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HBsAg Clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738454/-development-of-markov-models-for-economics-evaluation-of-strategies-on-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-population-based-antiviral-treatment-in-china
#1
P C Yang, S X Zhang, P P Sun, Y L Cai, Y Lin, Y H Zou
Objective: To construct the Markov models to reflect the reality of prevention and treatment interventions against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, simulate the natural history of HBV infection in different age groups and provide evidence for the economics evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China. Methods: According to the theory and techniques of Markov chain, the Markov models of Chinese HBV epidemic were developed based on the national data and related literature both at home and abroad, including the settings of Markov model states, allowable transitions and initial and transition probabilities...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732143/ifnl4-rs368234815-and-rs117648444-variants-predict-off-treatment-hbsag-seroclearance-in-ifn-treated-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#2
Enrico Galmozzi, Floriana Facchetti, Glenda Grossi, Alessandro Loglio, Mauro Vigano, Giovanna Lunghi, Massimo Colombo, Pietro Lampertico
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Robust baseline predictors of interferon (IFN) response in HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not currently available. The recently described rs368234815 TT/ΔG dinucleotide and rs117648444 nonsynonymous P70S polymorphisms in IFN lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene, which are strongly associated with response to IFN in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, could be also useful in IFN treated CHB patients. Here we assessed whether IFNL4 rs368234815 and rs117648444 polymorphisms predict IFN induced HBsAg clearance in CHB patients...
July 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699816/enrichment-of-ly6c-hi-monocytes-by-multiple-gm-csf-injections-with-hbv-vaccine-contributes-to-viral-clearance-in-a-hbv-mouse-model
#3
Weidong Zhao, Xian Zhou, Gan Zhao, Qing Lin, Xianzheng Wang, Xueping Yu, Bin Wang
Adjuvants are considered a necessary component for HBV therapeutic vaccines but few are licensed in clinical practice due to concerns about safety or efficiency. In our recent study, we established that a combination protocol of 3-day pretreatments with GM-CSF before a vaccination (3 × GM-CSF+VACCINE) into the same injection site could break immune tolerance and cause over 90% reduction of HBsAg level in the HBsAg transgenic mouse model. Herein, we further investigated the therapeutic potential of the combination in AAV8-1...
July 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648686/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-hbv-infection-persistence
#4
Jie Chen, Xiaojuan Wu, Bei Cai, Zhenzhen Su, Lixin Li, Yunfei An, Lanlan Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate different microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in patients of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection compared with virus spontaneous clearance ones, and try to find new biomarker for diagnosis and treatment assessment. METHODS: miRNA expression profiling was analyzed in patients with HBV infection and patients with virus spontaneous clearance by Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA 4.0 Arrays. The differently expressed miRNAs, as verified by RT-PCR, were analyzed and compared with each other in the two groups of patients...
June 23, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623307/both-interferon-alpha-and-lambda-can-reduce-all-intrahepatic-hdv-infection-markers-in-hbv-hdv-infected-humanized-mice
#5
Katja Giersch, Maria Homs, Tassilo Volz, Martina Helbig, Lena Allweiss, Ansgar W Lohse, Jörg Petersen, Maria Buti, Teresa Pollicino, Camille Sureau, Maura Dandri, Marc Lütgehetmann
Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and D virus (HDV) is associated with the most severe course of liver disease. Interferon represents the only treatment currently approved. However, knowledge about the impact of interferons on HDV in human hepatocytes is scant. Aim was to assess the effect of pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFNα) and lambda (peg-IFNλ), compared to the HBV-polymerase inhibitor entecavir (ETV) on all HDV infection markers using human liver chimeric mice and novel HDV strand-specific qRT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays, which enable intrahepatic detection of HDV RNA species...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611343/hbsag-clearance-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-add-on-pegylated-interferon-alfa-2a-to-ongoing-tenofovir-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Hamad Al Ashgar, Musthafa C Peedikayil, Mohammed Al Quaiz, Fahad Al Sohaibani, Abdulrahman Al Fadda, Mohammed Q Khan, Einar Thoralsson, Sahar Al Thawadi, Ahmed Al Jedai, Khalid Al Kahtani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The ideal end point of treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is sustained off-therapy hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss with or even without seroconversion to anti-HBs. We investigated the role of adding PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) to ongoing tenofovir treatment in chronic HBV patients for achieving HBsAg clearance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, chronic HBV patients who have been receiving tenofovir for >6 months with HBV viral load <2000 IU/ml were randomized into two groups...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611272/a-case-report-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-5-years-after-hbsag-loss-in-chronic-hepatitis-delta-how-long-surveillance-is-required
#7
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Maria Buti
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta virus infection occurs as acute co-infection or as superinfection in patients with preexisting chronic hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis delta leads to more severe disease than chronic hepatitis B, with more rapid progression of fibrosis and increased risk of hepatocelullar carcinoma. CASE REPORT: We report a case of hepatocelullar carcinoma 5 years after spontaneous clearance of Hepatitis B surface antigen in a patient with previous chronic hepatitis delta...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598970/seroprevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-viral-hepatitis-in-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-and-hemophilia-patients
#8
Tyng-Yuan Jang, Pei-Chin Lin, Ching-I Huang, Yu-Mei Liao, Ming-Lun Yeh, Yu-Sheng Zeng, Po-Cheng Liang, Wan-Yi Hsu, Shih-Pien Tsai, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Chung-Feng Huang, Shyh-Shin Chiou, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transfusion dependent subjects are at a great risk of viral hepatitis infection. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among transfusion-dependent patients in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 140 patients (67 thalassemic patients, 70 hemophilic patients, two patients with hereditary spherocytosis and one patient with von Willebrand disease) were prospectively enrolled to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with viral hepatitis and spontaneous HCV clearance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521640/antibody-mediated-immunotherapy-against-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#9
Ying Gao, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogs, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus...
May 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521532/new-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#10
REVIEW
Vincent Soriano, Pablo Barreiro, Laura Benitez, Jose M Peña, Carmen de Mendoza
Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription...
July 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450703/changes-in-the-prevalence-of-hbsag-and-hbeag-a-study-of-8696-parturients-in-a-well-vaccinated-area
#11
Chen-Hsuan Wu, Te-Yao Hsu, Fu-Tsai Kung, Chan-Chao ChangChien, Ching-Chang Tsai, Sheng-Nan Lu
To elucidate the impact of a hepatitis B (HB) vaccination program on the prevalence of HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and HB envelope antigen (HBeAg) as well as the success rate of HBeAg clearance among parturients, we collected data on parturients who gave birth between 2000 and 2010, and recorded the HB status postpartum of those with positive HBeAg before birth. A total of 8696 parturients were enrolled, of whom 113 with prenatal positive HBeAg were invited back. The prevalence of HBsAg decreased over the study period, particularly in the vaccinated cohort, while there was no change in the prevalence of HBeAg...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445927/vaccines-targeting-pres1-domain-overcome-immune-tolerance-in-hbv-carrier-mice
#12
Yingjie Bian, Zheng Zhang, Zhichen Sun, Juanjuan Zhao, Danming Zhu, Yang Wang, Sherry Fu, Jingya Guo, Longchao Liu, Lishan Su, Fu-Sheng Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Hua Peng
Strong tolerance to HBV surface antigens limits the therapeutic effect of the conventional HBsAg vaccination in both preclinical animal models and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. In contrast, we observed that clinical CHB patients presented less immune tolerance to the preS1 domain of HBV large surface antigen. To study whether targeting the weak tolerance of preS1 region could improve therapy gain, we explored vaccination with the long peptide of preS1 domain for HBV virions clearance. Our study showed that this preS1-polypeptide rather than HBsAg vaccination induced robust immune responses in the HBV carrier mice...
April 26, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422873/clinical-features-of-treatment-naive-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-community-based-survey-from-high-and-intermediate-hepatitis-b-endemicity-regions-in-southeast-china
#13
Wei Wu, Yu Zhu, Chenbo Yu, Shigui Yang, Bing Ruan, Yu Chen, Lanjuan Li
The aim of study was to investigate the clinical features of treatment-naive patients in 2 regions with high- and intermediate-hepatitis B endemicity level in Southeast China and provide the baseline data for monitoring health or planning therapy.This study included 8207 cases of treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from Yuhuan (YH, high-hepatitis B endemicity region) and Shaoxing (SX, intermediate-hepatitis B endemicity region) during 2014-2015. Clinical data were collected from the patients...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407271/a-potent-hbsag-response-in-subjects-with-inactive-hbsag-carrier-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-alpha
#14
Zhenhuan Cao, Yali Liu, Lina Ma, Junfeng Lu, Yi Jin, Shan Ren, Zhimin He, Chengli Shen, Xinyue Chen
BACKGROUND: HBsAg clearance represents a clinical cure although the clearance rate is extremely low. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety profiles of pegylated-interferon α-2a (PEG-IFNα-2a) as a therapeutic option for inactive HBsAg carriers (IHCs). METHODS: 144 IHCs were enrolled and divided into a therapeutic group (102 subjects) and control group (42 subjects). PEG-IFNα-2a and PEG-IFNα-2a combined with Adefovir Dipivoxil (ADV) were used for treatment group subjects with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA <20 IU/mL and 20 IU/mL≤HBV DNA<2000 IU/mL, respectively...
April 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404133/effect-on-hbs-antigen-clearance-of-addition-of-pegylated-interferon-alfa-2a-to-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-versus-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-alone-in-patients-with-hbe-antigen-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-sustained-undetectable-plasma-hepatitis-b
#15
Marc Bourlière, Pascaline Rabiega, Nathalie Ganne-Carrie, Lawrence Serfaty, Patrick Marcellin, Yoann Barthe, Dominique Thabut, Dominique Guyader, Christophe Hezode, Magali Picon, Xavier Causse, Vincent Leroy, Jean Pierre Bronowicki, Patrizia Carrieri, Ghassan Riachi, Isabelle Rosa, Pierre Attali, Jean Michel Molina, Yannick Bacq, Albert Tran, Jean Didier Grangé, Fabien Zoulim, Hélène Fontaine, Laurent Alric, Inga Bertucci, Magali Bouvier-Alias, Fabrice Carrat
BACKGROUND: Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that addition of pegylated interferon in patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues with undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA might increase HBs antigen (HBsAg) clearance. We aimed to assess this strategy. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we enrolled patients aged 18-75 years with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and documented negative HBV DNA while on stable nucleos(t)ide analogue regimens for at least 1 year from 30 hepatology tertiary care wards in France...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387980/immune-balance-in-hepatitis-b-infection-present-and-future-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Ashish Kumar Vyas, Ankur Jindal, Syed Hissar, Gayatri Ramakrishna, Nirupama Trehanpati
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and about half a million people die every year. India represents the second largest pool of chronic HBV infections with an estimated 40 million chronically infected patients. Persistence or clearance of HBV infection mainly depends upon host immune responses. Chronically infected individuals remain in immune tolerant phase unless HBV flares and leads to development of chronic active hepatitis or acute on chronic liver failure. Strategies based on inhibition of viral replication (nucleoside analogues) or immune modulation (Interferons) as monotherapy, or in combination in sequential therapies, are currently being used globally for reducing HBV viral load and mediating HBsAg clearance...
April 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376852/antiviral-efficacy-of-entecavir-for-hepatitis-b-virus-rta181v-t-mutants
#17
Ping Li, Jiabao Geng, Wei Li, Xiaobing Xu, Xin Zhang, Wenkai Zheng, Yuecheng Yu, Zhiguo Yang, Maorong Wang
BACKGROUND: The amino acid substitution at position 181 of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase is a multi-drug resistance affecting both the L-nucleoside and acyclic phosphonate nucleotide groups. Data is limited on the efficacy of entecavir (ETV) rescuing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with rtA181T/V mutation. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with rtA181T/V mutation and 25 patients with rtA181T/V and rtN236T mutation were enrolled. Virological, serological and biochemical outcomes of ETV rescue therapy over 12 months in CHB patients with rtA181T/V mutation strains were investigated...
April 4, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325923/clinical-features-and-viral-quasispecies-characteristics-associated-with-infection-by-the-hepatitis-b-virus-g145r-immune-escape-mutant
#18
Yuan Xue, Ming-Jie Wang, Zhi-Tao Yang, De-Min Yu, Yue Han, Dao Huang, Dong-Hua Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhang
Coexistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is an uncommon phenomenon, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Amino-acid (aa) substitution from glycine to arginine at aa 145 (G145R), in the major hydrophilic region, has been reported in patients with HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistence. However, there is limited knowledge about the clinical features and viral quasispecies characteristics associated with G145R mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321112/different-mechanisms-may-exist-for-hbsag-synthesis-and-secretion-during-various-phases-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#19
Yunsong Li, Qun Cai, Qinxiu Xie, Yafei Zhang, Xiangling Meng, Zhenhua Zhang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and secretion of hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) in the hepatocytes of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients at different phases of infection; as such, the association of intrahepatic HBsAg expression with virological markers and the histological characteristics were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS 302 chronic HBV infection patients who had not received antiviral therapy were stratified by HBeAg status. The proportion of HBsAg-positive cells was used as an indicator for HBsAg expression level...
March 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317872/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-js-001-a-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-pd-1-monoclonal-antibody
#20
Jie Fu, Fang Wang, Li-Hou Dong, Jing Zhang, Cheng-Lian Deng, Xue-Li Wang, Xin-Yao Xie, Jing Zhang, Ruo-Xian Deng, Li-Bo Zhang, Hai Wu, Hui Feng, Bo Chen, Hai-Feng Song
JS-001 is the first monoclonal antibody (mAb) against programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) into the clinical trails. To date, however, no pre-clinical pharmacological and pharmacokinetic (PK) data are available. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of JS-001 and conducted a preclinical PK study, including the monitoring of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). We found that JS-001 specifically bound to PD-1 antigen with an EC50 of 21 nmol/L, and competently blocked the binding of PD-1 antigen to PD-L1 and PD-L2 with IC50 of 3...
May 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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