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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350885/glutamate-dependent-ectodomain-shedding-of-neuregulin-1-type-ii-precursors-in-rat-forebrain-neurons
#1
Yuriko Iwakura, Ran Wang, Naoko Inamura, Kazuaki Araki, Shigeki Higashiyama, Nobuyuki Takei, Hiroyuki Nawa
The neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) regulates neuronal development, glial differentiation, and excitatory synapse maturation. NRG1 is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor and is then liberated by proteolytic processing or exocytosis. Mature NRG1 then binds to its receptors expressed by neighboring neurons or glial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern this process in the nervous system are not defined in detail. Here we prepared neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cultures from embryonic rat neocortex to investigate the role of neurotransmitters that regulate the liberation/release of NRG1 from the membrane of neurons or glial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346482/24s-hydroxycholesterol-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-differentially-impact-hippocampal-neuronal-survival-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#2
Min-Yu Sun, Amanda Taylor, Charles F Zorumski, Steven Mennerick
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a major subtype of glutamate receptor mediating excitatory transmission throughout the CNS, participate in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Unfortunately, undesired side effects have limited the strategy of inhibiting/blocking NMDARs as therapy. Targeting endogenous positive allosteric modulators of NMDAR function may offer a strategy with fewer downsides. Here, we explored whether 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC), an endogenous positive NMDAR modulator characterized recently by our group, participates in NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary neuron cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346321/growth-arrest-and-dna-damage-inducible-protein-45%C3%AE-mediated-dna-demethylation-of-voltage-dependent-t-type-calcium-channel-3-2-subunit-enhances-neuropathic-allodynia-after-nerve-injury-in-rats
#3
Cheng-Yuan Lai, Ming-Chun Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Ho, An-Sheng Lee, Hsueh-Hsiao Wang, Jen-Kun Cheng, Yat-Pang Chau, Hsien-Yu Peng
BACKGROUND: Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β reactivates methylation-silenced neural plasticity-associated genes through DNA demethylation. However, growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β-dependent demethylation contributes to neuropathic allodynia-associated spinal plasticity remains unclear. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (654 out of 659) received a spinal nerve ligation or a sham operation with or without intrathecal application of one of the following: growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β messenger RNA-targeted small interfering RNA, lentiviral vector expressing growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β, Ro 25-6981 (an NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), or KN-93 (a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist) were used for behavioral measurements, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, dot blots, detection of unmodified cytosine enrichment at cytosine-phosphate-guanine site, chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and slice recordings...
March 27, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346236/current-concepts-in-ischemic-hepatitis
#4
Joseph M Lightsey, Don C Rockey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review seeks to define ischemic hepatitis and its associated comorbidities. It means to review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, clinical course, outcomes, and any potential therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ischemic hepatitis has long been associated with cardiovascular disease; recent reports have found a substantial link between preexisting cardiovascular disease and the risk for developing ischemic hepatitis. A proposed mechanism by which hepatic congestion predisposes the liver to hemodynamic injury further defines this link...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346233/clinical-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#5
Jagannath M Sherigar, Vijay Gayam, Arifa Khan, Osama Mukhtar, Yavgeniy Arefiev, Mazin Khalid, Imran Siddiqui, Ayyappa M Rangaraju, Nibash Budhathoki, Mohammed Mansour, Debra Guss, Smruti R Mohanty
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence-based data on aged patients with newer direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and with shorter duration of treatment regimens involving DAAs with or without ribavirin (RBV) and pegylated interferon (Peg IFN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of 240 patients treated with DAAs with or without Peg IFN and RBV between January 2013 and July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: patients aged 65 years and older (N=84) and patients aged younger than 65 years (N=156)...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346230/glutaminase-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitors-suppress-pyrimidine-synthesis-and-vhl-deficient-renal-cancers
#6
Arimichi Okazaki, Paulo A Gameiro, Danos Christodoulou, Laura Laviollette, Meike Schneider, Frances Chaves, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Stephanie A Yazinski, Richard Lee, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Lee Zou, Othon Iliopoulos
Many cancer-associated mutations that deregulate cellular metabolic responses to hypoxia also reprogram carbon metabolism to promote utilization of glutamine. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cells deficient in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene use glutamine to generate citrate and lipids through reductive carboxylation (RC) of α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Glutamine can also generate aspartate, the carbon source for pyrimidine biosynthesis, and glutathione for redox balance. Here we have shown that VHL-/- RCC cells rely on RC-derived aspartate to maintain de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345792/adding-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-to-basal-insulin-significantly-improved-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-18-week-open-label-phase-3-trial-onset-3
#7
Helena W Rodbard, Devjit Tripathy, Maricela Vidrio Velázquez, Marek Demissie, Søren Can Tamer, Milivoj Piletič
AIM: To confirm glycaemic control superiority of mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) in a basal-bolus (BB) regimen versus basal-only insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, 18-week trial (51 sites; 6 countries) adults (n = 236) with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D; mean glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c ] ±SD: 7.9 ± 0.7% [63.1 ± 7.5 mmol/mol) receiving basal insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs underwent 8-week optimisation of prior once-daily basal insulins followed by randomisation 1:1 to a BB regimen with faster aspart (n = 116) or continuation of once-daily basal insulin (n = 120), both with metformin...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345744/eleven-years-of-children-methadone-poisoning-in-a-referral-center-a-review-of-453-cases
#8
Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Masumeh Hakiminejhad, Fariba Farnaghi, Amirhossein Mirafzal, Nasim Zamani, Ali Kabir
OBJECTIVES: Methadone can be fatal due to respiratory failure even in little doses. This study aimed to evaluate the possible risk factors of death and/or intubation in methadone-poisoned children of 12 years or younger. DESIGN: Retrospective routine database study. SETTING: The only tertiary hospital for children poisoning in Tehran. PATIENTS: Four hundred fifty-three methadone-poisoned patients aged 12 or younger were studied between 2001 and 2012...
January 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345083/cal-b-catalyzed-regioselective-bulk-polymerization-of-l-aspartic-acid-diethyl-ester-to-%C3%AE-linked-polypeptides
#9
Filbert Totsingan, Robert Centore, Richard A Gross
This paper reports that the bulk polymerization of l-aspartic acid diethyl ester catalyzed by immobilized CAL-B at 80 °C for 24 h gives primarily (∼95%) α-linked poly(l-aspartate) in 70% yield with DPavg = 50 and regioselectivity (α/β) = 94 : 6. Plots of log{[M]0/[M]t} vs. time and DPavgvs. conversion indicate that this polymerization proceeds in a controlled manner by a chain-growth mechanism up to 90% conversion. Thereafter, competition occurs between chain growth and step mechanisms.
March 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344485/biochemical-and-molecular-modulation-of-ccl4-induced-peripheral-and-central-damage-by-tilia-americana-var-mexicanaextracts
#10
Elvia Coballase-Urrutia, Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez, María Carolina González-García, Eithan Núñez-Ramírez, Esaú Floriano-Sánchez, María Eva González-Trujano, Berenice Fernández-Rojas, José Pedraza-Chaverrí, Hortencia Montesinos-Correa, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Aristides Iii Sampieri, Liliana Carmona-Aparicio
Around the world, species from the genus Tilia are commonly used because of their peripheral and central medicinal effects; they are prepared as teas and used as tranquilizing, anticonvulsant, and analgesic agents. In this study, we provide evidence of the protective effects of organic and aqueous extracts (100 mg/kg, i.p.) obtained from the leaves of Tilia americana var. mexicana on CCl4-induced liver and brain damage in the rat. Protection was observed in the liver and brain (cerebellum, cortex and cerebral hemispheres) by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) using spectrophotometric methods...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344412/clinical-and-hematobiochemical-response-in-canine-monocytic-ehrlichiosis-seropositive-dogs-of-punjab
#11
Manasa R Kottadamane, Pritpal Singh Dhaliwal, Lachhman Das Singla, Baljinder Kumar Bansal, Sanjeev Kumar Uppal
AIM: As in India especially, the Punjab state sero-prevalence and distribution of ehrlichiosis in relation to clinico-hematobiochemical response remains largely unexplored. Thus, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of vector (tick)-borne tropical canine pancytopenia caused by Ehrlichia canis through enzyme labeled ImmunoComb(®) (IC) assay in dogs from in and around Ludhiana, Punjab. Correlation of prevalence was made with various clinico-hematobiochemical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seroprevalence study was carried out using IC(®) test kit (Biogal, Galed Labs)...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344400/sex-related-differences-in-hemato-biochemical-indices-of-adult-vanaraja-chickens-during-summer-and-winter-seasons
#12
Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy, Kumaresh Behera, Lal Mohan Mohapatra, Aditya Prasad Acharya, Kamdev Sethy, Sasmita Panda, Shailesh Kumar Gupta
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in hemato-biochemical indices in male and female Vanaraja chickens under tropical environment during summer and winter season. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks were selected as experimental chickens and distributed equally in two groups having 60 female and 60 male chickens in each group, respectively. The experiment was continued for 8 weeks (56 days) and both male and female chickens were slaughtered by cervical dislocation method...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344313/liver-injury-and-tumor-inhibiting-effect-of-sequential-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-and-portal-venous-embolization-on-rabbit-vx2-liver-carcinoma
#13
Dongda Song, Minggen Hu, Weichang Guo
BACKGROUND The concepts of sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and portal venous embolization (PVE) were proposed to prevent the detrimental tumor growth-inducing effect of PVE and to facilitate growth of further future liver remnant (FLR). This study aimed to investigate the effect of sequential TACE and PVE on liver damage and the therapeutic effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rabbits bearing VX2 liver tumors were randomly divided into TACE+PVE, TACE, PVE, and Sham groups...
March 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344131/specific-patterns-of-spinal-metabolites-underlying-%C3%AE-me-5-ht-evoked-pruritus-compared-with-histamine-and-capsaicin-assessed-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#14
Taotao Liu, Zhigang He, Xuebi Tian, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Zhixiao Li, Zeyuan Liu, Huili Liu, Fuqiang Xu, Jie Wang, Hongbing Xiang
The mechanism behind itching is not well understood. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of spinal cord extracts provides a quick modality for evaluating the specific metabolic activity of α-Me-5-HT-evoked pruritus mice. In the current study, four groups of young adult male C57Bl/6 mice were investigated; one group treated with saline, while the other groups intradermally injected with α-Me-5-HT (histamine independent pruritogen), histamine (histamine dependent pruritogen) and capsaicin (algogenic substance), respectively...
March 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342764/ketamine-as-a-rapid-acting-agent-for-suicidal-ideation-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Francesco Bartoli, Ilaria Riboldi, Cristina Crocamo, Carmen Di Brita, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at exploring acute effects of intravenous (IV) ketamine, an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), in subjects with current suicidal ideation. We included clinical trials testing a single IV dose of ketamine and assessing changes in suicidal ideation within 4hours after treatment. Meta-analyses based on random-effects models, were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) between endpoint and baseline scores. Heterogeneity among studies was estimated using the I(2) index...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342754/dietary-supplementation-of-thiamine-and-pyridoxine-loaded-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-microspheres-enhances-growth-performance-metabolic-and-immune-responses-in-experimental-rats
#16
C S Tejpal, N S Chatterjee, K Elavarasan, R G K Lekshmi, R Anandan, K K Asha, B Ganesan, S Mathew, C N Ravishankar
In the present investigation, the effect of dietary supplementation of thiamine and pyridoxine loaded vanillic acid-grafted chitosan microspheres (TPVGC) on growth, metabolic and immune responses in Wistar strain albino rats was studied. Eight experimental groups, namely four groups each for male and female rats were fed with 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% of TPVGC in the diet. At the end of 45days feeding trials, both male and female rats supplemented with TPVGC had higher weight gain % and specific growth rate than the control groups...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342750/mutation-of-the-caspase-3-cleavage-site-in-the-astroglial-glutamate-transporter-eaat2-delays-disease-progression-and-extends-lifespan-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-als
#17
Lauren Taylor Rosenblum, Shashirekha Shamamandri-Markandaiah, Biswarup Ghosh, Emily Foran, Angelo C Lepore, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti
Downregulation in the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and mutant SOD1 mouse models of ALS is believed to contribute to the death of motor neurons by excitotoxicity. We previously reported that caspase-3 cleaves EAAT2 at a unique cleavage consensus site located in its c-terminus domain, a proteolytic cleavage that also occurs in vivo in the mutant SOD1 mouse model of ALS and leads to accumulation of a sumoylated EAAT2 C-Terminus fragment (CTE-SUMO1) beginning around onset of disease...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341765/quantifying-the-hepatotoxic-risk-of-alcohol-consumption-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-taking-methotrexate
#18
Jenny H Humphreys, Alexander Warner, Ruth Costello, Mark Lunt, Suzanne M M Verstappen, William G Dixon
BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who take methotrexate (MTX) are advised to limit their alcohol intake due to potential combined hepatotoxicity. However, data are limited to support this. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of developing abnormal liver blood tests at different levels of alcohol consumption, using routinely collected data from primary care. METHODS: Patients with RA in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink starting MTX between 1987 and 2016 were included...
March 23, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341346/stimulation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-dilates-retinal-arterioles-by-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-derived-nitric-oxide-in-rats
#19
Eriko Someya, Asami Mori, Kenji Sakamoto, Kunio Ishii, Tsutomu Nakahara
Opioids contribute to the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of herkinorin, a non-opioid μ-opioid receptor agonist derived from salvinorin A, on blood vessels in the rat retina and to investigate the mechanism underlying the herkinorin-induced retinal vasodilatory response. Ocular fundus images were captured using an original high-resolution digital fundus camera in vivo. The retinal vascular responses were evaluated by measuring the diameter of retinal arterioles in the fundus images...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341002/seroprevalence-survey-of-selective-anti-neuronal-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#20
Chia-Hsiang Chen, Min-Chih Cheng, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Ko-Huan Lin, Hai-Gwo Hwu
Autoimmune encephalopathy caused by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins in the brain is a newly discovered disease category associated with psychiatric disorders. Correct diagnosis of this condition relies on the detection of specific autoantibodies in the blood or cerebral spinal fluid in addition to the clinical presentations. The study aimed to understand the seroprevalence of selective anti-neuronal autoantibodies in our patients with schizophrenia. First, we screened for six anti-neuronal autoantibodies in an archived blood sample collected from patients with the first-episode schizophrenia...
March 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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