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Visceral adipose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148957/aerobic-exercise-training-performed-by-parents-reduces-mice-offspring-adiposity
#1
Paulo Vitor da Silva Romero, Débora Alves Guariglia, Francielli Ferreira Da Rocha, Caroline de Carvalho Picoli, Gustavo Renan Gilio, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Paulo Cesar de Freitas Mathias, Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes, Sidney Barnabé Peres
The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147870/changes-in-body-composition-and-muscle-attenuation-during-taxane-based-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer
#2
Hánah N Rier, Agnes Jager, Stefan Sleijfer, Joost van Rosmalen, Marc C J M Kock, Mark-David Levin
PURPOSE: Body composition parameters including low muscle mass, muscle attenuation (which reflects muscle quality) and adipose tissue measurements have emerged as prognostic factors in cancer patients. However, knowledge regarding the possibility of excessive muscle loss during specific systemic therapies is unknown. We describe the changes in body composition and muscle attenuation (MA) during taxane- and anthracycline-based regimens and its association with overall survival (OS) in metastatic breast cancer patients...
November 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146976/association-of-a-variant-in-the-gene-encoding-for-erv1-chemr23-with-reduced-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-morbidly-obese-individuals
#3
Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Ana González-Périz, Ana Isabel Martínez-Puchol, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Ricard Corcelles, Andrés Laguna-Fernández, Magnus Back, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
Obesity comorbidities are closely associated with chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. A number of SNPs associated with inflammation has been identified, underscoring the impact of genetic determinants on this process. Here, we screened SNPs in genes with pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 and JAK2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and SOCS3) and pro-resolving (ERV1/ChemR23) properties in 101 obese and 99 non-obese individuals. Among the SNPs analyzed, we identified that individuals carrying a C allele in the rs1878022 polymorphism of the ERV1/ChemR23 gene, which encodes for the receptor of the pro-resolving mediator RvE1, had increased ERV1/ChemR23 protein expression and reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146142/visceral-adiposity-index-as-a-predictor-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-relatively-healthy-population-in-taiwan
#4
Yi-Chuan Chen, Shih-Han Lai, Yi-Wen Tsai, Shy-Shin Chang
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a simple formula representing visceral adipose dysfunction, has already been proven to have a strong correlation with various cardiometabolic disorders. Limited studies are available regarding the relationship between VAI and renal function decline. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between VAI and renal function and to estimate the risk of chronic kidney disease in a relatively healthy adult population in Taiwan...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146023/longitudinal-associations-of-pericardial-and-intrathoracic-fat-with-progression-of-coronary-artery-calcium-from-the-framingham-heart-study
#5
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, Christopher J O'Donnell, Emelia J Benjamin, Michelle T Long
Cross-sectional studies have shown that pericardial fat is associated with atherosclerotic burden above and beyond generalized and central adiposity. Whether pericardial fat is longitudinally associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been firmly established. We examined the associations between cardiac ectopic fat including pericardial and intrathoracic fat with CAC progression and incidence in a community-based study setting. Study participants were from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who underwent multidetector computed tomography at 2 consecutive examinations (2002 to 2005 and 2008 to 2011) for the assessment of CAC...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#6
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144802/lipid-accumulation-product-visceral-adiposity-index-and-chinese-visceral-adiposity-index-as-markers-of-cardiometabolic-risk-in-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Xin Xie, Qing Li, Lingmin Zhang, Wei Ren
OBJECTIVE: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the AGHD population, there is a need for alternative, non-invasive methods of assessing cardiometabolic risk in this population. Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) is a new marker of visceral fat dysfunction that is based on age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and metabolic parameters...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142551/association-of-single-nucleotide-missence-polymorphism-val109asp-of-omentin-1-gene-and-coronary-artery-disease-in-pakistani-population-multicenter-study
#8
Shazia Nazar, Sitwat Zehra, Abid Azhar
Background & Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as in Pakistan. Recent studies have shown that the combination of obesity, insulin resistance and fluctuation in circulating adipocytokines levels is associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Omentin-1 is recently found adipocytokine that is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. It has anti- inflammatory properties and is negatively correlated with ischemic heart disease...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139618/beyond-sarcopenia-characterization-and-integration-of-skeletal-muscle-quantity-and-radiodensity-in-a-curable-breast-cancer-population
#10
Marc S Weinberg, Shlomit S Shachar, Hyman B Muss, Allison M Deal, Karteek Popuri, Hyeon Yu, Kirsten A Nyrop, Shani M Alston, Grant R Williams
Skeletal muscle loss, commonly known as sarcopenia, is highly prevalent and prognostic of adverse outcomes in oncology. However, there is limited information on adults with early breast cancer and examination of other skeletal muscle indices, despite the potential prognostic importance. This study characterizes and examines age-related changes in body composition of adults with early breast cancer and describes the creation of a novel integrated muscle measure. Female patients diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer with abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans within 12 weeks from diagnosis were identified from local tumor registry (N = 241)...
November 15, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139081/liraglutide-improves-cardiovascular-risk-as-an-add-on-to-metformin-and-not-to-insulin-secretagogues-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-real-life-48-month-retrospective-study
#11
Alessandro Ciresi, Enrica Vigneri, Stefano Radellini, Felicia Pantò, Carla Giordano
INTRODUCTION: Although liraglutide is widely recognized to have glycemic and extra-glycemic effects, few studies have compared these effects in relation to hypoglycemic treatment starting from the diagnosis of diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of liraglutide in reducing the Framingham risk score (FRS) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in relation to first-line hypoglycemic treatment from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, continued without any changes. METHODS: We selected 105 diabetic outpatients who were treated with liraglutide for at least 48 months as an add-on therapy to metformin alone (group A, n = 52) or insulin secretagogues (group B, n = 53) from diagnosis time...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133593/adipose-derived-vegf-mtor-signaling-promotes-endometrial-hyperplasia-and-cancer-implications-for-obese-women
#12
Subhransu S Sahoo, Janine Lombard, Yvette Ius, Rachel O'Sullivan, Lisa G Wood, Pravin Nahar, Kenneth Simon Jaaback, Pradeep Tanwar
Obesity is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality in endometrial cancer (EC). Despite the positive correlation of body mass index (BMI) or obesity in endometrial carcinogenesis, the contribution of adipose tissue to the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer is unclear. This study clarifies the role of adipocytes in the pathogenesis of EC by demonstrating that adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) increases proliferation, migration, and survival of EC cells compared to pre-adipocyte-conditioned medium (PACM)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133317/association-between-visceral-obesity-and-hepatitis-c-infection-stratified-by-gender-a-cross-sectional-study-in-taiwan
#13
Yu-Chung Tsao, Jau-Yuan Chen, Wei-Chung Yeh, Yun-Shing Peng, Wen-Cheng Li
OBJECTIVES: The global prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is approximately 2%-3%, and the prevalence of the positive anti-HCV antibody has been increasing. Several studies have evaluated regional adipose tissue distribution and metabolism over the past decades. However, no study has focused on the gender difference in visceral obesity among patients with HCV infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: We reviewed the medical records of patients who visited a hospital in Southern Taiwan for health check-up from 2013 to 2015...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131093/metformin-for-rapidly-maturing-girls-with-central-adiposity-less-liver-fat-and-slower-bone-maturation
#14
Francis de Zegher, Cristina García Beltrán, Abel López-Bermejo, Lourdes Ibáñez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Girls with low-birth weight (LBW) and postnatal weight catch-up tend to develop visceral and hepatic fat excess, which may be accompanied by an upregulated adrenarche with precocious pubarche (PP) and by a rapidly progressive puberty with early menarche and shorter stature. A pilot study suggested that metformin treatment for 4 years reduces central adiposity in LBW-PP girls and normalizes puberty and adult height. In this cohort, we studied the relationship between metformin treatment, bone maturation, and body composition...
November 7, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128053/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-metabolic-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Donghee Kim, Alexis Touros, W Ray Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are highly prevalent, affecting approximately one-third of the US population. The relationship between NAFLD and MS is complex and may be bidirectionally associated. NAFLD is strongly associated with MS, the components of which include abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD associated with certain genetic factors such as the PNPLA3 G allele variant is not accompanied by insulin resistance and MS. Lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity targeting visceral adiposity, remains the standard of care for patients with NAFLD and MS...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127726/self-reported-marijuana-use-over-25-years-and-abdominal-adiposity-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#16
Michael P Bancks, Reto Auer, J Jeffrey Carr, David C Goff, Catarina Kiefe, Jamal S Rana, Jared Reis, Stephen Sidney, James G Terry, Pamela J Schreiner
AIMS: We investigated the association between cumulative lifetime and current marijuana use with total abdominal adipose tissue (AT), visceral AT, subcutaneous AT, intermuscular AT, and mean liver attenuation (LA) at mid-life. DESIGN: Longitudinal and cross-sectional secondary data analysis of participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. SETTING: CARDIA field centers in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA, USA...
November 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127602/effect-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-total-abdominal-and-visceral-fat-mass-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Florie Maillard, Bruno Pereira, Nathalie Boisseau
BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition...
November 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126991/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-adipose-tissue-undergoes-major-changes-in-immune-gene-expression-following-bacterial-infection-or-stimulation-with-pro-inflammatory-molecules
#18
Kimberly A Veenstra, Eakapol Wangkahart, Tiehui Wang, Lincoln Tubbs, Juliette Ben Arous, Christopher J Secombes
In mammals, visceral adipose is increasingly seen as playing an important role in immune function with numerous pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating proteins and peptides being identified in adipocytes. Adipose is also now known as a tissue that has an important role in the regulation of peritoneal immune responses. Despite this, only lately has consideration been given to visceral adipose as an important immune tissue in fish, especially in the context of intraperitoneal vaccination. The present study demonstrates that fish visceral adipose is capable of expressing a large range of immune molecules in response to stimulation with a live bacterium (A...
November 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122848/reducing-insulin-via-conditional-partial-gene-ablation-in-adults-reverses-diet-induced-weight-gain
#19
Melissa M Page, Søs Skovsø, Haoning Cen, Amy P Chiu, Derek A Dionne, Daria F Hutchinson, Gareth E Lim, Marta Szabat, Stephane Flibotte, Sunita Sinha, Corey Nislow, Brian Rodrigues, James D Johnson
Excess circulating insulin is associated with obesity in humans and in animal models. However, the physiologic causality of hyperinsulinemia in adult obesity has rightfully been questioned because of the absence of clear evidence that weight loss can be induced by acutely reversing diet-induced hyperinsulinemia. Herein, we describe the consequences of inducible, partial insulin gene deletion in a mouse model in which animals have already been made obese by consuming a high-fat diet. A modest reduction in insulin production/secretion was sufficient to cause significant weight loss within 5 wk, with a specific effect on visceral adipose tissue...
November 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122708/combinatory-effects-of-phytoestrogens-and-exercise-on-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-female-rats
#20
Wenya Zheng, Jana Rogoschin, Anja Niehoff, Kristina Oden, Sabine E Kulling, Mingyong Xie, Patrick Diel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combinatory effects of an isoflavone (ISO)-rich diet and exercise on fat mass and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Therefore the female Wistar rats were sedentary, performed an intense treadmill uphill running, received ISOs, or a combination of ISOs and running after ovariectomy. The exercise reduced visceral fat mass, adipocyte size and serum leptin in Sham animals and antagonized the increases of these parameters induced by OVX. ISOs reduced OVX induced increase of serum leptin...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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