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Alcohol and glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637015/differential-metabonomic-profiles-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumors-from-alcoholic-liver-disease-hbv-infected-and-hcv-infected-cirrhotic-patients
#1
Ding Cao, Can Cai, Mingxin Ye, Junhua Gong, Menghao Wang, Jinzheng Li, Jianping Gong
Our objective was to comparatively profile the metabolite composition of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors from alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected, and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cirrhotic patients. Primary HCC tumors were collected from ALD, HBV-infected, and HCV-infected cirrhotic patients (n=20 each). High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabonomic data analysis were performed to compare HCC tumors from the three groups...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#2
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624317/modulatory-effects-of-ampicillin-sulbactam-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-as-well-as-reinstatement-to-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#3
Alaa M Hammad, Fawaz Alasmari, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
The glutamatergic system has an important role in cocaine-seeking behavior. Studies have reported that chronic exposure to cocaine induces downregulation of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) in the central reward brain regions. Ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic, restored GLT-1 expression and consequently reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In this study, we investigated the reinstatement to cocaine (20mg/kg, i.p.) seeking behavior using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606738/engineering-high-level-production-of-fatty-alcohols-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-from-lignocellulosic-feedstocks
#4
Leo d'Espaux, Amit Ghosh, Weerawat Runguphan, Maren Wehrs, Feng Xu, Oliver Konzock, Ishaan Dev, Melissa Nhan, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Christopher J Petzold, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
Fatty alcohols in the C12-C18 range are used in personal care products, lubricants, and potentially biofuels. These compounds can be produced from the fatty acid pathway by a fatty acid reductase (FAR), yet yields from the preferred industrial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae remain under 2% of the theoretical maximum from glucose. Here we improved titer and yield of fatty alcohols using an approach involving quantitative analysis of protein levels and metabolic flux, engineering enzyme level and localization, pull-push-block engineering of carbon flux, and cofactor balancing...
June 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587348/hepatoprotective-effects-of-litchi-litchi-chinensis-procyanidin-a2-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-in-icr-mice
#5
Lih-Geeng Chen, Cheng-Wei Chang, Jwu-Guh Tsay, Brian Bor-Chun Weng
Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526611/alcohol-induces-input-specific-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-dorsomedial-striatum
#6
Tengfei Ma, Britton Barbee, Xuehua Wang, Jun Wang
Accumulated evidence suggests that the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of the basal ganglia plays an essential role in pathological excessive alcohol consumption. The DMS receives multiple glutamatergic inputs. However, whether and how alcohol consumption distinctly affects these excitatory afferents to the DMS remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively activate the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs in DMS slices, and measured the effects of alcohol consumption on glutamatergic transmission in these corticostriatal and amygdalostriatal circuits...
May 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503197/the-significance-of-proline-and-glutamate-on-butanol-chaotropic-stress-in-bacillus-subtilis-168
#7
Gumpanat Mahipant, Atchara Paemanee, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Junichi Kato, Alisa S Vangnai
BACKGROUND: Butanol is an intensively used industrial solvent and an attractive alternative biofuel, but the bioproduction suffers from its high toxicity. Among the native butanol producers and heterologous butanol-producing hosts, Bacillus subtilis 168 exhibited relatively higher butanol tolerance. Nevertheless, organic solvent tolerance mechanisms in Bacilli and Gram-positive bacteria have relatively less information. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate butanol stress responses that may involve in unique tolerance of B...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495973/contrasting-the-role-of-xct-and-glt-1-upregulation-in-the-ability-of-ceftriaxone-to-attenuate-the-cue-induced-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-and-normalize-ampa-receptor-subunit-expression
#8
Amber L LaCrosse, Sinead M O'Donovan, Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Robert E McCullumsmith, Kathryn J Reissner, Marek Schwendt, Lori A Knackstedt
Long-term treatment with ceftriaxone attenuates the reinstatement of cocaine seeking while increasing the function of the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and system xC- (Sxc) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). Sxc contributes the majority of nonsynaptic extracellular glutamate in the NAc, while GLT-1 is responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake. Here we used antisense to decrease the expression of GLT-1 and xCT (a catalytic subunit of Sxc) to determine the relative importance of both proteins in mediating the ability of ceftriaxone to prevent cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and normalize glutamatergic proteins in the NAc of rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494749/alcohol-addiction-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-its-ligands-how-they-all-come-together
#9
Jaya Kumar, Zalina Ismail, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Najwa Baharuddin, Hermizi Hapidin, Yvonne-Tee Get Bee, Ernie Yap, Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed
In the past decade, many studies have highlighted the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) modulators in attenuating alcohol-related biological effects such as alcohol consumption, alcohol-seeking and relapse-like behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that pharmacological agents acting at mGlu5 could be promising tools in curbing inebriation. mGlu5s are present abundantly in brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, motivation and drug administration. On a cellular level, they are primarily located at the postsynaptic part of the neuron where the receptor is functionally linked to various downstream proteins that are involved in cell signaling and gene transcription that mediate the alcohol-induced neuroplasticity...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447751/deep-sea-water-improves-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-metabolic-gene-expression
#10
Kyu-Shik Lee, So-Young Chun, Yun-Suk Kwon, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
A high‑fat diet or high‑cholesterol diet (HCD) is a major cause of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes; vascular diseases, including hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis; and liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of deep sea water (DSW) on rats fed a HCD. DSW decreased HCD‑induced increases in total cholesterol and low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, and recovered high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442364/effects-of-repeated-cocaine-exposure-and-withdrawal-on-voluntary-ethanol-drinking-and-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-p-rats
#11
Alaa M Hammad, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Sujan C Das, Youssef Sari
Glutamatergic neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuits plays a major role in the reinforcing properties of both ethanol and cocaine. Glutamate homeostasis is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Cocaine exposure has been shown to induce a dysregulation in glutamate homeostasis and a decrease in the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, alcohol preferring (P) rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) and/or water for five weeks...
April 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426073/ameliorative-effects-of-pepsin-digested-chicken-liver-hydrolysates-on-development-of-alcoholic-fatty-livers-in-mice
#12
Yi-Ling Lin, Szu-Yun Tai, Jr-Wei Chen, Chung-Hsi Chou, Shih-Guei Fu, Yi-Chen Chen
With developments in economics and increasing work loads, alcohol abuse becomes more and more severe, leading to occurrences of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Pepsin-digested chicken liver hydrolysates (CLHs) contain high amounts of glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, and alanine while the contents of taurine, anserine, and carnosine are also elevated after pepsin hydrolyzation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the protective effects of CLHs against chronic alcohol consumption. The results indicated that the enlarged (p < 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413623/glutamate-plasticity-woven-through-the-progression-to-alcohol-use-disorder-a-multi-circuit-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Lara Hwa, Joyce Besheer, Thomas Kash
Glutamate signaling in the brain is one of the most studied targets in the alcohol research field. Here, we report the current understanding of how the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, its receptors, and its transporters are involved in low, episodic, and heavy alcohol use. Specific animal behavior protocols can be used to assess these different drinking levels, including two-bottle choice, operant self-administration, drinking in the dark, the alcohol deprivation effect, intermittent access to alcohol, and chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411553/cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-possess-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-conditions-of-the-obesity-associated-nafld-in-rats
#14
Nazarii Kobyliak, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Maryana Kondro, Tetyana Beregova, Petro Bodnar, Oleksandr Shcherbakov, Rostyslav Bubnov, Martin Caprnda, Delian Delev, Jan Sabo, Peter Kruzliak, Luis Rodrigo, Radka Opatrilova, Mykola Spivak
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The disease is associated with impairment of pro/antioxidant equilibrium and the inflammation in liver tissue. The aim of the work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of the nanocrystalline cerium dioxide (nCeO2) on the rat model of NAFLD associated with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. METHODS: The study was carried out on three groups of rats: control, MSG- and MSG+nCeO2...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378986/neurophysiological-maturation-in-adolescence-vulnerability-and-counteracting-addiction-to-alcohol
#15
Roman Chwedorowicz, Henryk Skarżyński, Weronika Pucek, Tadeusz Studziński
The results of contemporary studies confirm the formation of two neural networks in the brain during the period of adolescence. The first is defined as emotional, located in the limbic system, develops earlier, quicker, and more intensively than the second one in the prefrontal cortex, called the judgement network, which fulfils the role of control and inhibition of emotional reactions. The domination of the emotional network in adolescence is manifested by hyperactivity of the limbic system, accompanied by intensified undertaking of courageous, reckless, risky, or even sometimes dangerous actions, so very characteristic in the maturation...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341943/cross-species-translational-findings-in-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-ethanol
#16
Daicia C Allen, Matthew M Ford, Kathleen A Grant
The progress on understanding the pharmacological basis of ethanol's discriminative stimulus effects has been substantial, but appears to have plateaued in the past decade. Further, the cross-species translational efforts are clear in laboratory animals, but have been minimal in human subject studies. Research findings clearly demonstrate that ethanol produces a compound stimulus with primary activity through GABA and glutamate receptor systems, particularly ionotropic receptors, with additional contribution from serotonergic mechanisms...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322866/decreased-anxiety-voluntary-ethanol-intake-and-ethanol-induced-cpp-acquisition-following-activation-of-the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-8-mglur8
#17
Amine Bahi
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important modulators of excitatory neurotransmission, and have been implicated in addiction to alcohol and anxiety-related behaviors. However, the behavioral consequence and contribution of individual subtypes are not known yet. This study determined the effects of mGluR8 activation on anxiety-like behavior, voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward. To this aim, anxiety and spontaneous behavior were measured in C57BL/6J mice using the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field (OF) and light-dark box (LDB) tests after systemic injection of the selective mGluR8 agonist (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine ((S)-3,4-DCPG)...
March 18, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318228/expedited-phonon-transfer-in-interfacially-constrained-polymer-chain-along-self-organized-amino-acid-crystals
#18
Liwen Mu, Yifan Li, Nitin Mehra, Tuo Ji, Jiahua Zhu
In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/amino acid (AA) composites were prepared by a self-organized crystallization process. Five different AAs (cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, ornithine, and lysine) were selected based on their similar functional groups but different molecular structures. The different PVA-AA interactions in the five PVA/AA composites lead to two crystal patterns, i.e., continuous network (cysteine and lysine) and discrete particles (glutamic acid, ornithine, and aspartic acid). Scanning thermal microscopy is then applied to map the distribution of thermal conduction in these composites...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#19
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
June 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303497/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-alcohol-related-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#20
Ricardo Schneider, Solange Bandiera, Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Greice Caletti, André Quincozes-Santos, Elaine Elisabetsky, Rosane Gomez
Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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