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Probiotics microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925252/potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-als-a-systematic-review
#1
Michelle L Wright, Christina Fournier, Madelyn C Houser, Malú Tansey, Jonathan Glass, Vicki Stover Hertzberg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to ALS etiology and progression. This review aims to explore evidence of associations between gut microbiota and ALS etiology and pathophysiology. Databases were searched for publications relevant to the gut microbiome in ALS. Three publications provided primary evidence of changes in microbiome profiles in ALS. An ALS mouse model revealed damaged tight junction structure and increased permeability in the intestine versus controls along with a shifted microbiome profile, including decreased levels of butyrate-producing bacteria...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920643/the-microbiome-in-autoimmune-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Fabrizio De Luca, Yehuda Shoenfeld
The microbiome is represented by microorganisms which live in a symbiotic way with the mammalian. The microorganisms have the ability to influence different physiological aspects such as the immune system, metabolism and behaviour. In the last years, several studies have highlighted the role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Notably, in systemic lupus erythematosus an alteration of the intestinal flora (lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio) was described. On the other hand, changes to the gut commensal and periodontal disease were proposed as important factors to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914158/mediterranean-diet-score-associations-with-metabolic-products-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-carotid-plaque-burden-and-renal-function
#3
Michael Pignanelli, Caroline Just, Chrysi Bogiatzi, Vincent Dinculescu, Gregory B Gloor, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Gregor Reid, Bradley L Urquhart, Kelsey N Ruetz, Thomas J Velenosi, J David Spence
Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912913/pilot-assessment-of-probiotics-for-pregnant-women-in-rwanda
#4
Amy McMillan, Stephen Rulisa, Gregory B Gloor, Jean M Macklaim, Mark Sumarah, Gregor Reid
BACKGROUND: While the global market for probiotics is soon to reach in excess of US$50 billion, the continent of Africa has been largely ignored, despite these products having the ability to reduce the burden of disease and death. TRIAL DESIGN: The present randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken in Rwanda, a country devoid of well-documented probiotics. The primary outcome aim was to examine receptivity and compliance for orally administered probiotic capsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in pregnant women and assess any initial side effects or changes to the vaginal microbiome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912397/streptomyces-shared-microbiome-member-of-soil-and-gut-as-old-friends-against-colon-cancer
#5
Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
Inflammation contributes to colon cancer initiation. The disease along with allergy and autoimmunity has been on the rise in Western and more recently in developing countries. This shared rise may imply a shared cause. Streptomycetes are known as soil residents and produce numerous antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive compounds, e.g. rapamycin and tacrolimus. Recently, Streptomyces has been shown in gut microbiome with a lower prevalence in humans than nonhumans whose microbiomes might be more representative of past humans' in a hunter-gatherer and farming environment...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908581/the-microbiome-in-dermatology
#6
Shenara Musthaq, Anna Mazuy, Jeannette Jakus
The skin supports a delicate ecosystem of microbial elements. Although the skin typically acts as a barrier, these microbes interact with the internal body environment and imbalances from the "healthy" state that have been linked to several dermatologic diseases. Understanding the changes in microbial flora in disease states allows for the potential to treat by restoring equilibrium. With the rising popularity of holistic and natural consumerism, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotic, and other therapies are under study to find alternative treatments to these skin disorders through manipulation or supplementation of the microbiome...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900626/adaptation-to-reef-habitats-through-selection-on-the-coral-animal-and-its-associated-microbiome
#7
Madeleine J H van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M Peplow, Sarah E Boyd, Hieu T Nim, Line K Bay
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using metabarcoding) of a reef flat and slope population of the reef-building coral, Pocillopora damicornis, at two locations on Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900563/microbiota-and-dose-response-evolving-paradigm-of-health-triangle
#8
Margaret Coleman, Christopher Elkins, Bradford Gutting, Emmanuel Mongodin, Gloria Solano-Aguilar, Isabel Walls
SRA Dose-Response and Microbial Risk Analysis Specialty Groups jointly sponsored symposia that addressed the intersections between the "microbiome revolution" and dose response. Invited speakers presented on innovations and advances in gut and nasal microbiota (normal microbial communities) in the first decade after the Human Microbiome Project began. The microbiota and their metabolites are now known to influence health and disease directly and indirectly, through modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems and barrier function...
June 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899530/enteric-bacteria-boost-defences-against-oxidative-stress-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#9
Hugo Varet, Yana Shaulov, Odile Sismeiro, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Serge Ankri, Nancy Guillen
Oxidative stress is one of the strongest toxic factors in nature: it can harm or even kill cells. Cellular means of subverting the toxicity of oxidative stress are important for the success of infectious diseases. Many types of bacterium inhabit the intestine, where they can encounter pathogens. During oxidative stress, we analyzed the interplay between an intestinal parasite (the pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica - the agent of amoebiasis) and enteric bacteria (microbiome residents, pathogens and probiotics)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896319/specific-properties-of-probiotic-strains-relevance-and-benefits-for-the-host
#10
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Victoria V Mokrozub, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Probiotics have tremendous potential to develop healthy diets, treatment, and prevention. Investigation of in vitro cultural properties of health-promoting microorganisms like lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria is crucial to select probiotic strains for treatments based on gut microbiota modulation to justify individualized and personalized approach for nutrition and prevention of variety of diseases. The aim was to study the biological properties of LAB and bifidobacteria probiotic strains, namely adhesive properties; resistance to antibiotics; and biological fluids (gastric juice, bile, pancreatic enzymes), and to overview the literature in the field...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895255/gut-microbiome-gut-dysbiosis-arterial-hypertension-new-horizons
#11
Vasiliki Katsi, Matthaios Didagelos, Stamatios Skevofilax, Iakovos Armenis, Athanasios Kartalis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Haralambos Karvounis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Arterial hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that live in or on the human body. They influence human physiology by interfering in several processes such as providing nutrients and vitamins and in Phase I and Phase II drug metabolism. The human gut microbiota is represented mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and to a lesser degree by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with each individual harbouring at least 160 such species...
June 12, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881381/current-insights-in-microbiome-shifts-in-sjogren-s-syndrome-and-possible-therapeutic-interventions
#12
REVIEW
Christina Tsigalou, Elisavet Stavropoulou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease, among the most common ones, that targets mainly the exocrine glands as well as extra-glandular epithelial tissues. Their lymphocytic infiltration leads to manifestations from other organs (e.g., kidneys, lungs, liver, or thyroid), apart from sicca symptoms (xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis). SS is more prevalent in women than in men (9:1). Moreover, p.SS patients are in increased risk to develop lymphoma. Certain autoantibodies (e.g., antibodies against ribonucleoprotein autoantigens Ro-SSA and La-SSB) are ultimate hallmarks for the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878050/detection-of-multidimensional-co-exclusion-patterns-in-microbial-communities
#13
Levent Albayrak, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Yuriy Fofanov
Motivation: Identification of complex relationships among members of microbial communities is key to understand and control the microbiota. Co-exclusion is arguably one of the most important patterns reflecting microorganisms' intolerance to each other's presence. Knowing these relations opens an opportunity to manipulate microbiotas, personalize anti-microbial and probiotic treatments as well as guide microbiota transplantation. The co-exclusion pattern however, cannot be appropriately described by a linear function nor its strength be estimated using covariance or (negative) Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients...
June 5, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876777/probiotics-ameliorate-stool-consistency-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#14
Jin Young Yoon, Jae Myung Cha, Ju Kyoung Oh, Pei Lei Tan, Sae Hun Kim, Min Seob Kwak, Jung Won Jeon, Hyun Phil Shin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacy of probiotics for improving clinical symptoms, altering the fecal microbiota, and regulating serum immune cytokine levels was investigated in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-constipation (IBS-C) or functional constipation (FC). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at Kyung Hee University Hospital between October 2016 and February 2017. Consecutive 18-75-year-old patients with diagnosis of IBS-C or FC (based on Rome IV criteria) consumed probiotics (3...
June 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874201/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-supplementation-on-intestinal-inflammation-assessed-by-pet-mri-scans-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#15
Caroline J Arnbjerg, Beate Vestad, Johannes R Hov, Karin K Pedersen, Sofie Jespersen, Helle H Johannesen, Kristian Holm, Bente Halvorsen, Eva Fallentin, Adam E Hansen, Theis Lange, Andreas Kjær, Marius Trøseid, Barbara M Fischer, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Alterations in gut microbiome have been associated with inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on intestinal inflammation, gut microbiota composition and systemic markers of microbial translocation and inflammation in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: This prospective, clinical interventional trial included 45 individuals (15 cART-naïve and 30 cART-treated) that ingested LGG twice daily at a dosage of 6 x109 colony-forming units per capsule for a period of eight weeks...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872152/multidrug-resistant-pathogens-respond-differently-to-the-presence-of-co-pathogen-commensal-probiotic-and-host-cells
#16
Agnes P Chan, Yongwook Choi, Lauren M Brinkac, Radha Krishnakumar, Jessica DePew, Maria Kim, Mary K Hinkle, Emil P Lesho, Derrick E Fouts
In light of the ongoing antimicrobial resistance crisis, there is a need to understand the role of co-pathogens, commensals, and the local microbiome in modulating virulence and antibiotic resistance. To identify possible interactions that influence the expression of virulence or survival mechanisms in both the multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and human host cells, unique cohorts of clinical isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing with enhanced assembly and full annotation, pairwise co-culturing, and transcriptome profiling...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870270/impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-neurological-diseases-diet-composition-and-novel-treatments
#17
Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment...
June 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867856/proteinaceous-secretory-metabolites-of-probiotic-human-commensal-enterococcus-hirae-20c-e-faecium-12a-and-l12b-as-antiproliferative-agents-against-cancer-cell-lines
#18
Preeti Sharma, Sumanpreet Kaur, Raminderjit Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to grow by almost 70% in the coming 2 decades. Recent microbiome studies in cancer mice models have shown that certain commensal bacteria play protective roles against cancer. Thus, the use of commensal microflora having anticancer activities for the treatment of cancer appears to be an attractive alternative therapeutic strategy. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form an integral component of commensal microflora in healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867475/the-administration-of-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-ameliorates-development-of-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#19
Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Francesca Algieri, José Garrido-Mesa, Teresa Vezza, Maria P Utrilla, Natalia Chueca, Jose A Fernández-Caballero, Federico García, Maria E Rodríguez-Cabezas, Julio Gálvez
The beneficial effects of probiotics on immune-based pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been well reported. However, their exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Few studies have focused on the impact of probiotics on the composition of the colonic microbiota. The aim of the present study was to correlate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis with the changes induced in colonic microbiota populations...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861127/connecting-the-immune-system-systemic-chronic-inflammation-and-the-gut-microbiome-the-role-of-sex
#20
REVIEW
Lisa Rizzetto, Francesca Fava, Kieran M Tuohy, Carlo Selmi
Unresolved low grade systemic inflammation represents the underlying pathological mechanism driving immune and metabolic pathways involved in autoimmune diseases (AID). Mechanistic studies in animal models of AID and observational studies in patients have found alterations in gut microbiota communities and their metabolites, suggesting a microbial contribution to the onset or progression of AID. The gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence immune functions and immune homeostasis both within the gut and systematically...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
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