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Alcohol and glutamate

Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jianhua Yang, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Stefanie Nicole Hamer, Feng Cheng, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Escherichia coli is a common host for recombinant protein production in which production titers are highly dependent on the employed expression system. Promoters are thereby a key element to control gene expression levels. In this study, a novel PLICable promoter toolbox was developed which enables in a single cloning step and after a screening experiment to identify out of ten IPTG-inducible promoters (T7, A3, lpp, tac, pac, Sp6, lac, npr, trc and syn) the most suitable one for high level protein production...
October 18, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Zoya Zaeem, Lily Zhou, Esma Dilli
Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
F Woodward Hopf
Addiction to alcohol and drugs is a major social and economic problem, and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote addictive drives. A number of proteins have been identified that contribute to expression of addictive behaviors. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have been of particular interest because their physiological properties make them an attractive candidate for gating induction of synaptic plasticity, a molecular change thought to mediate learning and memory...
October 5, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Vincent T Martin, Brinder Vij
BACKGROUND: The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders...
October 2016: Headache
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Bai-Yu Su, Chun-Feng Tian, Bu-Lang Gao, Yu-Hong Tong, Xu-Hong Zhao, Ying Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate correlation of the white blood cell (WBC) and its subtype count with the traditional and non-traditional components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2013, 18222 people were enrolled in this study. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were tested for all subjects after an overnight fast. The count of WBC and its subtypes, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, aminotransferases, fibrinogen, uric acid, and fasting blood glucose were all assessed...
October 2, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Ji-Min Woo, Ji-Won Kim, Ji-Won Song, Lars M Blank, Jin-Byung Park
The biosynthesis of carboxylic acids including fatty acids from biomass is central in envisaged biorefinery concepts. The productivities are often, however, low due to product toxicity that hamper whole-cell biocatalyst performance. Here, we have investigated factors that influence the tolerance of Escherichia coli to medium chain carboxylic acid (i.e., n-heptanoic acid)-induced stress. The metabolic and genomic responses of E. coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655 grown in the presence of n-heptanoic acid indicated that the GadA/B-based glutamic acid-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system might be critical for cellular tolerance...
2016: PloS One
Matthias Zunhammer, Lauren M Schweizer, Vanessa Witte, Richard E Harris, Ulrike Bingel, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity...
October 2016: Pain
B Romeo, W Choucha, P Fossati, J-Y Rotge
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to determine the clinical and biological predictors of the ketamine response. METHODS: A systematic research on PubMed and PsycINFO database was performed without limits on year of publication. RESULTS: The main predictive factors of ketamine response, which were found in different studies, were (i) a family history of alcohol dependence, (ii) unipolar depressive disorder, and (iii) neurocognitive impairments, especially a slower processing speed...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Kornelia Skarbek, Maria J Milewska
Amino sugars are important constituents of a number of biomacromolecules and products of microbial secondary metabolism, including antibiotics. For most of them, the amino group is located at the positions C1, C2 or C3 of the hexose or pentose ring. In biological systems, amino sugars are formed due to the catalytic activity of specific aminotransferases or amidotransferases by introducing an amino functionality derived from L-glutamate or L-glutamine to the keto forms of sugar phosphates or sugar nucleotides...
August 24, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Marek Schwendt, M Foster Olive
Type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) activate protein kinase C (PKC) via coupling to Gαq/11 protein signaling. We have previously demonstrated that the epsilon isoform of PKC (PKCɛ) is a critical downstream target of mGluR5 in regulating behavioral and biochemical responses to alcohol. Recent evidence suggests that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR5 can lead to receptor desensitization and internalization. We therefore sought to examine the specific involvement of PKCɛ in the regulation of mGluR5 surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key regulator of alcohol-associated behaviors...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jianzhao Qi, Dan Wan, Hongmin Ma, Yuanzhen Liu, Rong Gong, Xudong Qu, Yuhui Sun, Zixin Deng, Wenqing Chen
Polyoxin, produced by Streptomcyes cacaoi var. asoensis and Streptomyces aureochromogenes, contains two non-proteinogenic amino acids, carbamoylpolyoxamic acid (CPOAA) and polyoximic acid. Although the CPOAA moiety is highly unusual, its biosynthetic logic has remained enigmatic for decades. Here, we address CPOAA biosynthesis by reconstitution of its pathway. We demonstrated that its biosynthesis is initiated by a versatile N-acetyltransferase, PolN, catalyzing L-glutamate (1) to N-acetyl glutamate (2). Remarkably, we verified that PolM, a previously annotated dehydrogenase, catalyzes an unprecedented tandem reduction of acyl-phosphate to aldehyde, and subsequently to alcohol...
August 18, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Jae-Sook Song, Eun-Kyung Kim, Yong-Won Choi, Won Keun Oh, Young-Mi Kim
Oxidative stress can contribute to the development and progression of liver diseases, such as drug-induced or alcoholic liver injury, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nectandrin B is a bioactive lignan isolated from nutmeg extract. To date, little information is available about its pharmacological activities in the liver. This study investigated the hepatocyte-protective effect of nectandrin B against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury and the underlying molecular mechanism...
September 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Louise Adermark, M Scott Bowers
Several laboratories recently identified that astrocytes are critical regulators of addiction machinery. It is now known that astrocyte pathology is a common feature of ethanol (EtOH) exposure in both humans and animal models, as even brief EtOH exposure is sufficient to elicit long-lasting perturbations in astrocyte gene expression, activity, and proliferation. Astrocytes were also recently shown to modulate the motivational properties of EtOH and other strongly reinforcing stimuli. Given the role of astrocytes in regulating glutamate homeostasis, a crucial component of alcohol use disorder (AUD), astrocytes might be an important target for the development of next-generation alcoholism treatments...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Zhou Li, Jingjin Yu, Yan Peng, Bingru Huang
γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Jennifer Geske, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
BACKGROUND: Quantifying craving longitudinally during the course of withdrawal, early abstinence, and relapse is essential for optimal management of alcohol use disorder (AUD). In an effort to identify biological correlates of craving, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to investigate the correlation between craving and glutamate levels in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) of patients with AUD. METHODS: Participants underwent 1H-MRS of the LDLPFC with 2-dimensional J-resolved (2DJ) averaged PRESS...
August 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kitt Falk Petersen, Douglas E Befroy, Sylvie Dufour, Douglas L Rothman, Gerald I Shulman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and there is great interest in understanding the potential role of alterations in mitochondrial metabolism in its pathogenesis. To address this question, we assessed rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation in subjects with and without NAFLD by monitoring the rate of (13)C labeling in hepatic [5-(13)C]glutamate and [1-(13)C]glutamate by (13)C MRS during an infusion of [1-(13)C]acetate. We found that rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation were similar between NAFLD and control subjects...
July 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Lingyan Jia, Yibei Li, Xiaoyu Hu, Wu Lin, Dachao Wen, Sen Zhong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Pingan Fang (PG) on behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by ethanol in mice, and to determine the intervention mechanism of PG on alcohol addiction. METHODS: A behavioral sensitization mouse model induced by ethanol was established to observe the effect of PG on the development and expression of behavioral sensitization induced by ethanol by recording the spontaneous activity of mice. The resident time of mice in a white box was measured to evaluate the effect of PG on developing CPP induced by ethanol...
April 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
Zhen Huang, Shuanglin Song, Keping Tan, Jiamei Chu, Xiaoying Zhu, Youhua Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference between the acupoint embedding therapy and polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules in the clinical efficacy on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern. METHODS: The multi-center clinical trial was adopted and 180 cases of NAFLD of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern were randomized into an embedding therapy group and a western medication group, 90 cases in each one. On the basis of general treatment such as diet control and proper physical exercise, in the embedding therapy group, the acupoint embedding therapy was applied to Ganshu (BL 18), Tai-chong (LR 3), Fenglong (ST 40), Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), once every 7 days; in the western medication group, polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules (essentiale) were prescribed, 228 mg/capsule, 2 capsules each time, three times a day...
February 2016: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
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