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Alcohol and glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156239/examining-the-effects-of-alcohol-on-gabaa-receptor-mrna-expression-and-function-in-neural-cultures-generated-from-control-and-alcohol-dependent-donor-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Richard Lieberman, Henry R Kranzler, Eric S Levine, Jonathan Covault
Factors influencing the development of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are complex and heterogeneous. While animal models have been crucial to identifying actions of alcohol on neural cells, human-derived in vitro systems that reflect an individual's genetic background hold promise in furthering our understanding of the molecular and functional effects of alcohol exposure and the pathophysiology of AUD. In this report, we utilized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs)-derived neural cell cultures obtained from healthy individuals (CTLs) and those with alcohol dependence (ADs) to 1) examine the effect of 21-day alcohol exposure on mRNA expression of three genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits (GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRD) using quantitative PCR, and 2) examine the effect of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on GABA-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144408/antioxidant-effect-of-barley-sprout-extract-via-enhancement-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-activity-and-glutathione-synthesis
#2
Yun-Hee Lee, Sou Hyun Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Tae Gen Son, Sung Hwan Ki, Woo-Duck Seo, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Jin Tae Hong, Young-Suk Jung
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143095/areca-nut-chewing-is-associated-with-common-mental-disorders-a-population-based-study
#3
Tzu-Yu Lin, Huan-Cheng Chang, Kuang-Hung Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Forms of habitual substance use including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have been documented as risk factors of common mental disorders (CMDs). The effects of areca nut chewing on biophysiological tests, metabolic syndromes, and liver function have been reported previously; however, the relationship between areca nut chewing and CMDs remains unclear. This study examined the association between areca nut chewing and CMDs and explored the relationships between areca nut chewing and biophysiological indicators...
November 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#4
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128307/rescue-of-glutamate-transport-in-the-lateral-habenula-alleviates-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ethanol-withdrawn-rats
#5
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety are often comorbid. Although the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear, emerging evidence suggests that maladaptation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 may play a role. Findings from animal and human studies have linked aversive states, including those related to drugs of abuse and depression, to aberrant activity in the lateral habenula (LHb). The relationship between GLT-1 maladaptation, LHb activity, and abnormal behaviors related to alcohol withdrawal, however, remains unknown...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109058/homer2-within-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-modulates-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-in-a-mouse-model-of-binge-drinking
#6
K M Lee, M A Coelho, K R Sern, K K Szumlinski
A history of binge-drinking decreases protein expression of the glutamate-related scaffolding protein Homer2 within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), coinciding with behavioral signs of negative affect. To assess the functional relevance of this protein change for withdrawal-induced hyper-anxiety, adult (PND 56) and adolescent (PND 28) male C57BL/6J mice were administered an intra-CEA infusion of an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) carrying either cDNA to express Homer2 (H2-cDNA) or GFP as control...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083487/hepatoprotective-effect-of-albumin-peptides-from-corn-germ-meal-on-chronic-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#7
Yali Yu, Lijun Wang, Ying Wang, Dingbo Lin, Jingbo Liu
Despite the fact that chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as a fatty liver disease, the addictive power of alcohol is strong worldwide. Corn germ meal albumin peptides (CGMAPs), by-products in corn germ oil industry have often been considered as wastes disposal in food processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of CGMAPs on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model. The corn germ meal-derived albumin was enzymatically hydrolysed, and the albumin peptides fractions (APFs) with Mw < 1 kDa (APF4) was collected...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083190/marked-differences-in-the-submandibular-salivary-proteome-between-sardinian-alcohol-preferring-and-sardinian-alcohol-non-preferring-rats-revealed-by-an-integrated-top-down-bottom-up-proteomic-platform
#8
Tiziana Cabras, Alfredo D'Alessandro, Simone Serrao, Raffaella Isola, Federica Iavarone, Federica Vincenzoni, Giancarlo Colombo, Jörgen Ekström, Irene Messana, Massimo Castagnola
Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and Sardinian alcohol-non preferring (sNP) rats have been selectively bred for opposite alcohol preference and consumption. Aiming to verify possible differences at the proteomics level between sP and sNP rats, we investigated the salivary proteome by a a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry top-down-bottom-up integrated approach. For this purpose, submandibular saliva was collected from alcohol-naive sP and sNP rats under isoprenaline stimulation. A total of 200 peptides and proteins were detected and quantified in the two rat lines, 149 of which were characterized in their naturally occurring structure...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065215/on-the-catabolism-of-amino-acids-in-the-yeast-dekkera-bruxellensis-and-the-implications-to-industrial-fermentation-processes
#9
Denise Castro Parente, Danielli Batista Bezerra Cajueiro, Irina Charlot Peña Moreno, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra Leite, Will de Barros Pita, Marcos Antonio de Morais
In the last years several reports have reported the capacity of the yeast Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis to survive and adapt to the industrial process of alcoholic fermentation. Much of this feature seems to relate to the ability to assimilate limiting sources of nutrients, or somehow some that are inaccessible to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular the sources of nitrogen. Among them, amino acids (AA) are relevant in terms of beverage musts, and could also be important for bioethanol. In view of the limited knowledge on the control of AA, the present work combines physiological and genetic studies to understand how it operates in D...
October 24, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#10
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048351/bacterial-substrate-transformation-tracked-by-stable-isotope-guided-nmr-metabolomics-application-in-a-natural-aquatic-microbial-community
#11
Mario Uchimiya, Yuuri Tsuboi, Kengo Ito, Yasuhiro Date, Jun Kikuchi
The transformation of organic substrates by heterotrophic bacteria in aquatic environments constitutes one of the key processes in global material cycles. The development of procedures that would enable us to track the wide range of organic compounds transformed by aquatic bacteria would greatly improve our understanding of material cycles. In this study, we examined the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with stable-isotope labeling to the investigation of metabolite transformation in a natural aquatic bacterial community...
October 19, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044621/protective-roles-of-hepatic-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-signaling-in-acute-ethanol-exposure-induced-liver-injury
#12
Shuanglian Wang, Shaofeng Sui, Zhiyan Liu, Cheng Peng, Jia Liu, Dan Luo, Xinhuan Fan, Chuanyong Liu, Wei-Yang Lu
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a consequence of heavy and prolonged alcohol consumptions. We previously demonstrated a hepatic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system that protects the liver from toxic injury. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the hepatic GABA signaling system in the process of acute ethanol exposure-induced liver injury. Our results showed that the expression of GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and type A GABA receptor (GABAA R) subunits was upregulated in ethanol-treated mice compared with saline-treated controls...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044328/carbon-dioxide-methanol-conversion-cycle-based-on-cascade-enzymatic-reactions-supported-on-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles
#13
Caterina G C Marques, Leandro H Andrade, Henrique E Toma
The conversion of carbon dioxide into important industrial feedstock is a subject of growing interest in modern society. A possible way to achieve this goal is by carrying out the CO2/methanol cascade reaction, allowing the recycle of CO2 using either chemical catalysts or enzymes. Efficient and selective reactions can be performed by enzymes; however, due to their low stability, immobilization protocols are required to improve their performance. The cascade reaction to reduce carbon dioxide into methanol has been explored by the authors, using, sequentially, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FalDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), powered by NAD+/NADH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) as the co-enzyme regenerating system...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031967/profiling-of-a-wide-range-of-neurochemicals-in-human-urine-by-very-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-in-situ-selective-derivatization
#14
Wonwoong Lee, Na Hyun Park, Tae-Beom Ahn, Bong Chul Chung, Jongki Hong
Development of a reliable analytical method of neurochemicals in biological fluids is important to discover potential biomarkers for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of neurological disorders. However, neurochemical profiling of biological samples is challenging because of highly different polarities between basic and acidic neurochemicals, low physiological levels, and high matrix interference in biological samples. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method combined with in situ selective derivatization for comprehensive profiling of 20 neurochemicals in urine was developed for a wide range of neurochemicals...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984568/bacillus-ciccensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-maize-zea-mays-l-seeds
#15
Yang Liu, Nannan Li, Mi Kyung Eom, Peter Schumann, Xin Zhang, Yanhua Cao, Yuanyuan Ge, Ming Xiao, Jiuran Zhao, Chi Cheng, Song-Gun Kim
Two Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, designated as 5L6(T) and 6L6, isolated from seeds of hybrid maize (Zea mays L., Jingke 968) were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were aerobic, motile, endospore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates were recognized as a species of the genus Bacillus, to which the five closest neighbours are Bacillus solani FJAT-18043(T) (99.8 % similarity), Bacillus horneckiae DSM 23495(T) (97...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951189/cofactor-self-sufficient-whole-cell-biocatalysts-for-the-production-of-2-phenylethanol
#16
Pengchao Wang, Xinwei Yang, Baixue Lin, Jianzhong Huang, Yong Tao
The efficiency of biocatalysis is often affected by an insufficient supply and regeneration of cofactors and redox equivalents. To alleviate this shortcoming, a cofactor self-sufficient system was developed for enhanced production of 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) in E. coli. A "bridge" between the amino acid and its corresponding alcohol was designed in the system using glutamate dehydrogenase. By coupling glutamate dehydrogenase with transaminase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the cosubstrate (2-oxoglutarate) and redox equivalents (NAD(P)H) were regenerated simultaneously, so that no external cofactor or redox source was required...
September 22, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949129/impact-of-amino-acids-on-the-isomerization-of-the-aluminum-tridecamer-al13
#17
Olivier Deschaume, Eric Breynaert, Sambhu Radhakrishnan, Stef Kerkhofs, Mohamed Haouas, Ségolène Adam de Beaumais, Valeria Manzin, Jean-Baptiste Galey, Laure Ramos-Stanbury, Francis Taulelle, Johan A Martens, Carmen Bartic
The stability of the Keggin polycation ε-Al13 is monitored by (27)Al NMR and ferron colorimetric assay upon heating aluminum aqueous solutions containing different amino acids with overall positive, negative, or no charge at pH 4.2. A focus on the effect of the amino acids on the isomerization process from ε- to δ-Al13 is made, compared and discussed as a function of the type of organic additive. Amino acids such as glycine and β-alanine, with only one functional group interacting relatively strongly with aluminum polycations, accelerate isomerization in a concentration-dependent manner...
September 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940879/phosphorylation-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-in-the-rat-dorsal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-alcohol-induced-cognitive-inflexibility
#18
Luis A Natividad, Michael Q Steinman, Sarah A Laredo, Cristina Irimia, Ilham Y Polis, Robert Lintz, Matthew W Buczynski, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Marisa Roberto, Loren H Parsons
Repeated cycles of alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication and withdrawal dysregulate excitatory glutamatergic systems in the brain and induce neuroadaptations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. The mPFC is composed of subdivisions that are functionally distinct, with dorsal regions facilitating drug-cue associations and ventral regions modulating new learning in the absence of drug. A key modulator of glutamatergic activity is the holoenzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) that phosphorylates ionotropic glutamate receptors...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937622/specificities-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-developed-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-absence-of-cirrhosis-revealed-by-tissue-extracts-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#19
Camille Teilhet, Daniel Morvan, Juliette Joubert-Zakeyh, Anne-Sophie Biesse, Bruno Pereira, Sylvie Massoulier, Pierre Dechelotte, Denis Pezet, Emmanuel Buc, Géraldine Lamblin, Michel Peoc'h, Jack Porcheron, Marie-Paule Vasson, Armando Abergel, Aicha Demidem
There is a rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as of the frequency of Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma (HCC) associated with NAFLD. To seek for putative metabolic pathways specific of the NAFLD etiology, we performed comparative metabolomics between HCC associated with NAFLD and HCC associated with cirrhosis. The study included 28 pairs of HCC tissue versus distant Non-Tumoral Tissue (NTT) collected from patients undergoing hepatectomy. HCC was associated with cirrhosis (n = 9), normal liver (n = 6) and NAFLD (n = 13)...
September 22, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#20
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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