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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#1
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907186/inter-tissue-gene-co-expression-networks-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-individuals
#2
Lisette J A Kogelman, Jingyuan Fu, Lude Franke, Jan Willem Greve, Marten Hofker, Sander S Rensen, Haja N Kadarmideen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10-25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905531/a-indicator-of-visceral-adipose-dysfunction-to-evaluate-metabolic-health-in-adult-chinese
#3
Ming-Feng Xia, Ying Chen, Huan-Dong Lin, Hui Ma, Xiao-Ming Li, Qiqige Aleteng, Qian Li, Dan Wang, Yu Hu, Bai-Shen Pan, Xue-Jun Li, Xiao-Ying Li, Xin Gao
Visceral adipose dysfunction is a major cause of metabolic disorders. However, there is lack of a clinical index for prediction of visceral fat dysfunction in Asians. The present study aims to establish a visceral adiposity index for evaluation of metabolic health status in Chinese, the largest Asian ethnic group. 485 subjects were recruited from Lianqian Community, Xiamen and received abdominal computed tomography(CT) for visceral fat area. A Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was created using multivariate linear regression analyses, and was further validated in 6495 subjects recruited from Changfeng Community, Shanghai...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903520/visceral-adiposity-and-metabolic-syndrome-after-very-high-fat-and-low-fat-isocaloric-diets-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Vivian L Veum, Johnny Laupsa-Borge, Øyvin Eng, Espen Rostrup, Terje H Larsen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Ottar K Nygård, Jørn V Sagen, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen, Simon N Dankel, Gunnar Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Forty-six men (aged 30-50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high-fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901270/adipose-tissue-inflammation-by-intermittent-hypoxia-mechanistic-link-between-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#5
Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition and recognized as a major public health burden conveying a significant risk of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance are common in subjects with OSA and this association is at least in part independent of the effects of obesity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with OSA but the benefit of CPAP on glycaemic health is uncertain...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900262/impaired-histone-deacetylases-5-and-6-expression-mimics-the-effects-of-obesity-and-hypoxia-on-adipocyte-function
#6
Julien Bricambert, Dimitri Favre, Saška Brajkovic, Amélie Bonnefond, Raphael Boutry, Roberto Salvi, Valérie Plaisance, Mohamed Chikri, Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Bart Staels, Vittorio Giusti, Robert Caiazzo, François Pattou, Gérard Waeber, Philippe Froguel, Amar Abderrahmani
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in adipocyte function associated with obesity and hypoxia. METHODS: Total proteins and RNA were prepared from human visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of human obese and normal weight subjects and from white adipose tissue (WAT) of C57Bl6-Rj mice fed a normal or high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. HDAC activity was measured by colorimetric assay whereas the gene and protein expression were monitored by real-time PCR and by western blotting, respectively...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#7
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#8
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898581/kinetics-of-plasma-triglycerides-in-abdominal-obesity
#9
Elias Björnson, Martin Adiels, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal obesity is associated with a number of important metabolic abnormalities including liver steatosis, insulin resistance and an atherogenic lipoprotein profile (termed dyslipidemia). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of this dyslipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results from kinetic studies using stable isotopes indicate that the hypertriglyceridemia associated with abdominal obesity stems from dual mechanisms: (1) enhanced secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and (2) impaired clearance of these lipoproteins...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897440/association-between-aerobic-exercise-training-effects-of-serum-adropin-level-arterial-stiffness-and-adiposity-in-obese-elderly-adults
#10
Shumpei Fujie, Natsuki Hasegawa, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Kiyoshi Sanada, Takafumi Hamaoka, Motoyuki Iemitsu
Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years)...
September 13, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897432/low-skeletal-muscle-radiation-attenuation-and-visceral-adiposity-are-associated-with-overall-survival-and-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#11
David P J van Dijk, Maikel J A M Bakens, Mariëlle M E Coolsen, Sander S Rensen, Ronald M van Dam, Martijn J L Bours, Matty P Weijenberg, Cornelis H C Dejong, Steven W M Olde Damink
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia and skeletal muscle wasting are related to poor survival. In this study, quantitative body composition measurements using computed tomography (CT) were investigated in relation to survival, post-operative complications, and surgical site infections in surgical patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 199 patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas was analysed by CT imaging at the L3 level to determine (i) muscle radiation attenuation (average Hounsfield units of total L3 skeletal muscle); (ii) visceral adipose tissue area; (iii) subcutaneous adipose tissue area; (iv) intermuscular adipose tissue area; and (v) skeletal muscle area...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897414/a-comparative-study-of-software-programmes-for-cross-sectional-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-measurements-on-abdominal-computed-tomography-scans-of-rectal-cancer-patients
#12
Jeroen L A van Vugt, Stef Levolger, Arvind Gharbharan, Marcel Koek, Wiro J Niessen, Jacobus W A Burger, Sten P Willemsen, Ron W F de Bruin, Jan N M IJzermans
BACKGROUND: The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single-slice computed tomography (CT)-based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter-observer, intra-observer, and inter-software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895388/acetate-alters-expression-of-genes-involved-in-beige-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-obese-kk-ay-mice
#13
Satoko Hanatani, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Yuki Takaki, Shuji Kawasaki, Motoyuki Igata, Takeshi Matsumura, Tatsuya Kondo, Takafumi Senokuchi, Norio Ishii, Junji Kawashima, Daisuke Kukidome, Seiya Shimoda, Takeshi Nishikawa, Eiichi Araki
The induction of beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue, known as "browning", has received attention as a novel potential anti-obesity strategy. The expression of some characteristic genes including PR domain containing 16 is induced during the browning process. Although acetate has been reported to suppress weight gain in both rodents and humans, its potential effects on beige adipogenesis in white adipose tissue have not been fully characterized. We examined the effects of acetate treatment on 3T3-L1 cells and in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895108/the-effect-of-dietary-fish-oil-on-weight-gain-and-insulin-sensitivity-is-dependent-on-apoe-genotype-in-humanized-targeted-replacement-mice
#14
Kenna E Slim, David Vauzour, Noemi Tejera, Peter J Voshol, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Marie Minihane
We investigated the independent and interactive impact of the common APOE genotype and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the development of obesity and associated cardiometabolic dysfunction in a murine model. Human APOE3 and APOE4 targeted replacement mice were fed either a high-fat control diet (HFD) or a HFD supplemented with 3% n-3 PUFA from fish oil (HFD + FO) for 8 wk. We established the impact of intervention on food intake, bodyweight, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass; plasma, lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides), liver enzymes, and adipokines; glucose and insulin during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test; and Glut4 and ApoE expression in VAT...
November 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893544/visceral-adiposity-genetic-susceptibility-and-risk-of-complications-among-individuals-with-crohn-s-disease
#15
Kimberley W J Van Der Sloot, Amit D Joshi, Danielle R Bellavance, Katherine K Gilpin, Kathleen O Stewart, Paul Lochhead, John J Garber, Cosmas Giallourakis, Vijay Yajnik, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Ramnik J Xavier, Hamed Khalili
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue in mesenteric fat plays a key role in systemic and luminal inflammation. However, little is known about the role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and its interaction with genetic predisposition in Crohn's disease (CD) progression. METHODS: Our study population included patients with CD enrolled in Prospective Registry in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (PRISM). VAT volume was measured from computed tomography using Aquarius 3D...
November 22, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884920/systematic-review-of-bariatric-surgery-liver-biopsies-clarifies-the-natural-history-of-liver-disease-in-patients-with-severe-obesity
#16
Pierre Bedossa, Joan Tordjman, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Christine Poitou, Jean-Michel Oppert, Adriana Torcivia, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Valerie Paradis, Vlad Ratziu, Karine Clément
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of morbid obesity, but its severity varies greatly and thus there is a strong need to better define its natural history in these patients. DESIGN: Liver biopsies were systematically performed in 798 consecutive patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Histology was compared with clinical, biological, anthropometrical and body composition characteristics. RESULTS: Patients with presumably normal liver (n=179, 22%) were significantly younger at bariatric surgery than patients with NAFLD (37...
November 24, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883935/liquid-fructose-in-western-diet-fed-mice-impairs-liver-insulin-signaling-and-causes-cholesterol-and-triglyceride-loading-without-changing-calorie-intake-and-body-weight
#17
Miguel Baena, Gemma Sangüesa, Natalia Hutter, José María Beltrán, Rosa María Sánchez, Núria Roglans, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Liquid fructose associates with prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Intervention studies suggest that metabolically unfit individuals are more responsive than healthy individuals to liquid fructose. We determined whether mice consuming an obesogenic Western diet were more responsive than chow-fed mice to the alterations induced by liquid fructose supplementation (LFS). METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were fed chow or Western diet±ad libitum 15% fructose solution for 12 weeks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881400/loss-of-ucp1-exacerbates-western-diet-induced-glycemic-dysregulation-independent-of-changes-in-body-weight-in-female-mice
#18
Nathan C Winn, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Rebecca J Scroggins, Terese M Zidon, T'Keaya L Gaines, Makenzie L Woodford, Natalia G Karasseva, Jill A Kanaley, Harold S Sacks, Jaume Padilla
We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for UCP1 would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 weeks. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878771/growth-hormone-deficiency-and-hypopituitarism-in-adults-after-complicated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Stefania Giuliano, Serafina Talarico, Lucia Bruno, Francesco Beniamino Nicoletti, Claudio Ceccotti, Antonino Belfiore
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury is considered the main cause of hypopituitarism in adults, and GH deficiency appears to be the most frequent pituitary deficit. Most of the available studies have included all degrees of severity of trauma. We aimed to assess pituitary function and GH deficiency in adult patients at different time lengths after complicated mild TBI according to Glasgow Coma Scale. We also aimed to evaluate whether mild TBI patients with GH deficiency had developed alterations in the glycolipid profile...
November 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878041/a-prospective-evaluation-of-obesometric-parameters-associated-with-renal-stone-recurrence
#20
Derek Bos, Shawn Dason, Edward Matsumoto, Jehonathan Pinthus, Christopher Allard
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate whether obesometric serum hormones and body fat distribution are associated with renal stone recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of participants undergoing renal stone (RS) intervention at a single institution from November 2009-June 2010 and followed them for a median 62 months. Obesometric parameters were measured at baseline, including body mass index (BMI), fasting serum leptin and adiponectin, and proportion of visceral adipose tissue (%VAT) averaged from three fixed axial computed tomography (CT) slices...
August 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
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