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Alcohol and glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#1
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#2
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884167/anxiolytic-effects-of-buspirone-and-mtep-in-the-porsolt-forced-swim-test
#3
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, Kimberly R Sern, MacKayla A Class, Mark D Bocz, Karen K Szumlinski
Traditionally, a reduction in floating behavior or immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) is employed as a predictor of antidepressant efficacy. However, over the past several years, our studies of alcohol withdrawal-induced negative affect consistently indicate the coincidence of increased anxiety-related behaviors on various behavioral tests with reduced immobility in the FST. Further, this behavioral profile correlates with increased mGlu5 protein expression within limbic brain regions. As the role for mGlu5 in anxiety is well established, we hypothesized that the reduced immobility exhibited by alcohol-withdrawn mice when tested in the FST might reflect anxiety, possibly a hyper-reactivity to the acute swim stressor...
January 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882570/taurine-restores-the-exploratory-behavior-following-alcohol-withdrawal-and-decreases-bdnf-mrna-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-chronic-alcohol-treated-rats
#4
Alana Witt Hansen, Felipe Borges Almeida, Solange Bandiera, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Fragoso, Ricardo Schneider, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros, Rosane Gomez
Alcohol use disorder is an alarming health problem, and the withdrawal symptoms increase the risk of relapse. We have hypothesized that taurine, a multitarget substance acting as a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) positive modulator and a partial inhibitor of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, may reduce the withdrawal symptoms or modify behaviors when combined with alcohol. Therefore, we investigated the effects of taurine on behavior in the open field test (OFT), the GABAAR α2 subunit and BDNF mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic alcohol treatment or upon withdrawal...
September 5, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881813/differential-metabonomic-profiles-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tumors-from-alcoholic-liver-disease-hbv-infected-and-hcv-infected-cirrhotic-patients
#5
Ding Cao, Can Cai, Mingxin Ye, Junhua Gong, Menghao Wang, Jinzheng Li, Jianping Gong
Our objective was to comparatively profile the metabolite composition of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors from alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected, and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cirrhotic patients. Primary HCC tumors were collected from ALD, HBV-infected, and HCV-infected cirrhotic patients (n=20 each). High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabonomic data analysis were performed to compare HCC tumors from the three groups...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878811/serum-metabolites-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-development-or-reversion-a-targeted-metabolomic-approach-within-the-predimed-trial
#6
Christopher Papandreou, Mònica Bullò, Francisco José Tinahones, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Georgios A Fragkiadakis, José López-Miranda, Ramon Estruch, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Limited prospective studies have examined changes in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) related serum-metabolites and none the effects of NAFLD-reversion. We aimed to evaluate whether perturbations in metabolites indicate predisposition to NAFLD development and to assess the effects of NAFLD reversion on metabolite profiles. METHODS: A targeted liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry metabolic profiling (n = 453 metabolites) approach was applied, using serum from 45 subjects of the PREDIMED study, at baseline and after a median 3...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865912/inhibition-of-ampa-receptor-and-camkii-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-reduces-depressive-like-behavior-and-alcohol-intake-in-rats
#7
Jing Li, Seungwoo Kang, Rao Fu, Liangzhi Wu, Wei Wu, Hongwei Liu, Danielle Gregor, Wanhong Zuo, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Depression is a well-known risk factor for developing relapse drinking, but the neuronal mechanisms underlying the interactions between depression and alcohol use disorders remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has associated depression with hyperactivity of the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure in the brain that encodes aversive signals. Glutamate receptors contribute substantially to the excitability of LHb neurons. Glutamatergic synapses in LHb neurons largely express GluA1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) that can be modulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein II (CaMKII)...
August 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858691/pharmacological-challenge-studies-with-acute-psychosocial-stress
#8
REVIEW
Kathryne Van Hedger, Anya K Bershad, Harriet de Wit
Chronic stress is known to affect many psychiatric disorders, and studies of responses to acute stress may reveal processes that ultimately lead to maladaptive responses to chronic stress. Many studies have used simulated public speaking tasks to induce stress in the laboratory and, of interest to this review, the tasks have been used to assess the effects of both therapeutic and nonmedical drugs on stress reactivity. Here we review 38 studies that examined effects of single doses of drugs on subjective, cardiovascular and hormonal responses to an acute social stressor in healthy volunteers...
August 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858384/reduced-levels-of-mglu2-receptors-within-the-prelimbic-cortex-not-associated-with-elevated-glutamate-transmission-or-high-alcohol-drinking
#9
Zheng-Ming Ding, Cynthia M Ingraham, Sheketha R Hauser, Amy W Lasek, Richard L Bell, William J McBride
BACKGROUND: A Grm2 cys407* stop codon mutation, which results in a loss of the metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor protein, was identified as being associated with high alcohol drinking by alcohol preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of reduced levels of mGlu2 receptors on glutamate transmission and alcohol drinking. METHODS: Quantitative no-net-flux microdialysis was used to test the hypothesis that basal extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic (PL) cortex and nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) will be higher in P than Wistar rats...
August 31, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829891/physiological-and-enzymatic-alterations-in-sesame-seeds-submitted-to-different-osmotic-potentials
#10
R M O Pires, M A B Àvila, D G Leite, H O Santos, G A Souza, E V R Von Pinho
With the imminence of global climate changes that affect the temperature and the rainfall uniformity, it is growing the concern about the adaptation of crops to the water deficit. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in physiological and enzymatic mechanisms during the germination process of sesame seeds under different water availability. To simulate the water restriction we used PEG6000, a high molecular weight molecule that does not penetrate the seed structure but allows different osmotic potentials...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826758/%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-clavulanic-acid-attenuates-ethanol-intake-and-increases-glial-glutamate-transporters-expression-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#11
Alqassem Y Hakami, Youssef Sari
Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807676/crf-modulates-glutamate-transmission-in-the-central-amygdala-of-na%C3%A3-ve-and-ethanol-dependent-rats
#12
Florence P Varodayan, Diego Correia, Dean Kirson, Sophia Khom, Christopher S Oleata, George Luu, Paul Schweitzer, Marisa Roberto
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is hypothesized to drive the development of alcohol dependence, as it regulates ethanol intake and several anxiogenic behaviors linked to withdrawal. Excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to alcohol reinforcement, tolerance and dependence. Therefore, in this study we used in vitro slice electrophysiology to investigate the effects of CRF and its receptor subtype (CRF1 and CRF2) antagonists on both evoked and spontaneous action potential-independent glutamatergic transmission in the CeA of naive and ethanol-dependent Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802074/altered-amino-acid-concentrations-in-nafld-impact-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763982/microbial-cell-free-extracts-affect-the-biochemical-characteristics-and-sensorial-quality-of-sourdough-bread
#14
Noemi Cavallo, Maria De Angelis, Maria Calasso, Maurizio Quinto, Annalisa Mentana, Fabio Minervini, Stefan Cappelle, Marco Gobbetti
This study aimed to improve the sensorial quality of sourdough wheat bread by the addition of cell-free enzyme extracts (CFEs) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (SF), Hafnia alvei (HF) and Debaryomyces hansenii (DH). CFEs were suitable sources of peptidases, glutamate dehydrogenase and cystathionine γ-lyase. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) in the sourdoughs containing CFEs was higher than the control sourdough, produced without addition of CFEs. The community-level catabolic profiles showed that the highest number of carbohydrates, polymers and carboxylic acids were consumed in the SF sourdough...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763779/prefrontal-glx-and-gaba-concentrations-and-impulsivity-in-cigarette-smokers-and-smoking-polysubstance-users
#15
Mieke H J Schulte, Anne Marije Kaag, Reinout W Wiers, Lianne Schmaal, Wim van den Brink, Liesbeth Reneman, Judith R Homberg, Guido A van Wingen, Anna E Goudriaan
Glutamate and GABA play an important role in substance dependence. However, it remains unclear whether this holds true for different substance use disorders and how this is related to risk-related traits such as impulsivity. We, therefore, compared Glx (as a proxy measure for glutamate) and GABA concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of 48 male cigarette smokers, 61 male smoking polysubstance users, and 90 male healthy controls, and investigated the relationship with self-reported impulsivity and substance use...
July 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738604/electrochemical-investigation-and-determination-of-procaterol-hydrochloride-on-poly-glutamic-acid-carboxyl-functionalized-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-polyvinyl-alcohol-modified-glassy-carbon-electrode
#16
Dexian Kong, Lili Jiang, Yijun Liu, Zeming Wang, Libin Han, Rixin Lv, Jiandi Lin, Chun-Hua Lu, Yuwu Chi, Guonan Chen
Poly(glutamic acid) (P-GLU)/carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been successfully prepared and the electrochemical behavior of procaterol hydrochloride (ProH) was studied. The results show that the as-prepared modified electrode exhibits a good electrocatalytic property towards the oxidation of ProH in 0.2M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 6.0) due to the enhanced oxidation peak current at ~+0.59V. Under optimal reaction conditions, the oxidation peak current of ProH is proportional to its concentration in the linear dynamic ranges of 0...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738332/neuroprogression-and-immune-activation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Jeffrey H Meyer
Traditionally, the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been largely considered from the perspective of the state of major depressive episodes (MDE) versus being in remission, but the current accumulation of disease markers, largely acquired cross-sectionally, is strongly suggestive of neuroprogressive aspects of MDD. This chapter focuses on the changes in disease markers involved in the reorganization of the nervous system in MDD, including the translocator protein (TSPO; an index of microglial activation), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an index of astroglial activation), [11C]harmine (a marker of monoamine oxidase A; MAO-A), and several other indices (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 [mGluR5], excitatory amino acid transporters, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy measurements) of glutamate dysregulation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729845/negative-affect-and-excessive-alcohol-intake-incubate-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-binge-drinking-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-mice
#18
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coehlo, Noah R Solton, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41) are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOH(adolescents)) influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test) and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687200/ceftriaxone-reduces-alcohol-intake-in-outbred-rats-while-upregulating-xct-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#19
Bethany A Stennett, Jan C Frankowski, Joanna Peris, Lori A Knackstedt
Alcohol addiction is a chronic disease characterized by an inability to regulate drinking. A critical brain region involved in alcohol consumption is the nucleus accumbens (NA). Glutamate transmission in this region regulates alcohol consumption and relapse to alcohol-seeking. Across multiple alcohol-administration rodent models, basal extracellular glutamate levels are increased in the NA during early withdrawal. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and system xC-, containing the subunit xCT, regulate NA glutamate levels...
August 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678407/homochiral-metal-organic-frameworks-based-on-amino-acid-ligands-for-hplc-separation-of-enantiomers
#20
Jun-Hui Zhang, Rui-Yu Nong, Sheng-Ming Xie, Bang-Jin Wang, Ping Ai, Li-Ming Yuan
Natural amino acids are well known to form coordination polymers with transition metal ions. In this study, six homochiral metal-organic frameworks constructed from Zn(2+) or Co(2+) ions and various enantiopure amino acid (L-tyrosine, L-histidine, L-tryptophan and L-glutamic acid), namely [Zn(L-tyr)]n (L-tyrZn), [Zn4 (btc)2 (Hbtc)(L-His)2 (H2 O)4 ]·1.5H2 O, {[Zn2 (L-trp)2 (bpe)2 (H2 O)2 ]·2H2 O·2NO3 }n , [Co2 (L-Trp)(INT)2 (H2 O)2 (ClO4 )], [Co2 (sdba)((L-Trp)2 ] and [Co(L-Glu)(H2 O)·H2 O]∞ , were synthesized according to the methods previously reported in the literature...
July 5, 2017: Electrophoresis
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