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Visceral adipose

I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
Drew A Torigian, Judith Green-McKenzie, Xianling Liu, Frances S Shofer, Thomas Werner, Catherine E Smith, Andrew A Strasser, Mateen C Moghbel, Ami H Parekh, Grace Choi, Marcus D Goncalves, Natalie Spaccarelli, Saied Gholami, Prithvi S Kumar, Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Clementina Mesaros, Abass Alavi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. Subjects underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT, diagnostic unenhanced chest CT, mini-mental state examination, urine testing for oxidative stress, and serum testing...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
Marlies Bekaert, D Margriet Ouwens, Tina Hörbelt, Frederique Van de Velde, Pia Fahlbusch, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Patrick Calders, Marleen Praet, Anne Hoorens, Anja Geerts, Xavier Verhelst, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating levels and/or visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expression of recently described adipokines associate with histopathological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), independent of obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: Serum levels of adiponectin, omentin, chemerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 81 patients with obesity and NAFLD and 18 lean control subjects...
October 21, 2016: Obesity
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Hui-Jie Zhang, Ling-Ling Pan, Zhi-Min Ma, Zheng Chen, Zhu-Feng Huang, Qian Sun, Yan Lu, Cheng-Kun Han, Ming-Zhu Lin, Xue-Jun Li, Shu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ying Li
Exercise training can reduce hepatic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention is unclear. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metabolic risk factors were assessed among 220 obese subjects with NAFLD who were randomly assigned to vigorous-moderate exercise, moderate exercise, or control over the subsequent 1 year after 12-month exercise intervention...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ning Xia, Huige Li
Under physiological conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction by releasing vasoactive molecules including hydrogen peroxide, angiotensin 1-7, adiponectin, methyl palmitate, hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide (NO) and leptin. This anticontractile function of PVAT is lost under conditions of obesity. The central mechanism underlying PVAT dysfunction in obesity is likely to be an "obesity triad" (consisting of PVAT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress) that leads to dysregulation of PVAT-derived vasoregulators...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Meilin Zhang, Li Zheng, Ping Li, Yufeng Zhu, Hong Chang, Xuan Wang, Weiqiao Liu, Yuwen Zhang, Guowei Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate whether visceral adiposity index (VAI) could predict the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in different genders and to compare the predictive ability between VAI and other fatness indices. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-eight participants including 1,817 men and 2,261 women, aged 18 and older and free of T2D at baseline were enrolled in 2010 and followed up for 4 years. New cases of T2D were identified via the annual medical examination...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Tatsuya Kondo, Rieko Goto, Kaoru Ono, Sayaka Kitano, Mary Ann Suico, Miki Sato, Motoyuki Igata, Junji Kawashima, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Takeshi Matsumura, Hirofumi Kai, Eiichi Araki
Activation of heat shock response (HSR) improves accumulated visceral adiposity and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. To identify the optimal intervention strategy of the activation of the HSR provided by mild electrical stimulation (MES) with heat shock (HS) in type 2 diabetes. This study was a prospective, frequency-escalating, randomized, open-label, triple-arm trial in Japan. A total of 60 obese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized into three groups receiving two, four, or seven treatments per week for 12 weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Pourhassan, C-C Glüer, P Pick, W Tigges, M J Müller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of weight loss-associated changes in detailed body composition on plasma insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index to calculate the magnitude of reduction in different adipose tissue depots required to improve insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 50 subjects aged 20-69 years were studied. The participants were compiled from low-calorie diet interventions and bariatric surgery and differed in their baseline body mass index (BMI; range 21...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Massimiliano Ruscica, Chiara Pavanello, Sara Gandini, Monica Gomaraschi, Cecilia Vitali, Chiara Macchi, Beatrice Morlotti, Gilda Aiello, Raffaella Bosisio, Laura Calabresi, Anna Arnoldi, Cesare R Sirtori, Paolo Magni
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the commonest cause of death worldwide. Different strategies for their primary prevention have been planned, taking into account the main known risk factors, which include an atherogenic lipid profile and visceral fat excess. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized, parallel, single-center study with a nutritional intervention duration of 12 weeks. Whole soy foods corresponding to 30 g/day soy protein were given in substitution of animal foods containing the same protein amount...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
AIM: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Jacinthe Leclerc, Marie Arsenault, Jean-Pierre Després, Patrice Brassard, Valérie Gaudreault, Jean Bergeron, Natalie Alméras, Angelo Tremblay, Audrey Auclair, Marie-Kristelle Ross, Stéphanie Denault-Bissonnette, Paul Poirier
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. Among those, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is the most frequently encountered in clinical practice. Few studies evaluated the reversibility of LVDD by an approach promoting lifestyle modifications in abdominally obese subjects with MetS. METHODS: We assessed the impact of a 1-year lifestyle modification program combining nutritional and physical activity counseling on LVDD and metabolic profile of abdominally obese men with MetS...
October 18, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Hideaki Kaneto, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Masashi Shimoda, Seizo Okauchi, Naoki Shimo, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Kohei Kaku
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance in various insulin target tissues such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors which are newly developed anti-diabetic agents decrease blood glucose levels by enhancing urinary glucose excretion and thereby function in an insulin-independent manner. SGLT2 inhibitors exert beneficial effects for the reduction of insulin resistance as well as for the preservation of pancreatic β-cell function...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Suzanne Oparil, David A Calhoun, Lama Ghazi, Tanja Dudenbostel
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a high risk of hypertension and is characterized by hyperaldosteronism and hypercortisolism. We have previously reported that patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above goal in spite of the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes, have a high prevalence of hyperaldosteronism that is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). Experimental studies indicate that adipocytes secrete a as yet undetermined factor that stimulates aldosterone and cortisol release...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kyoung Im Cho, Jung Ho Heo, Hyun Soo Kim, Sung Il Im, Tae Joon Cha
OBJECTIVE: Epicardial fat tissue reflects visceral adiposity and inflammation, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been investigated as important inflammatory marker in cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and NLR with diurnal blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: A total of 647 hypertensive patients underwent echocardiography and 24-hours ambulatory BP monitoring...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Mamoru Yoneda, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
OBJECTIVE: The pineal hormone melatonin, which regulates the body's circadian rhythm, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and thereby improves metabolic disorders. Ramelteon is a potent and highly selective agonist of melatonin receptors and attenuates age-associated hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, the effects of ramelteon on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in a rat model of MetS...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Poghni Peri-Okonny, Colby Ayers, Naim Maalouf, Sandeep Das, James De Lemos, Jarett Berry, Aslan Turer, Ian Neeland, Philipp Scherer, Wanpen Vongpatanasin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of body adiposity on relationship between leptin and incident hypertension in a multiethnic sample of US population. DESIGN AND METHOD: Participants were normotensive adults with BP ≤ 130/85 enrolled in Dallas Heart Study, a large, multiethnic population-based cohort. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or initiation of antihypertensive medications.Biomarkers were measured at baseline from fasting venous blood samples...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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