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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898455/clinical-implications-of-the-microbiome-in-urinary-tract-diseases
#2
Andreas Hiergeist, André Gessner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#3
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893069/new-medical-and-surgical-insights-into-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-review
#4
Brandy L Frost, Biren P Modi, Tom Jaksic, Michael S Caplan
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated. Observations: In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892611/towards-a-bacterial-treatment-for-armpit-malodour
#5
Chris Callewaert, Jo Lambert, Tom Van de Wiele
Axillary malodour is a frustrating condition for many people. It can lead to significant discomforts and various psychological effects. The underarm microbiome generally plays a major role in axillary malodour formation. Not only the bacteria on the armpit epidermis, but especially those living in the sweat glands, sweat pores and hair follicles play a pivotal role in malodour development. In order to treat underarm malodour, this viewpoint paper envisions a bacterial treatment. Replacing the autochthonous malodour causing microbiome with a non-odour causing microbiome, through an armpit bacterial transplantation or direct application of probiotics/non-odour causing bacteria could resolve the condition...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889756/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-reveals-the-effect-of-lactobacillus-treatment-on-the-faecal-metabolite-profile-of-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#6
Bin Wu, Hongli Jiang, Quan He, Meng Wang, Jinhong Xue, Hua Liu, Kehui Shi, Meng Wei, Shanshan Liang, Liwen Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic kidney disease is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and by an increase in the number of gut pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the faecal metabolic profiles in rats with uremia, and to determine whether the altered metabolites in the rats with uremia can be restored by Lactobacillus. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, uremia and uremia + probiotic (UP) groups...
November 26, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888158/metabolomic-profile-of-children-with-recurrent-respiratory-infections
#7
Sara Bozzetto, Paola Pirillo, Silvia Carraro, Mariangela Berardi, Laura Cesca, Matteo Stocchero, Giuseppe Giordano, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi
Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) represent a widespread condition which has a severe social and economic impact. Immunostimulants are used for their prevention. It is crucial to better characterize children with RRI to refine their diagnosis and identify effective personalized prevention strategies. Metabolomics is a high-dimensional biological method that can be used for hypothesis-free biomarker profiling, examining a large number of metabolites in a given sample using spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical data analysis then enables us to infer which metabolic information is relevant to the biological characterization of a given physiological or pathological condition...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#8
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#9
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861762/gut-microbiome-in-children-with-enthesitis-related-arthritis-in-a-developing-country-and-the-effect-of-probiotic-administration
#10
Amita Aggarwal, Aditya N Sarangi, Priyanka Gaur, Anuj Shukla, Rakesh Aggarwal
In Asia, enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) is the most-frequent category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ERA has a strong association with HLA-B27 and subclinical gut inflammation. In a HLA-B27 transgenic rat model, presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the gut appears to cause spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Thus, we studied gut microbiota in children with ERA. Stool specimens from 33 patients with ERA and 14 age-matched healthy controls were studied; none had any gastrointestinal symptom, or had received a drug known to affect gut motility or microbiota in the preceding 6 weeks...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857709/genotyping-by-pcr-and-high-throughput-sequencing-of-commercial-probiotic-products-reveals-composition-biases
#11
Wesley Morovic, Ashley A Hibberd, Bryan Zabel, Rodolphe Barrangou, Buffy Stahl
Recent advances in microbiome research have brought renewed focus on beneficial bacteria, many of which are available in food and dietary supplements. Although probiotics have historically been defined as microorganisms that convey health benefits when ingested in sufficient viable amounts, this description now includes the stipulation "well defined strains," encompassing definitive taxonomy for consumer consideration and regulatory oversight. Here, we evaluated 52 commercial dietary supplements covering a range of labeled species using plate counting and targeted genotyping...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854317/modulating-the-gut-micro-environment-in-the-treatment-of-intestinal-parasites
#12
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Tessa Nikov, Isabelle Ibrahim, Sean Hall
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847292/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-kidney-stone-formation
#14
REVIEW
Mansi Mehta, David S Goldfarb, Lama Nazzal
Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease of worldwide prevalence that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. About 75% of kidney stones are predominantly composed of calcium oxalate and urinary oxalate is considered a crucial risk factor. Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones and the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in this renal disease has been a recent area of interest. Oxalobacter formigenes is a gram negative bacteria that degrades oxalate in the gut decreasing urinary oxalate excretion...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834859/a-precision-microbiome-approach-using-sucrose-for-selective-augmentation-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-fermentation-against-propionibacterium-acnes
#15
Yanhan Wang, Ming-Shan Kao, Jinghua Yu, Stephen Huang, Shinta Marito, Richard L Gallo, Chun-Ming Huang
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824342/systems-level-metabolism-of-the-altered-schaedler-flora-a-complete-gut-microbiota
#16
Matthew B Biggs, Gregory L Medlock, Thomas J Moutinho, Hannah J Lees, Jonathan R Swann, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin
The altered Schaedler flora (ASF) is a model microbial community with both in vivo and in vitro relevance. Here we provide the first characterization of the ASF community in vitro, independent of a murine host. We compared the functional genetic content of the ASF to wild murine metagenomes and found that the ASF functionally represents wild microbiomes better than random consortia of similar taxonomic composition. We developed a chemically defined medium that supported growth of seven of the eight ASF members...
November 8, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822552/microbial-succession-and-flavor-production-in-the-fermented-dairy-beverage-kefir
#17
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Kieran Kilcawley, Orla O'Sullivan, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Marcus J Claesson, Paul D Cotter
Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810921/gut-dysbiosis-impairs-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Kristina A Kigerl, Jodie C E Hall, Lingling Wang, Xiaokui Mo, Zhongtang Yu, Phillip G Popovich
The trillions of microbes that exist in the gastrointestinal tract have emerged as pivotal regulators of mammalian development and physiology. Disruption of this gut microbiome, a process known as dysbiosis, causes or exacerbates various diseases, but whether gut dysbiosis affects recovery of neurological function or lesion pathology after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. Data in this study show that SCI increases intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the gut. These changes are associated with immune cell activation in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) and significant changes in the composition of both major and minor gut bacterial taxa...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808595/nutrition-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-elderly
#19
Nuria Salazar, Lorena Valdés-Varela, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán
The gut microbiota is the assembly of microorganisms living in our intestine and their genomes are known as the microbiome. The correct composition and functionality of this microbiome is essential for maintaining a "healthy status." Aging is related to changes in the gut microbiota which are frequently associated with physiological modifications of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as, to changes in dietary patterns, together with a concomitant decline in cognitive and immune function, all together contributing to frailty...
November 3, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802157/gut-microbiome-and-liver-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Herbert Tilg, Patrice D Cani, Emeran A Mayer
The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types...
October 8, 2016: Gut
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