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Alcohol and glutamate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917110/adolescent-mice-are-resilient-to-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-and-changes-in-indices-of-glutamate-function-within-the-nucleus-accumbens
#1
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, Hadley A McGregor, Noah R Solton, Matan Cohen, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#2
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876530/two-adjacent-phenylalanines-in-the-nmda-receptor-glun2a-subunit-m3-domain-interactively-regulate-alcohol-sensitivity-and-ion-channel-gating
#3
Hong Ren, Yulin Zhao, Man Wu, Donard S Dwyer, Robert W Peoples
The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a key target of ethanol action in the central nervous system. Alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptor function involves small clusters of residues in the third and fourth membrane-associated (M) domains. Previous results from this laboratory have shown that two adjacent positions in the M3 domain, F636 and F637, can powerfully regulate alcohol sensitivity and ion channel gating. In this study, we report that these positions interact with one another in the regulation of both NMDA receptor gating and alcohol action...
November 19, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874078/glutamate-dehydrogenase-activator-bch-stimulating-reductive-amination-prevents-high-fat-high-fructose-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-and-hyperglycemia-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#4
Seung Jin Han, Sung-E Choi, Sang-A Yi, Jong Gab Jung, Ik-Rak Jung, Maureen Shin, Seok Kang, Hyunhee Oh, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Ji Eun Kwon, Cheol Soo Choi, Kwan Woo Lee, Yup Kang
Individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) induced by high calorie western diet are characterized by enhanced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Stimulation of reductive amination may shift tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis toward glutamate synthesis with increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and thus, ameliorate high calorie diet-induced fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Stimulation of reductive amination through glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activator 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) reduced both de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis but increased the activities of sirtuins and AMP-activated kinase in primary hepatocytes...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872968/new-functions-and-potential-applications-of-amino-acids
#5
Hisayuki Uneyama, Hisamine Kobayashi, Naoto Tonouchi
Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867097/mitochondrial-remodeling-in-the-liver-following-chronic-alcohol-feeding-to-rats
#6
Derick Han, Heather S Johnson, Madhuri P Rao, Gary Martin, Harsh Sancheti, Kai H Silkwood, Carl W Decker, Kim Tho Nguyen, Joseph G Casian, Enrique Cadenas, Neil Kaplowitz
The feeding of alcohol orally (Lieber-DeCarli diet) to rats has been shown to cause declines in mitochondrial respiration (state III), decreased expression of respiratory complexes, and decreased respiratory control ratios (RCR) in liver mitochondria. These declines and other mitochondrial alterations have led to the hypothesis that alcohol feeding causes "mitochondrial dysfunction" in the liver. If oral alcohol feeding leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, one would predict that increasing alcohol delivery by intragastric (IG) alcohol feeding to rats would cause greater declines in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver...
November 17, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865621/menaquinone-4-vitamin-k2-up-regulates-expression-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-caco-2-cells
#7
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Rieko Tanabe, Kanae Nakaoka, Takayuki Hosoi, Masae Goseki-Sone
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes several monophosphate esters into inorganic acid and alcohol. In humans, 4 kinds of ALP isozymes have been identified: tissue-nonspecific ALP, intestinal ALP, placental ALP, and germ cell ALP. Intestinal ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients, such as lipids, but the physiological function of intestinal ALP has remained elusive. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues into γ-carboxy glutamate...
October 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844059/developmental-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-long-term-deficits-in-attention-and-its-underlying-prefrontal-circuitry
#8
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828926/alcohol-use-disorder-as-a-possible-predictor-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-response
#9
Suna Su Aksay, Melanie Hambsch, Christoph Janke, Jan Malte Bumb, Laura Kranaster, Alexander Sartorius
INTRODUCTION: Two rapidly acting antidepressive treatment forms, namely, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and ketamine, possibly share a common mechanism of action primarily involving alterations of neurotransmission (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels). Because patients receiving ketamine and with a coexistent family history of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) seem to benefit from consistent and longer lasting antidepressive effects, we hypothesized better treatment response in ECT patients with an own history or a family history of an AUD...
November 8, 2016: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816611/vitamin-e-emerging-aspects-and-new-directions
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Galli, Angelo Azzi, Marc Birringer, Joan M Cook-Mills, Manfred Eggersdorfer, Jan Frank, Gabriele Cruciani, Stefan Lorkowski, Nesrin Kartal Özer
The discovery of vitamin E will have its 100th anniversary in 2022, but we still have more questions than answers regarding the biological functions and the essentiality of vitamin E for human health. Discovered as a factor essential for rat fertility and soon after characterized for its properties of fat-soluble antioxidant, vitamin E was identified to have signaling and gene regulation effects in the 1980s. In the same years the cytochrome P-450 dependent metabolism of vitamin E was characterized and a first series of studies on short-chain carboxyethyl metabolites in the 1990s paved the way to the hypothesis of a biological role for this metabolism alternative to vitamin E catabolism...
November 2, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816567/efficacy-and-safety-of-adjunctive-bitopertin-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-suboptimally-controlled-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-treated-with-antipsychotics-results-from-three-phase-3-randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-placebo-controlled-multicentre-studies
#11
Dragana Bugarski-Kirola, Nakao Iwata, Snjezana Sameljak, Carol Reid, Thomas Blaettler, Laurie Millar, Tiago Reis Marques, George Garibaldi, Shitij Kapur
BACKGROUND: Many patients with schizophrenia require high doses of medication for their ongoing psychotic symptoms. Glutamate theories and findings from studies showing efficacy of sarcosine, an endogenous, non-selective glycine-reuptake inhibitor mediated by GlyT1, offer an alternative approach. We undertook the SearchLyte trial programme to examine the efficacy of bitopertin, a selective GlyT1-mediated glycine-reuptake inhibitor, as an adjunctive treatment to ongoing antipsychotic treatment...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814790/differential-effects-of-tm4-tryptophan-mutations-on-inhibition-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-by-ethanol-and-toluene
#12
C Thetford Smothers, John J Woodward
The voluntary use and abuse of alcohol and inhalants is a recognized health problem throughout the world. Previous studies have shown that these agents affect brain function in a variety of ways including direct inhibition of key ion channels that regulate neuronal excitability. Among these, the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is particularly important given its key role in glutamatergic synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity and learning and memory. Previous studies from this laboratory and others have identified key residues within transmembrane (TM) domains of the NMDA receptor that appear to regulate its sensitivity to alcohol and anesthetics...
November 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803497/clinical-study-of-serum-homocysteine-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-euglycemic-patients
#13
Yanjin Hu, Jia Liu, Xuejie Dong, Yuan Xu, Song Leng, Guang Wang
BACKGROUND Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease. NAFLD includes a spectrum of hepatic pathologies: simple fatty liver, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Insulin resistance may contribute to NAFLD. The liver plays an important role in the production and metabolism of homocysteine (HCY), which is known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High HCY level can aggravate NAFLD by increasing the reactive oxygen species and activating oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HCY and NAFLD in euglycemic patients...
November 2, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799764/optimizing-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-drug-carriers-using-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model
#14
Di Shi, Gujie Mi, Soumya Bhattacharya, Suprabha Nayar, Thomas J Webster
In the current study, an optimized in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model was established using mouse brain endothelial cells (b.End3) and astrocytes (C8-D1A). Before measuring the permeability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) samples, the BBB was first examined and confirmed by an immunofluorescent stain and evaluating the transendothelial electrical resistance. After such confirmation, the permeability of the following five previously synthesized SPIONs was determined using this optimized BBB model: 1) GGB (synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid, and bovine serum albumin [BSA]), 2) GGC (glycine, glutamic acid, and collagen), 3) GGP (glycine, glutamic acid, and polyvinyl alcohol), 4) BPC (BSA, polyethylene glycol, and collagen), and 5) CPB (collagen, polyvinyl alcohol, and BSA)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796078/withdrawal-from-chronic-nicotine-exposure-produces-region-specific-tolerance-to-alcohol-stimulated-glua1-phosphorylation
#15
M Adrienne McGinn, Rod I Paulsen, Christy A Itoga, Muhammad A Farooq, Jonathan E Reppel, Kimberly N Edwards, Annie M Whitaker, Nicholas W Gilpin, Scott Edwards
BACKGROUND: Nicotine use increases alcohol drinking, suggesting that the combination of these drugs may produce synergistic effects in activating reward circuitry. Alternatively, use of either of these drugs may facilitate the development of cross-tolerance to the other to promote intake escalation. METHODS: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were chronically exposed to room air or chronic, intermittent nicotine vapor, which has been shown to produce symptoms of nicotine dependence as evidenced by elevated nicotine self-administration and a host of somatic and motivational withdrawal symptoms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790731/metabolomics-analysis-revealed-distinct-cyclic-changes-of-metabolites-altered-by-chronic-ethanol-plus-binge-and-shp-deficiency
#16
Melanie Tran, Zhihong Yang, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Li Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption causes alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and disruption of the circadian system facilitates the development of ALD. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is a nuclear receptor and critical regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. This study aimed at depicting circadian metabolomes altered by chronic EtOH-plus-binge and Shp deficiency using high-throughput metabolomics. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and Shp(-/-) mice were fed the control diet (CD) or Lieber-DeCarli EtOH liquid diet (ED) for 10 days followed by a single bout of maltose (CD + M) or EtOH (ED + E) binge on the 11th day...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788777/test-for-association-of-common-variants-in-grm7-with-alcohol-consumption
#17
Whitney E Melroy-Greif, Csaba Vadasz, Helen M Kamens, Matthew B McQueen, Robin P Corley, Michael C Stallings, Christian J Hopfer, Kenneth S Krauter, Sandra A Brown, John K Hewitt, Marissa A Ehringer
Recent work using a mouse model has identified the glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (Grm7) gene as a strong candidate gene for alcohol consumption. Although there has been some work examining the effect of human glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 (GRM7) polymorphisms on human substance use disorders, the majority of the work has focused on other psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The current study aimed to evaluate evidence for association between GRM7 and alcohol behaviors in humans using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, as well as a gene-based approach...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755217/anterior-cingulate-glutamate-is-reduced-by-acamprosate-treatment-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#18
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753230/screening-through-the-plicable-promoter-toolbox-enhances-protein-production-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Jianhua Yang, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Stefanie Nicole Hamer, Feng Cheng, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Escherichia coli is a common host for recombinant protein production in which production titers are highly dependent on the employed expression system. Promoters are thereby a key element to control gene expression levels. In this study, a novel PLICable promoter toolbox was developed which enables in a single cloning step and after a screening experiment to identify out of ten IPTG-inducible promoters (T7, A3, lpp, tac, pac, Sp6, lac, npr, trc and syn) the most suitable one for high level protein production...
October 18, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714637/headaches-a-review-of-the-role-of-dietary-factors
#20
Zoya Zaeem, Lily Zhou, Esma Dilli
Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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