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HBsAg Clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207518/virological-and-serological-features-of-acute-hepatitis-b-in-adults
#1
Xiaofei Du, Yali Liu, Lina Ma, Junfeng Lu, Yi Jin, Shan Ren, Zhimin He, Xinyue Chen
Various viral kinetics among patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB) have been observed in clinical practice. This study investigated the virological, biochemical, and serological characteristics of AHB in adults.A total of 192 adult patients with AHB were recruited between December 2010 and January 2014. The quantification of biochemical and serologic markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was monitored from the onset.Of the 192 patients, 113 patients were followed up. One patient died due to acute liver failure, 2 developed chronic HBV infection...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121714/hepatitis-delta-and-hiv-infection
#2
Vincent Soriano, Kenneth E Sherman, Pablo Barreiro
Viral liver diseases are frequent co-morbidities and major contributors to death in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Whereas cure of hepatitis C and control of hepatitis B with antivirals avert liver disease progression in most HIV-coinfected patients, the lack of satisfactory treatment for hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection remains a major threat for developing cirrhosis and liver cancer in this population. In the European Union and North America, sexual contact has replaced injection drug use has major transmission route for HDV in HIV-positive persons...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092214/treatment-of-delta-hepatitis-today-and-in-the-future-a-review
#3
Ibrahim Halil Bahcecioglu, Abdurrahman Sahin
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective satellite virus and propagates in the presence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg). Approximately 5% of the people who infected with HBV are also infected with HDV. Chronic hepatitis caused by delta is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis including accelerated fibrosis, liver decompensation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferon-based therapies still remain the only treatment option of the hepatitis delta. The beneficiary effects of the interferon-based therapies, however, stop frequently with termination of the given therapy and relapse rate is very high...
April 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073409/-a-study-of-immune-response-to-hbsag-mediated-by-cd4-memory-t-lymphocytes-in-immunized-hbv-transgenic-mice
#4
Y Li, J H Chen, X G Shu, J H Chen, Q H Xia, W Z Yuan, L Wu, Q Tang, G B Wang
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of immune response to HBsAg mediated by CD4+ memory T lymphocytes in immunized HBV transgenic (Tg) mice. Methods: Peripheral CD4+ memory T lymphocytes were isolated and collected by magnetic bead sorting from C57BL/6 mice successfully immunized by hepatitis B vaccine. Adoptive immunization was performed for Tg mice by caudal vein injection, and the peripheral blood was collected at 4 and 8 weeks after adoptive immunization. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of HBsAg, anti-HBs, interferon-γ (IFNγ), and interleukin-2 (IL-2), and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the level of HBsAg in the liver...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056752/inhibiting-the-secretion-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-to-treat-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#5
Simon D Baugh
Chronic Hepatitis B is a major global health issue, and has no known cure. Currently there are over 240 million people infected with the disease, and it leads to the death of over 686,000 people each year. A total of seven treatments which help to control the disease are currently available: interferon-based treatments (pegasys, and interferon alpha), and nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Viread, Baraclude, Tyzeka, Hepsera, Epivir-HBV), but all require continuing treatment to maintain control of the disease...
January 4, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052637/future-anti-hbv-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Edward J Gane
Although current oral antivirals can maintain viral suppression and reduce the risk of liver-related complications, lifelong therapy is associated with high cost, risk of breakthrough and potential toxicity. There is a need to develop a finite course of treatment which can provide sustained off-treatment virological and clinical response. The likely marker of such a clinical HBV CURE would be HBsAg clearance, but in addition cccDNA elimination would be required to prevent future reactivation (ie complete HBV cure)...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012213/antibody-dependent-and-independent-uptake-of-hbsag-across-human-leukocyte-subsets-is-similar-between-individuals-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-healthy-donors
#7
Hugo Tharinger, Indrani Rebbapragada, Dharmaraj Samuel, Nikolai Novikov, Mindie Nguyen, Robert Jordan, Christian R Frey, Stefan Pflanz
Maintaining detectable levels of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum, i.e. HBsAg sero-conversion, is the key clinical endpoint indicative of recovery from infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV-infected hepatocytes secrete HBsAg sub-viral particles in vast excess over HBV virions. Therefore, detectable hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titers imply complete elimination of HBV virions as well as HBsAg particles. Although intrahepatic phagocytes, e.g. Kupffer cells, are thought to mediate clearance of HBsAg via antibody (Ab)-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the relative contributions of circulating phagocytic cell types to HBsAg elimination are poorly characterized...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998820/the-core-i97l-mutation-in-conjunction-with-p79q-is-associated-with-persistent-low-hbvdna-and-hbs-antigen-clearance-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#8
Takashi Honda, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Yoshiki Murakami, Mitsuo Iwadate, Hideaki Umeyama, Hidenori Toyoda, Takashi Kumada, Yoshiaki Katano, Hidemi Goto, Yoshiki Hirooka
OBJECTIVES: When considering treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), it is important to discriminate between patients with persistent low HBVDNA and patients with active hepatitis, who may proceed to cirrhosis. In this study, we sought to identify mutations in patients expected to have persistent low HBVDNA and ultimately exhibit clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 33 CHB genotype C patients, divided based on HBVDNA and ALT levels following observation for > 2 years: Group A (n = 10), transient HBVDNA ≥ 5...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955711/hcv-co-infection-and-markers-of-liver-injury-and-fibrosis-among-hiv-positive-childbearing-women-in-ukraine-results-from-a-cohort-study
#9
Heather Bailey, Nataliya Nizova, Violeta Martsynovska, Alla Volokha, Ruslan Malyuta, Mario Cortina-Borja, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Ukraine's injecting drug use-driven HIV epidemic is among the most severe in Europe with high burden of HCV co-infection. HIV/HCV co-infected individuals are at elevated risk of HCV-related morbidity, but little is known about burden of liver disease and associated factors in the HIV-positive population in Ukraine, particularly among women. METHODS: Characteristics of 2050 HIV-positive women enrolled into the Ukrainian Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women were described by HCV serostatus...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938558/-a-retrospective-study-on-hbsag-clearance-rate-after-antiviral-therapy-in-children-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-aged-1-7-years
#10
S S Zhu, Y Dong, Z Q Xu, L M Wang, D W Chen, Y Gan, F C Wang, J G Yan, L L Cao, P Wang, H F Zhang
Objective: To investigate the HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) aged 1-7 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the HBsAg clearance rate in 293 children who were hospitalized in 302 Hospital of PLA from June 2006 to December 2013, met the inclusion criteria, received antiviral therapy, and were followed up for at least 6 months after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy. The t-test or the rank sum test was applied according to the distribution of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935953/factors-predicting-hbsag-seroclearance-and-alanine-transaminase-elevation-in-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients-with-persistently-normal-liver-function
#11
Tai-Long Chien, Jing-Houng Wang, Kwong-Ming Kee, Chien-Hung Chen, Chao-Hung Hung, Sheng-Nan Lu
BACKGROUND: A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan®) and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg), and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients. METHODS: Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827798/unimpaired-immunogenicity-of-yeast-expressed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-stored-at-elevated-temperatures
#12
Zhongliang Shen, Yuliang Rao, Shuai Tao, Mengjun Luo, Lijun Ming, Jing Liu, Shaokun Pan, Youhua Xie
Global adoption of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines has greatly reduced new HBV infections. Current HBV vaccines are liquid suspensions containing recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles mixed with aluminum phosphate or aluminum hydroxide. Refrigeration (2-8°C) as recommended for vaccine transport and storage may be unachievable in certain HBV-prevalent developing countries or regions. In this study, we stored yeast-expressed HBsAg and aluminum hydroxide separately at the standard (4°C) and elevated temperature (25, 37, or 45°C) for 14, 23, and 30 days, then mixed them and used the mixture to vaccinate mice with a prime-boost program...
December 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807909/induction-of-humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-to-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-vaccine-can-be-upregulated-by-cpg-oligonucleotides-complexed-with-dectin-1-ligand
#13
H Ito, T Ando, M Nakamura, H Ishida, A Kanbe, K Kobiyama, T Yamamoto, K J Ishii, A Hara, M Seishima, T Ishikawa
A persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a lack of or a weak immune response to HBV, which may be reflective of tolerance to HBV. Efficient induction of HBV-specific immune response leads to the clearance of HBV in patients with a chronic HBV infection. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) has a powerful adjuvant effect in HBV vaccination. A recent report demonstrated that the immunization by B/K CpG ODN (K3) wrapped by the nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand, schizophyllan (SPG), namely K3-SPG, was more effective in the induction of antigen-specific immune response than that by K3...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797067/spontaneous-resolution-of-de-novo-hepatitis-b-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-positive-graft-a-case-report
#14
Yasuyuki Hara, Kazuaki Tokodai, Chikashi Nakanishi, Shigehito Miyagi, Naoki Kawagishi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive graft is reported to cause de novo hepatitis B after liver transplantation with a probability of 38-100 % without prophylaxis. Hepatitis B surface antigen loss is reported to be achieved with a probability of only 3-8 % in the patients treated by antiviral agents. We present an extremely rare case of spontaneous resolution of de novo hepatitis B after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with HBcAb-positive graft. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old female patient underwent LDLT for end-stage biliary atresia using an HBcAb-positive left lobe graft...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746617/clinical-significance-of-quantitative-hbsag-titres-and-its-correlation-with-hbv-dna-levels-in-the-natural-history-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#15
Vijay K Karra, Soumya J Chowdhury, Rajesh Ruttala, Sunil K Polipalli, Premashis Kar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Quantification of serum hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) is an important test that marks active infection with hepatitis B and helps in the prediction of the clinical outcome and management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Correlation with HBV DNA quantitative levels may help in developing strategies for antiviral treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate HBsAg titres in various phase of HBV infection in HBsAg positive patients, and its correlation with HBV DNA viral load levels...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635243/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-diagnosing-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Slim Fourati, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects approximately 240 million individuals worldwide. Recent advances in the virology, immunopathogenesis, and diagnosis of HBV infection are summarized in this review article. The identification of a hepatocyte-specific cellular receptor for HBV, the sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), made it possible to develop reliable cell culture systems and better understand the early steps of the viral lifecycle. Viral and host factors involved in covalently closed circular DNA synthesis, stability, and transcriptional regulation have also been identified and provide potential targets for new drugs...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580643/hla-dq-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#17
Yuka Ochi, Senju Hashimoto, Naoto Kawabe, Michihito Murao, Takuji Nakano, Toshiki Kan, Kazunori Nakaoka, Masashi Ohki, Takamitsu Kurashita, Tomoki Takamura, Sayuri Nomura, Toru Nishikawa, Aiko Fukui, Keisuke Osakabe, Naohiro Ichino, Kentaro Yoshioka
AIM: Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ is associated with the clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We examined the effects of SNPs on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and markers of HBV in chronic HBV infection. METHODS: The SNPs of HLA-DQ (rs2856718 and rs7453920) were determined in 299 patients with chronic HBV infection...
August 31, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575311/the-role-of-quantitative-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-revisited
#18
REVIEW
Markus Cornberg, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Stephen Locarnini, Maurizia Brunetto, Harry L A Janssen, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
In the past 10years, there has been a lot of enthusiasm surrounding the use of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification to predict disease activity and monitor treatment response in chronic hepatitis B. The measurement of HBsAg levels have been standardized in IU/ml, and nowadays it is almost a mandatory measurement due to the development of new antiviral treatments aiming at HBsAg seroclearance, i.e., functional cure of hepatitis B. Recently, there has been an improved understanding of the molecular virology of HBsAg, and particularly the relative roles of covalently closed circular DNA and integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA...
February 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528410/review-article-the-potential-of-interferon-and-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-combination-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#19
REVIEW
M Viganò, F Invernizzi, G Grossi, P Lampertico
BACKGROUND: A short-term course of pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN), or a long-term treatment with a third generation nucleot(s)ide analogue (NUC), of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection achieves viral suppression and may prevent disease progression. Owing to different mechanisms of action of the two regimens, a Peg-IFN and NUC combination treatment may be an attractive approach to enhance the off-treatment rates of virological and serological response. AIM: To review the literature on combinations of Peg-IFN plus NUC, including the simultaneous initiation of Peg-IFN and NUC in naïve patients; an 'add-on' combination, where Peg-IFN is started at variable times after the beginning of NUC; or a 'switch-to' strategy usually from NUC to Peg-IFN...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511332/a-persistently-low-hbv-dna-level-is-a-predictor-of-spontaneous-hbsag-clearance-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#20
Alpay Ari, Şebnem Çalik, Selma Tosun, Sibel Özsu Yilmaz
BACKGROUND/AIM: The incidence and predictors of spontaneous hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1427 patients with chronic HBV infection, who were followed between 1994 and 2013, were investigated in this retrospective study. All data were extracted from patient files. RESULTS: Spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance occurred in 84 patients during 8798 person-years of follow-up...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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