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Probiotics microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#1
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040820/systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-enteral-feeding-on-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants
#2
Wanli Xu, Michelle Judge, Kendra Maas, Naveed Hussain, Jacqueline M McGrath, Wendy A Henderson, Xiaomei Cong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and the Cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were thoroughly searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2017, using the keywords gut microbiome, gut microbiota, enteral microbiome, enteral microbiota, premature infant, preterm infant, extremely low birth weight infant, ELBW infant, very low birth weight infant, feeding, breast milk, breastfeeding, formula, prebiotic, probiotic, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038560/safety-assessment-of-antibiotic-and-probiotic-feed-additives-for-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#3
D P Neveling, L van Emmenes, J J Ahire, E Pieterse, C Smith, L M T Dicks
Antibiotics in feed select for resistant strains and is thus a threat to human health. In this study, the effect of a multi-strain probiotic and antibiotics on the growth and health of broilers was studied. Equal numbers of broilers received on a daily basis either a multi-strain probiotic or a combination of sulphadiazine, colistin and trimethoprim, whereas the control group received standard feed. The villi of immature broilers (19 days old) administered antibiotics had a larger surface area and their lymphocyte and basophil counts were higher compared to broilers from the probiotic and control groups...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#4
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029663/demystifying-probiotics-use-in-the-elderly
#5
Caren McHenry Martin, Gianna Bryan
Pharmacists and other health care professionals can be perplexed by the growing body of literature regarding the use of probiotics for a variety of symptoms and conditions and by an increasing number of probiotic products available to consumers. Understanding the functions of the intestinal microbiome, the possible mechanisms of actions of probiotics, the research supporting or refuting probiotic use, and criteria for selecting a probiotic product is essential to making a rational recommendation for patients...
August 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#6
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018933/from-osteoimmunology-to-osteomicrobiology-how-the-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-regulate-bone
#7
REVIEW
Emory Hsu, Roberto Pacifici
Osteomicrobiology refers to the role of microbiota in bone health and the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates post-natal skeletal development, bone aging, and pathologic bone loss. Here, we review recent reports linking gut microbiota to changes in bone phenotype. A pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu drives bone resorption in conditions such as sex steroid hormone deficiency. The response of the immune system to activation by the microbiome results in increased circulating osteoclastogenic cytokines in a T cell-dependent mechanism...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987073/human-microbiome-as-an-approach-to-personalized-medicine
#8
Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar, Bagher Larijani
Personalized medicine is an approach for medical decisions, practices, and interventions that considers individual variations in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Regarding complex metabolic patterns associated with different diseases, characterizing unique metabolic patterns of each patient seems like a practical approach. We can imagine a future in which routinely analyzing the microbiome allows us to predict individualized responses to different foods and drugs. Microbiome analysis of individuals may be added to future routine personalized medicine protocols after comparing the costs and benefits of microbiome-sequencing technology...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986319/enhancing-the-viability-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-after-spray-drying-and-during-storage
#9
Géraldine Broeckx, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tim Henkens, Shari Kiekens, Marianne F L van den Broek, Sarah Lebeer, Filip Kiekens
Increasing knowledge about the human microbiome has led to a growing awareness of the potential of applying probiotics to improve our health. The pharmaceutical industry shows an emerging interest in pharmaceutical formulations containing these beneficial microbes, the so-called pharmabiotics. An important manufacturing step is the drying of the probiotics, as this can increase the stability and shelf life of the finished pharmabiotic product. Unfortunately, drying also puts stress on microbial cells, thus causing a decrease in viability...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984235/biochemical-features-of-beneficial-microbes-foundations-for-therapeutic-microbiology
#10
Melinda A Engevik, James Versalovic
Commensal and beneficial microbes secrete myriad products which target the mammalian host and other microbes. These secreted substances aid in bacterial niche development, and select compounds beneficially modulate the host and promote health. Microbes produce unique compounds which can serve as signaling factors to the host, such as biogenic amine neuromodulators, or quorum-sensing molecules to facilitate inter-bacterial communication. Bacterial metabolites can also participate in functional enhancement of host metabolic capabilities, immunoregulation, and improvement of intestinal barrier function...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#11
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976641/synthetic-biology-and-the-gut-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer Dou, Matthew R Bennett
The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in maintaining human health. Functions performed by gastrointestinal microbes range from regulating metabolism to modulating immune and nervous system development. Scientists have attempted to exploit this importance through the development of engineered probiotics that are capable of producing and delivering small molecule therapeutics within the gut. However, existing synthetic probiotics are simplistic and fail to replicate the complexity and adaptability of native homeostatic mechanisms...
October 4, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976454/the-gut-and-its-microbiome-as-related-to-central-nervous-system-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-psychosomatic-medicine
#13
Emeran A Mayer, Elaine Y Hsiao
Accumulating evidence indicates bidirectional associations between the brain and the gut microbiome with both top-down and bottom-up processes. This article describes new developments in brain-gut interactions as an introduction to a special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, based on a joint symposium of the American Psychosomatic Society and the American Gastroenterological Association. Literature review articles indicate that several psychiatric disorders are associated with altered gut microbiota, whereas evidence linking functional gastrointestinal disorders and dysbiosis has not been firmly established...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969890/lactobacillus-reuteri-for-infants-with-colic-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Nicole Y Fatheree, Yuying Liu, Christopher M Taylor, Thomas K Hoang, Chunyan Cai, Mohammad H Rahbar, Manouchehr Hessabi, Michael Ferris, Valarie McMurtry, Christine Wong, Ta Vu, Theresa Dancsak, Ting Wang, Wallace Gleason, Vinay Bandla, Fernando Navarro, Dat Q Tran, J Marc Rhoads
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen (DSM) 17938 with daily administration to healthy infants with colic and to determine the effect of L reuteri strain DSM 17938 on crying, fussing, inflammatory, immune, and microbiome variables. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a controlled, double-blinded, phase 1 safety and tolerability trial in healthy breast-fed infants with colic, aged 3 weeks to 3 months, randomly assigned to L reuteri strain DSM 17938 (5 × 10(8) colony-forming units daily) or placebo for 42 days and followed for 134 days...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968517/probiotics-modulate-gut-microbiota-and-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-dio-mice
#15
Renata A Bagarolli, Natália Tobar, Alexandre G Oliveira, Tiago G Araújo, Bruno M Carvalho, Guilherme Z Rocha, Juliana F Vecina, Kelly Calisto, Dioze Guadagnini, Patrícia O Prada, Andrey Santos, Sara T O Saad, Mario J A Saad
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966892/bacterial-community-associated-with-worker-honeybees-apis-mellifera-affected-by-european-foulbrood
#16
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Bronislava Hortova, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Tyl, Dalibor Titera, Martin Markovic, Jan Hubert
BACKGROUND: Melissococcus plutonius is an entomopathogenic bacterium that causes European foulbrood (EFB), a honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) disease that necessitates quarantine in some countries. In Czechia, positive evidence of EFB was absent for almost 40 years, until an outbreak in the Krkonose Mountains National Park in 2015. This occurrence of EFB gave us the opportunity to study the epizootiology of EFB by focusing on the microbiome of honeybee workers, which act as vectors of honeybee diseases within and between colonies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959937/genome-editing-of-food-grade-lactobacilli-to-develop-therapeutic-probiotics
#17
Jan-Peter van Pijkeren, Rodolphe Barrangou
Lactic acid bacteria have been used historically for food manufacturing mainly to ensure preservation via fermentation. More recently, lactic acid bacteria have been exploited to promote human health, and many strains serve as industrial workhorses. Recent advances in microbiology and molecular biology have contributed to understanding the genetic basis of many of their functional attributes. These include dissection of biochemical processes that drive food fermentation, and identification and characterization of health-promoting features that positively impact the composition and roles of microbiomes in human health...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951889/functional-changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-contribute-to-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-deficient-colon-cancer
#18
Scott G Daniel, Corbie L Ball, David G Besselsen, Tom Doetschman, Bonnie L Hurwitz
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most treatable cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of ~64%, yet over 50,000 deaths occur yearly in the United States. In 15% of cases, deficiency in mismatch repair leads to null mutations in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) type II receptor, yet genotype alone is not responsible for tumorigenesis. Previous work in mice shows that disruptions in TGF-β signaling combined with Helicobacter hepaticus cause tumorigenesis, indicating a synergistic effect between genotype and microbial environment...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945752/impact-of-enterobius-vermicularis-infection-and-mebendazole-treatment-on-intestinal-microbiota-and-host-immune-response
#19
Chin-An Yang, Chao Liang, Chia-Li Lin, Chiung-Tzu Hsiao, Ching-Tien Peng, Hung-Chih Lin, Jan-Gowth Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected) first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945201/enterobacteria-secrete-an-inhibitor-of-pseudomonas-virulence-during-clinical-bacteriuria
#20
Shannon I Ohlemacher, Daryl E Giblin, D André d'Avignon, Ann E Stapleton, Barbara W Trautner, Jeffrey P Henderson
Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae are among the most common pathogens of the human urinary tract. Among the genetic gains of function associated with urinary E. coli isolates is the Yersinia high pathogenicity island (HPI), which directs the biosynthesis of yersiniabactin (Ybt), a virulence-associated metallophore. Using a metabolomics approach, we found that E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae expressing the Yersinia HPI also secrete escherichelin, a second metallophore whose chemical structure matches a known synthetic inhibitor of the virulence-associated pyochelin siderophore system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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