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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454156/the-glun2b-subunit-represents-a-major-functional-determinant-of-nmda-receptors-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cortical-neurons
#1
Ioana Neagoe, Chang Liu, Alexander Stumpf, Yanmei Lu, Dongping He, Ross Francis, Jun Chen, Paul Reynen, Moulay Hicham Alaoui-Ismaili, Hirokazu Fukui
Abnormal signaling pathways mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various CNS disorders and have been long considered as promising points of therapeutic intervention. However, few efforts have been previously described concerning evaluation of therapeutic modulators of NMDARs and their downstream pathways in human neurons with endogenous expression of NMDARs. In the present study, we assessed expression, functionality, and subunit composition of endogenous NMDARs in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cortical neurons (iCell Neurons and iCell GlutaNeurons)...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453920/effect-of-trans-chalcone-on-hepatic-il-8-through-the-regulation-of-mir-451-in-male-rats
#2
Elham Karimi-Sales, Sajad Jeddi, Arshad Ghaffari-Nasab, Mina Salimi, Mohammad Reza Alipour
OBJECTIVE: Trans-chalcone is a chalcone with hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism of these positive effects, especially on miR-451 as an inflammatory regulator, is poorly understood. In this regard, this microRNA (miRNA) acts by inhibition of hepatic interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in the liver which is one of the main proinflammatory cytokines. Th is study for the first time examined the effect of trans-chalcone on miR-451/IL-8 pathway. METHODS: In present study, 21 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=7 per each group): control which received solvent (NS), groups 2 (N2T) and 3 (N6T), which received transchalcone for 2 and 6 weeks, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453445/alterations-in-interhemispheric-gamma-band-connectivity-are-related-to-the-emergence-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-healthy-subjects-during-nmda-receptor-blockade
#3
Thiebes Stephanie, Steinmann Saskia, Curic Stjepan, Polomac Nenad, Andreou Christina, Eichler Iris-Carola, Eichler Lars, Zöllner Christian, Gallinat Jürgen, Leicht Gregor, Mulert Christoph
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common positive symptom of schizophrenia. Excitatory-to-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance related to disturbed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functioning has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying altered connectivity and AVH in schizophrenia. The current study examined the effects of ketamine, a NMDAR antagonist, on glutamate-related mechanisms underlying interhemispheric gamma-band connectivity, conscious auditory perception during dichotic listening (DL), and the emergence of auditory verbal distortions and hallucinations (AVD/AVH) in healthy volunteers...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452946/time-responsive-osteogenic-niche-of-stem-cells-a-sequentially-triggered-dual-peptide-loaded-alginate-hybrid-system-for-promoting-cell-activity-and-osteo-differentiation
#4
Zuyuan Luo, Siqi Zhang, Jijia Pan, Rui Shi, Hao Liu, Yalin Lyu, Xiao Han, Yan Li, Yue Yang, Zhixiu Xu, Yi Sui, En Luo, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shicheng Wei
The efficacy of stem cell-based bone tissue engineering has been hampered by cell death and limited fate control. A smart cell culture system with the capability of sequentially delivering multiple factors in specific growth stages, like the mechanism of the natural extracellular matrix modulating tissue formation, is attractive for enhancing cell activity and controlling cell fate. Here, a bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1)-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pep@MSNs) incorporated adhesion peptide, containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) domain, modified alginate hydrogel (RA) system (pep@MSNs-RA) was developed to promote the activity and stimulate osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in sequence...
February 10, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451706/insulin-degludec-insulin-aspart-lowers-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-rates-of-confirmed-and-nocturnal-hypoglycaemia-independent-of-baseline-hba-1c-levels-disease-duration-or-bmi-a-pooled-meta-analysis-of-phase-3-studies-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Martin Haluzík, Greg Fulcher, Thomas R Pieber, Lars Bardtrum, Deniz Tutkunkardas, Helena W Rodbard
AIMS: Previous studies demonstrated the co-formulation of insulin degludec (IDeg)/insulin aspart (IAsp) 'IDegAsp' offers lower rates of hypoglycaemia with smaller changes in weight compared with basal-bolus (IDeg once daily [OD] + IAsp [2-4 injections]) and premix insulin (BIAsp 30 twice daily [BID]) comparators. This study aimed to investigate whether the benefits of IDegAsp, given twice daily, extend across a wide spectrum of patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a post hoc pooled analysis of five phase 3 randomised, 26-week, open-label, BID, treat-to-target trials comparing IDegAsp BID (n = 1111) with one of two 'comparators' - BIAsp 30 BID (n = 561) or IDeg OD + IAsp (n = 136)...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451033/control-release-of-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-by-injectable-self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-ameliorated-persistent-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-after-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Meng Zhao, Yijie Zhou, Shuyun Liu, Lan Li, Younan Chen, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Jingping Liu
Persistent mitochondrial injury occurs after acute kidney injury (AKI) and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) (MT) has shown benefits for AKI, but its efficiency is limited by short half-life and side effect in vivo. Self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogel is a robust platform for drug delivery. This study aims to develop an SAP-based carrier to slow release MT for enhancing its long-term therapeutic potency on AKI. The KLD with aspartic acid (KLDD) was designed...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450680/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-hematological-parameters-and-hepatorenal-functions-in-laying-japanese-quails
#7
Ako Rezaei, Amjad Farzinpour, Asaad Vaziry, Ali Jalili
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have recently emerged as a powerful agents for disinfection in the poultry industry. AgNPs are capable of epithelial barriers passing from the route of exposure to the vital organs and cells. This study evaluated the effects of AgNPs on organs weights, blood biochemical, hematological, and coagulation parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes and silver concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in laying Japanese quails after exposure to the nanoparticles...
February 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449937/thermal-decomposition-of-the-amino-acids-glycine-cysteine-aspartic-acid-asparagine-glutamic-acid-glutamine-arginine-and-histidine
#8
Ingrid M Weiss, Christina Muth, Robert Drumm, Helmut O K Kirchner
Background: The pathways of thermal instability of amino acids have been unknown. New mass spectrometric data allow unequivocal quantitative identification of the decomposition products. Results: Calorimetry, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry were used to follow the thermal decomposition of the eight amino acids G, C, D, N, E, Q, R and H between 185 °C and 280 °C. Endothermic heats of decomposition between 72 and 151 kJ/mol are needed to form 12 to 70% volatile products...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449371/biochemical-characterization-and-essentiality-of-plasmodium-fumarate-hydratase
#9
Vijay Jayaraman, Arpitha Suryavanshi, Pavithra Kalale, Jyothirmai Kunala, Hemalatha Balaram
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the causative agent of malaria, has an iron-sulfur cluster-containing class I fumarate hydratase (FH) that catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate to malate, a well-known reaction in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In humans, the same reaction is catalyzed by class II FH that has no sequence or structural homology with the class I enzyme from Plasmodium. Fumarate is generated in large quantities in the parasite as a byproduct of AMP synthesis and is converted to malate by FH and then used in the generation of the key metabolites oxaloacetate, aspartate, and pyruvate...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448066/single-step-purification-via-magnetic-nanoparticles-of-new-broad-ph-active-protease-from-penicillium-aurantiogriseum
#10
José Manoel Wanderley Duarte Neto, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque Wanderley, Carolina de Albuquerque Lima, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo Porto
A new set of applications can be achieved when using high stability proteases. Industrially, high costs can be related to production medium and purification process. Magnetic nanoparticles have been successfully used for rapid and scalable purification. In this work, azocasein were immobilized on magnetite nanoparticles and applied in a single step purification of protease produced by Penicillium aurantiogriseum using soybean flour medium, and the new purified enzyme was characterized. Glutaraldehyde activated nanoparticles were used in azocasein immobilization and then incubated with dialyzed 60-80% saline precipitation fraction of crude extract for purification...
February 12, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447962/low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-attenuates-liver-injury-via-sirt1-ampk-pgc1%C3%AE-axis-in-db-db-mice
#11
Yuanyuan Zheng, Tiantian Liu, Zhiqiang Wang, Yang Xu, Quanbin Zhang, Dali Luo
Non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), caused by elevated hepatic lipids, inflammation and oxidative stress, is the most common liver disease globally. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, has shown strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, which has not been explored in diabetes-induced NAFLD. Therefore, the present study sought to determine whether LMWF protects obese diabetic db/db mice against NAFLD. Results showed LMWF administration decreased plasma level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, as well as alleviated hepatic accumulation of triglyceride and total cholesterol in db/db mice...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446949/positive-and-negative-allosteric-modulators-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptors-structure-activity-relationships-and-mechanisms-of-action
#12
Erica S Burnell, Mark W Irvine, Guangyu Fang, Kiran Sapkota, David E Jane, Daniel T Monaghan
Excitatory activity in the CNS is predominately mediated by L-glutamate through several families of L-glutamate neurotransmitter receptors. Of these, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) family has many critical roles in CNS function and in various neuropathological and psychiatric conditions. Until recently, the types of compounds available to regulate NMDAR function have been quite limited in terms of mechanism of action, subtype selectivity, and biological effect. However, several new classes of NMDAR agents have now been identified that are positive or negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) with various patterns of NMDAR subtype selectivity...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446704/effect-of-sodium-molybdate-supplementation-on-high-concentrations-of-cu-in-liver-of-yearling-bulls
#13
E L Cuttance, R A Laven, A Watts
AIM: To determine the impact of sodium molybdate treatment, given weekly, on concentrations of Cu in liver, activity of liver enzymes, and weight gain over 4 weeks, in yearling bulls with elevated concentrations of Cu in liver. METHODS: The study was carried on two commercial grazing farms in the Otago region of New Zealand in yearling Friesian bulls (n=150 on Farm A and n=49 on Farm B) with mean concentration of Cu in liver >3,000µmol/kg fresh weight. On Day 0, all animals were weighed and half were systematically allocated to treatment with sodium molybdate (3 mg/kg liveweight on Farm A and 7 mg/kg liveweight on Farm B); the remainder received no treatment (Control)...
February 15, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446699/investigating-d-cycloserine-as-a-potential-pharmacological-enhancer-of-an-emotional-bias-learning-procedure
#14
Marcella L Woud, Simon E Blackwell, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Michael Browning, Emily A Holmes, Catherine J Harmer, Jürgen Margraf, Andrea Reinecke
The partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine may enhance psychological therapies. However, its exact mechanism of action is still being investigated. Cognitive bias modification techniques allow isolation of cognitive processes and thus investigation of how they may be affected by d-cycloserine. We used a cognitive bias modification paradigm targeting appraisals of a stressful event, Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, to investigate whether d-cycloserine enhanced the modification of appraisal, and whether it caused greater reduction in indices of psychopathology...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446381/ketamine-blocks-bursting-in-the-lateral-habenula-to-rapidly-relieve-depression
#15
Yan Yang, Yihui Cui, Kangning Sang, Yiyan Dong, Zheyi Ni, Shuangshuang Ma, Hailan Hu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has attracted enormous interest in mental health research owing to its rapid antidepressant actions, but its mechanism of action has remained elusive. Here we show that blockade of NMDAR-dependent bursting activity in the 'anti-reward center', the lateral habenula (LHb), mediates the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine in rat and mouse models of depression. LHb neurons show a significant increase in burst activity and theta-band synchronization in depressive-like animals, which is reversed by ketamine...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446047/epigallocatechin-gallate-suppresses-hepatic-cholesterol-synthesis-by-targeting-srebp-2-through-sirt1-foxo1-signaling-pathway
#16
Yongnan Li, Shuodong Wu
This study aims to explore the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on blood lipids, liver lipids, and cholesterol synthesis in hyperlipidemic rats. SREBP-2 transgenic rats were used to investigate the transcriptional level of SREBP-2 regulated by SIRT-1/FOXO1 and the molecular mechanism of rate-limiting enzyme HMGCR that affects cholesterol synthesis. Rat models of hyperlipidemia were established and administered EGCG. Cholesterol synthesis was observed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and T-AOC contents...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446025/healing-potential-of-adiantum-capillus-veneris-l-plant-extract-on-bisphenol-a-induced-hepatic-toxicity-in-male-albino-rats
#17
Qudsia Kanwal, Abdul Qadir, Amina, Asmatullah, Hafiza Hira Iqbal, Bushra Munir
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used environmental pollutant in the production of plastics but causes hepatotoxicity in mammals. In the present study, we studied the BPA-induced oxidative stress in rats and ameliorative potential of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant. It was concluded that the BPA can reduce the body and liver weight, increase in biochemical levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, and disturb the normal hepatic physiology, histology, and metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445991/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-anesthesia-with-myrcene-efficacy-and-physiological-responses-in-comparison-with-eugenol
#18
Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Mahyar Yasari, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Seyyed Morteza Hoseini
The aim of the present study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along with the fish biochemical response to anesthesia in comparison with eugenol. In the first experiment, 240 fish were stocked in 12 tanks and acclimatized to experimental conditions for 2 weeks. Then, the fish of each tank were subjected to one concentration of either eugenol (12, 20, 30, 50, 80, and 130 μL/L) or myrcene (100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μL/L) concentrations. Induction time of and recovery time from anesthesia were recorded for each fish separately...
February 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445059/liver-cirrhosis-and-or-hepatocellular-carcinoma-occurring-late-after-the-fontan-procedure-a-nationwide-survey-in-japan
#19
Masanari Kuwabara, Koichiro Niwa, Tomohiko Toyoda, Takeaki Shirai, Shigeru Tateno, Hideo Ohuchi, Yasuhiko Tanaka, Fukiko Ichida, Tomoo Fujisawa, Teiji Akagi, Yoshiki Mori
BACKGROUND: Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) is an important late complication involving liver dysfunction, such as liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in patients undergoing the Fontan procedure. However, the prevalence, clinical manifestation, and methods of diagnosis of FALD are still not well established.Methods and Results:This study comprised 2 nationwide surveys in Japan. First, the prevalence of LC and/or HCC in patients undergoing the Fontan procedure was determined...
February 14, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444988/nmda-type-glutamate-receptor-activation-promotes-vascular-remodeling-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#20
Sébastien J Dumas, Gilles Bru-Mercier, Audrey Courboulin, Marceau Quatredeniers, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Fabrice Antigny, Morad K Nakhleh, Benoit Ranchoux, Elodie Gouadon, Maria-Candida Vinhas, Matthieu Vocelle, Nicolas Raymond, Peter Dorfmüller, Elie Fadel, Frédéric Perros, Marc Humbert, Sylvia Cohen-Kaminsky
Background -Excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance in pulmonary vascular cells underlie vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Specific treatments for PAH exist, mostly targeting endothelial dysfunction, but high pulmonary arterial pressure still causes heart failure and death. Pulmonary vascular remodeling may be driven by metabolic reprogramming of vascular cells to increase glutaminolysis and glutamate production. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a major neuronal glutamate receptor, is also expressed on vascular cells, but its role in PAH is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Circulation
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