethanol may potentiate ACh activation of these receptors as well, although whether α6* nAChR expression is necessary for behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure is unknown...
October 8, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740856/alcohol-and-nicotine-interactions-pre-clinical-models-of-dependence
#8
Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
While the co-morbidity of alcohol (ethanol) and tobacco (nicotine) dependence is well described, the processes that underpin this strong connection are still under debate. With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), it is now becoming more important to look to the neurobiological mechanisms involving alcohol and nicotine interactions to effectively treat a new generation of co-dependent individuals. Researchers have already recognized that the neuropathology produced by the combination of nicotine and ethanol is likely to produce an addictive nature very different to that of either one alone, and are employing a mixture of pre-clinical techniques to establish and investigate every stage in the development of both nicotine and ethanol-seeking behaviors...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713687/differential-effects-of-toluene-and-ethanol-on-dopaminergic-neurons-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#9
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Chang You, Devinder S Arora, Maureen A McElvain, Bertha J Vandegrift, Mark S Brodie, John J Woodward
Drugs of abuse increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and output from the VTA is critical for both natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Ethanol and the abused inhalant toluene both enhance VTA neuronal firing, but the mechanisms of this effect is not fully known. In this study, we used extracellular recordings to compare the actions of toluene and ethanol on DA VTA neurons. Both ethanol and toluene increased the firing rate of DA neurons, although toluene was ~100 times more potent than ethanol...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713514/anti-neuropathic-effects-of-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-terpenoid-fraction-relevance-of-nicotinic-receptors
#10
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Laura Micheli, Mario Maresca, Giancarlo Cravotto, Maria Bellumori, Marzia Innocenti, Nadia Mulinacci, Carla Ghelardini
Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery)...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693436/the-effect-of-varenicline-on-binge-like-ethanol-consumption-in-mice-is-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-independent
#11
Omkar L Patkar, Arnauld Belmer, Josephine R Tarren, Joan Y Holgate, Selena E Bartlett
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has previously shown that the smoking-cessation agent varenicline, an agonist/partial agonist of α4β2*, α3β4*, α3β2*, α6β2* (* indicates the possibility of additional subunits) and α7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), reduces ethanol consumption in rats only after long-term exposure (12 weeks). As compounds having partial agonistic activity on α3β4* nAChRs were shown to decrease ethanol consumption in rodents, we assessed here the involvement of the β4 subunit in the effect of varenicline in the reduction of short- and long-term binge-like ethanol drinking in mice...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651284/the-differential-effects-of-alcohol-and-nicotine-specific-nitrosamine-ketone-on-white-matter-ultrastructure
#12
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
AIMS: The chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634143/effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-hippocampal-plasticity-and-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-contributions-to-development-and-maintenance-of-addiction
#13
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611082/a-mild-rapid-synthesis-of-freebase-11-c-nicotine-from-11-c-methyl-triflate
#14
Youwen Xu, Sung Won Kim, Dohyun Kim, David Alexoff, Michael J Schueller, Joanna S Fowler
A rapid, mild radiosynthesis of freebase [(11)C]nicotine was developed by the methylation of freebase nornicotine with [(11)C]methyl triflate in acetone (5min, 45°C). A basic (pH 10.5-11.0) HPLC system reproducibly yielded freebase [(11)C]nicotine as a well-defined single peak. The freebase [(11)C]nicotine was concentrated by solid phase extraction and formulated in 50µL ethanol (370MBq/50µL) without evaporative loss suitable for a cigarette spiking study. A radiochemical yield of 60.4±4.7% (n=3), radiochemical purity ≥99...
August 29, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602328/immunohistochemistry-study-on-androgen-and-estrogen-receptors-of-rat-seminal-vesicle-submitted-to-simultaneous-alcohol-nicotine-treatment
#15
Mohsen Basiri, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Masoud Ezzatabdipour, Arash Sarv Azad, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahimahani
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is habitually accompanied by the use of other psychoactive substances, mostly tobacco. Nicotine and alcohol affect male accessory reproductive glands function. Most studies have been done on pathologic features of prostate, but there has been no systematic study on the seminal vesicle. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors-beta (ER-β) immune reactivities following long-term treatment of alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances...
2016: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560445/assessing-teratogenicity-from-the-clustering-of-abnormal-phenotypes-in-individual-zebrafish-larvae
#16
Jeffrey Aalders, Shaukat Ali, Tom J de Jong, Michael K Richardson
In previous publications, we described the population incidence of abnormalities in zebrafish larvae exposed to toxicants. Here, we examine the phenomenon of clustering or co-occurrence of abnormalities in individual larva. Our aim is to see how this clustering can be used to assess the specificity and severity of teratogenic effect. A total of 11,214 surviving larvae, exposed continuously from 1 day postfertilization (dpf) to one of 60 toxicants, were scored at 5 dpf for the presence of eight different abnormal phenotypes...
December 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517088/tolerance-to-ethanol-or-nicotine-results-in-increased-ethanol-self-administration-and-long-term-depression-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum
#17
Chandrika Abburi, Shannon L Wolfman, Ryan A E Metz, Rinya Kamber, Daniel S McGehee, John McDaid
Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461870/emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-key-parameters-affecting-the-release-of-harmful-chemicals
#18
Mohamad Sleiman, Jennifer M Logue, V Nahuel Montesinos, Marion L Russell, Marta I Litter, Lara A Gundel, Hugo Destaillats
Use of electronic cigarettes has grown exponentially over the past few years, raising concerns about harmful emissions. This study quantified potentially toxic compounds in the vapor and identified key parameters affecting emissions. Six principal constituents in three different refill "e-liquids" were propylene glycol (PG), glycerin, nicotine, ethanol, acetol, and propylene oxide. The latter, with mass concentrations of 0.4-0.6%, is a possible carcinogen and respiratory irritant. Aerosols generated with vaporizers contained up to 31 compounds, including nicotine, nicotyrine, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycidol, acrolein, acetol, and diacetyl...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445152/ethanol-induced-motor-impairment-mediated-by-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors
#19
John McDaid, Chandrika Abburi, Shannon L Wolfman, Keith Gallagher, Daniel S McGehee
UNLABELLED: Nicotine and ethanol (EtOH) are among the most widely co-abused substances, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute to the behavioral effects of both drugs. Along with their role in addiction, nAChRs also contribute to motor control circuitry. The α7 nAChR subtype is highly expressed in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), a brainstem cholinergic center that contributes to motor performance through its projections to thalamic motor relay centers, including the mediodorsal thalamus...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282365/the-tendency-to-sign-track-predicts-cue-induced-reinstatement-during-nicotine-self-administration-and-is-enhanced-by-nicotine-but-not-ethanol
#20
Cassandra L Versaggi, Christopher P King, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. OBJECTIVES: To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers")...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
keyword
keyword
42784
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"