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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905253/effects-of-context-expectation-on-prospective-memory-performance-among-older-and-younger-adults
#1
Terrence K Kominsky, Celinda Reese-Melancon
This experiment examined the impact of context expectation on prospective memory (PM) performance among older and younger adults. Participants responded to PM target words embedded in an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT). Older and younger adults performed similarly on the PM task. Regardless of age, PM was significantly better for participants in the correct context expectation condition and significantly worse in the incorrect context expectation condition relative to participants who held no expectations about the context in which targets would appear...
January 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881960/testing-the-limits-of-skill-transfer-for-scrabble-experts-in-behavior-and-brain
#2
Sophia van Hees, Penny M Pexman, Ian S Hargreaves, Lenka Zdrazilova, Jessie M Hart, Kaia Myers-Stewart, Filomeno Cortese, Andrea B Protzner
We investigated transfer of the skills developed by competitive Scrabble players. Previous studies reported superior performance for Scrabble experts on the lexical decision task (LDT), suggesting near transfer of Scrabble skills. Here we investigated the potential for far transfer to a symbol decision task (SDT); in particular, transfer of enhanced long-term working memory for vertically presented stimuli. Our behavioral results showed no evidence for far transfer. Despite years of intensive practice, Scrabble experts were no faster and no more accurate than controls in the SDT...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866195/comparison-of-telbivudine-and-entecavir-therapy-on-nephritic-function-and-drug-resistance-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-related-compensated-cirrhosis
#3
Huajiang Shen, Feng Ding, Zhiwei Wang, Fang Sun, Yafeng Yu, Jiankang Zhou, Wenfang Xu, Jianchao Ni, Jiangang Wang, Yida Yang
BACKGROUND: To compare the impact of telbivudine (LDT) and entecavir (ETV) administration on nephritic function. METHOD: One hundred thirty patients diagnosed with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated cirrhosis were randomly divided into LDT (600 mg/d) or ETV (0.5 mg/d) groups. RESULTS: The drug resistance rate was higher following LDT treatment compared to ETV treatment (16.9% vs. 1.5%, P=0.0006). The mean creatinine level decreased compared to baseline in the LDT group (0...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809985/the-development-of-anthelmintic-resistance-with-best-practice-control-of-nematodes-on-commercial-sheep-farms-in-the-uk
#4
Jane Learmount, Nathalie Stephens, Valerie Boughtflower, Alba Barrecheguren, Kayleigh Rickell
Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections. The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance is a major global issue affecting the effective control of parasite diseases in grazing livestock production. Sustainable control strategies that reduce dependence on antimicrobials have the potential to slow the further development of resistance but there is little data on the effect of control strategies on resistance development in the field...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808538/n400-effects-of-semantic-richness-can-be-modulated-by-task-demands
#5
Rocío A López Zunini, Louis Renoult, Vanessa Taler
Semantic richness is a multidimensional construct that can be defined as the amount of semantic information associated with a concept. Objective: To investigate neurophysiological correlates of semantic richness information associated with words and its interaction with task demands. Method: Two different dimensions of semantic richness (number of associates and number of semantic neighbors) were investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision (LDT) and semantic categorization tasks (SCT) using the same stimuli in 2 groups of participants (24 in each group)...
November 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806120/comparison-of-the-efficacies-and-safety-of-combined-therapy-between-telbivudine-plus-adefovir-and-lamivudine-plus-adefovir-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-real-world-practice
#6
Ming-Tsung Lin, Yi-Hao Yen, Ming-Chao Tsai, Po-Lin Tseng, Kuo-Chin Chang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Tsung-Hui Hu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic hepatitis B infection remains a significant health issue worldwide. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined therapy using lamivudine plus adefovir (LAM+ADV) versus telbivudine plus adefovir (LdT+ADV) and the corresponding renal function change and safety. METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 171 patients (110 patients received LAM+ADV and 60 patients received LdT+ADV). We analyzed the changes in renal function using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777855/telbivudine-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-hbeag-positive-patients-in-china-a-health-economic-analysis
#7
S Banerjee, P Gunda, R F Drake, K Hamed
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) are the standard of care for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The present analysis aimed to determine the cost effectiveness of NUCs in Chinese healthcare settings. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate two therapeutic strategies for a hypothetical patient cohort diagnosed with hepatitis B e antigen-positive CHB, unwilling or unable to receive interferon therapy, and about to start treatment with any NUC. The first strategy included NUC monotherapy without sequencing (telbivudine [LDT], entecavir [ETV], tenofovir [TDF], lamivudine [LAM], adefovir dipivoxil [ADV], and combination therapies of either LDT and ADV or LDT and TDF, followed by best supportive care [BSC])...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761438/treatment-for-hepatitis-b-in-patients-with-drug-resistance
#8
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756019/4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline-a-novel-multitarget-compound-with-anxiolytic-activity-contribution-of-the-glutamatergic-system
#9
Angélica S Reis, Mikaela Pinz, Luis Fernando B Duarte, Juliano A Roehrs, Diego Alves, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that quinoline compounds have attracted much attention in the field of drug development. Accordingly, 4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline (4-PSQ) is a new quinoline derivative containing selenium, which showed a potential antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic-like properties of 4-PSQ. Mice were orally pretreated with 4-PSQ (5-50 mg/kg) or vehicle, 30 min prior to the elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark (LDT) or open field (OFT) tests...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717810/activation-of-state-regulating-neurochemical-systems-in-newborn-and-embryonic-chicks
#10
Aimee Chan, SiHan Li, Ahn R Lee, Joseph Leung, Alissa Yip, Jaimie Bird, Kyle E Godden, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels C Rattenborg, Evan Balaban, Maria Pompeiano
Coordinated activity in different sets of widely-projecting neurochemical systems characterize waking (W) and sleep (S). How and when this coordination is achieved during development is not known. We used embryos and newborns of a precocial bird species (chickens) to assess developmental activation in different neurochemical systems using cFos expression, which has been extensively employed to examine cellular activation during S and W in adult mammals. Similarly to adult mammals, newborn awake chicks showed significantly higher cFos expression in W-active hypocretin/orexin (H/O), serotonergic Dorsal Raphe, noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus and cholinergic Laterodorsal and Pedunculopontine Tegmental (Ch-LDT/PT) neurons when compared to sleeping chicks...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694733/monitoring-of-genotypic-resistance-profile-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-receiving-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-in-huzhou-china
#11
Fuchu Qian, Jiqu Qin, Dongli Li, Zhihong Ma, Hairong Zhang, Fang Jin, Weihong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Antiviral drug-resistance patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants are complex and currently partly understood. The aim of this study was to monitor the genotypic resistance profile in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in Huzhou, eastern China. METHODOLOGY: Serum samples of 139 CHB patients undergoing NA treatment were obtained from Huzhou Central Hospital. The full-length HBV reverse transcriptase regions were amplified and sequenced...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685021/orthographic-neighborhood-effects-in-recognition-and-recall-tasks-in-a-transparent-orthography
#12
Francis R R Justi, Antonio Jaeger
The number of orthographic neighbors of a word influences its probability of being retrieved in recognition and free recall memory tests. Even though this phenomenon is well demonstrated for English words, it has yet to be demonstrated for languages with more predictable grapheme-phoneme mappings than English. To address this issue, 4 experiments were conducted to investigate effects of number of orthographic neighbors (N) and effects of frequency of occurrence of orthographic neighbors (NF) on memory retrieval of Brazilian Portuguese words...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647660/subcortical-roles-in-lexical-task-processing-inferences-from-thalamic-and-subthalamic-event-related-potentials
#13
Hannes O Tiedt, Felicitas Ehlen, Lea K Krugel, Andreas Horn, Andrea A Kühn, Fabian Klostermann
Subcortical functions for language capacities are poorly defined, but may be investigated in the context of deep brain stimulation. Here, we studied event-related potentials recorded from electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) together with surface-EEG. Participants completed a lexical decision task (LDT), which required the differentiation of acoustically presented words from pseudo-words by button press. Target stimuli were preceded by prime-words. In recordings from VIM, a slow potential shift apparent at the lower electrode contacts persisted during target stimulus presentation (equally for words and pseudo-words)...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646204/chronic-cocaine-exposure-induces-noradrenergic-modulation-of-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-to-cholinergic-neurons-of-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus
#14
Naofumi Taoka, Ryota Kamiizawa, Shintaro Wada, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which sends cholinergic efferent connections to dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), plays a critical role in the development of addictive behavior and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Although repeated cocaine exposure elicits plastic changes in excitatory synaptic transmission and intrinsic membrane excitability in LDT cholinergic neurons, it remains unclear whether inhibitory synaptic transmission is modulated by cocaine exposure...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621209/loop-and-drain-technique-for-subcutaneous-abscess-a-safe-minimally-invasive-procedure-in-an-adult-population
#15
Rafael Gaszynski, Gratian Punch, Kurt Verschuer
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the safety, efficacy and compliance of an emerging technique for managing complex subcutaneous abscesses in an adult population (≥16 years). METHODS: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data between April and October 2015 at a rural hospital comparing conventional incision drainage (CID) and repetitive packing to the minimal incision, irrigation, loop and drain technique (LDT). LDT method was consistent with previous publications, being ≤5 mm incisions at abscess edges, irrigation and passage of a VessiLoop through the cavity and then secured above the skin...
September 12, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599376/ropren-%C3%A2-treatment-reverses-anxiety-like-behavior-and-monoamines-levels-in-gonadectomized-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Julia Fedotova, Vagif Soultanov, Tamara Nikitina, Victor Roschin, Natalia Ordyan, Lucian Hritcu
Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8...
September 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583985/small-surface-antigen-variants-of-hbv-associated-with-responses-to-telbivudine-treatment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#17
Hui Dong, Bin Zhou, Hui Kang, Weirong Jin, Yongqiang Zhu, Yan Shen, Jian Sun, Shengyue Wang, Guoping Zhao, Jinlin Hou, Yungang He
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analogues are widely used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus infection, but drug resistance is common. The role of hepatitis B virus surface gene variants in drug resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues is unknown. We are trying to investigate the dynamics of S gene mutations and how they relate to a patient's virologic response in this study. METHODS: Thirty patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled and serum samples were collected at multiple time-points during treatment with telbivudine (LdT)...
September 1, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555827/effects-of-emotional-experience-in-lexical-decision
#18
Paul D Siakaluk, P Ian Newcombe, Brian Duffels, Eliza Li, David M Sidhu, Melvin J Yap, Penny M Pexman
Previous research has examined the effects of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotion information) in semantic categorization (SCT), word naming, and Stroop tasks (Newcombe et al., 2012; Siakaluk et al., 2014; Moffat et al., 2015). However, to date there are no published reports on whether emotional experience influences performance in the lexical decision task (LDT). In the present study, we examined the influence of emotional experience in LDT using three different stimulus sets...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531120/localization-delocalization-transition-in-spin-orbit-coupled-bose-einstein-condensate
#19
Chunyan Li, Fangwei Ye, Yaroslav V Kartashov, Vladimir V Konotop, Xianfeng Chen
We address the impact of the spin-orbit (SO) coupling on the localization-delocalization-transition (LDT) in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a bichromatic potential. We find that SO coupling significantly alters the threshold depth of the one of sublattices above which the lowest eigenstates transform from delocalizated into localized. For some moderate coupling strengths the threshold is strongly reduced, which is explained by the SO coupling-induced band flattening in one of the sub-lattices...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514877/chemical-composition-and-in-vitro-activity-of-calotropis-procera-ait-latex-on-haemonchus-contortus
#20
Géssica S Cavalcante, Selene M de Morais, Weibson P P Andre, Wesley L C Ribeiro, Ana L M Rodrigues, Fábia C M L De Lira, Janaína M Viana, Claudia M L Bevilaqua
Calotropis procera is among the species of medicinal plants that have traditionally been used for the treatment of parasites in small ruminants, stimulating the scientific validation of anthelmintic effects. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis procera latex (EAECPL), assess the in vitro effect against Haemonchus contortus and the structural changes caused in the adult worm. The latex was collected, lyophilized and subjected to washing with the ethyl acetate solvent to obtain EAECPL...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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