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Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Eric S Schwenk, Amir C Dayan, Ashwin Rangavajjula, Marc C Torjman, Mauricio G Hernandez, Clinton G Lauritsen, Stephen D Silberstein, William Young, Eugene R Viscusi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The burden of chronic headache disorders in the United States is substantial. Some patients are treatment refractory. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, provides potent analgesia in subanesthetic doses in chronic pain, and limited data suggest it may alleviate headache in some patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 61 patients admitted over 3 years for 5 days of intravenous therapy that included continuous ketamine to determine responder rate and patient and ketamine infusion characteristics...
June 19, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
James G Scott, David Gillis, Andrew Swayne, Stefan Blum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
David J Kazierad, Kristin Chidsey, Veena R Somayaji, Arthur J Bergman, Roberto A Calle
AIMS: To conduct a dose-response assessment of the efficacy and safety of the glucagon receptor antagonist PF-06291874 in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) receiving stable doses of metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, statin-stratified, placebo-controlled, 4-arm, parallel-group study was conducted in patients with T2DM receiving background metformin. After an 8-week, non-metformin oral antidiabetic agent washout period, 206 patients were randomized to placebo or PF-06291874 (30, 60, or 100 mg once daily) for 12 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lei Tan, Jun Li, Xiangmei Liu, Zhenduo Cui, Xianjin Yang, Shengli Zhu, Zhaoyang Li, Xubo Yuan, Yufeng Zheng, Kelvin W K Yeung, Haobo Pan, Xianbao Wang, Shuilin Wu
Bone-implant-associated infections are common after orthopedic surgery due to impaired host immune response around the implants. In particular, when a biofilm develops, the immune system and antibiotic treatment find it difficult to eradicate, which sometimes requires a second operation to replace the infected implants. Most strategies have been designed to prevent biofilms from forming on the surface of bone implants, but these strategies cannot eliminate the biofilm when it has been established in vivo. To address this issue, a nonsurgical, noninvasive treatment for biofilm infection must be developed...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mingjie Li, Kate L Henderson, Salette Martinez, Robert P Hausinger, Joseph P Emerson
Taurine/α-ketoglutarate (αKG) dioxygenase (TauD) is an E. coli nonheme Fe2+ - and αKG-dependent metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of taurine, leading to the production of sulfite. The metal-dependent active site in TauD is formed by two histidine and one aspartate that coordinating to one face of an octahedral coordination geometry, known as the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad. This motif is found in many nonheme Fe2+ proteins, but there is limited information on the thermodynamic parameters that govern metal-ion binding to this site...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Carolina Cogo, Julieta Pérez-Giménez, Chandrasekar B Rajeswari, María F Luna, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens , a soybean N2 -fixing symbiont, constitutes the basic input in one of the most prominent inoculant industries worldwide. This bacterium may be cultured with D-mannitol or L-arabinose as carbon-plus-energy source (C-source) with similar specific growth rates, but with higher biomass production with D-mannitol. To better understand the bacterium's carbon metabolism, we analyzed, by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS), the whole set of proteins obtained from cells grown on each C-source...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hongbo Liu, Binghua Zhu, Beibei Liang, Xuebin Xu, Shaofu Qiu, Leili Jia, Peng Li, Lang Yang, Yongrui Li, Ying Xiang, Jing Xie, Ligui Wang, Chaojie Yang, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song
In this study, we discovered a novel mobilized colistin resistance ( mcr-1 ) gene variant, named mcr-1.9 , which was identified in a colistin-resistant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain from a clinical diarrhea case. The mcr-1.9 gene differs from mcr-1 at position 1036 due to a single nucleotide polymorphism (G→A), which results in an aspartic acid residue being replaced by an asparagine residue (Asp346→Asn) in the MCR-1 protein sequence. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the mcr-1...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Shao, Heba Abdel-Motaal, Jin Chen, Huiwen Chen, Tong Xu, Lin Meng, Zhenglai Zhang, Fankui Meng, Juquan Jiang
Arginine-aspartate-aspartate (RDD) family, representing a category of transmembrane proteins containing one highly conserved arginine and two highly conserved aspartates, has been functionally uncharacterized as yet. Here we present the characterization of a member of this family designated RDD from the moderate halophile Halobacillus andaensis NEAU-ST10-40T and report for the first time that RDD should function as a novel Na+ (Li+ , K+ )/H+ antiporter. It's more interesting whether the highly conserved arginine/aspartate residues among the whole family or between RDD and its selected homologs are related to the protein function...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jason M Ali, Lachlan F Miles, Yasir Abu-Omar, Carlos Galhardo, Florian Falter
Despite the ubiquitous use of cardioplegia in cardiac surgery, there is a lack of agreement on various aspects of cardioplegia practice. To discover current cardioplegia practices throughout the world, we undertook a global survey to document contemporary cardiopulmonary bypass practices. A 16-question, Internet-based survey was distributed by regional specialist societies, targeting adult cardiac anesthesiologists. Ten questions concerned caseload and cardioplegia practices, the remaining questions examined anticoagulation and pump-priming practices...
June 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Yao Jin, Zhen-Lin Huang, Li Li, Yang Yang, Chang-Hong Wang, Zheng-Tao Wang, Li-Li Ji
Toosendanin (TSN) is the main active compound in Toosendan Fructus and Meliae Cortex, two commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. TSN has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the critical role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in protecting against TSN-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and human normal liver L-02 cells. In mice, administration of TSN (10 mg/kg)-induced acute liver injury evidenced by increased serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and total bilirubin (TBiL) content as well as the histological changes...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
S Narita, Y Onozawa, E Yoshihara, D Nishizawa, M Numajiri, K Ikeda, K Iwahashi
OBJECTIVE: The N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) is involved in regulation of anxiety and depression and nervous activity in the brain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the GluN2B gene ( GRIN2B ) are associated with human mental function and behaviour. We investigated whether four GRIN2B polymorphisms (rs7301328, rs1806201, rs1805247, and rs1805502) affect characterisation of personality traits. METHODS: In 248 young people, GRIN2B polymorphisms were analysed, and personality traits were assessed using the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
June 2018: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Huijie Ma 马会杰, Shao-Rui Chen 陈少瑞, Hong Chen 陈红, Lingyong Li 李令勇, De-Pei Li 李德培李德培, Jing-Jing Zhou 周京京, Hui-Lin Pan 潘惠麟
Both the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are critically involved in hypertension development. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons to increase sympathetic vasomotor tone, the molecular mechanism mediating this action remains unclear. The glutamate N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the PVN controls sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this study, we determined the interaction between α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1 ), commonly known as a Ca2+ channel subunit, and NMDARs in the hypothalamus and its role in Ang II-induced synaptic NMDAR activity in PVN presympathetic neurons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Leila Hamzehzadeh, Fatemeh Khadangi, Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani, Alireza Pasdar, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
OBJECTIVES: Mutation analysis of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor downstream has been a main part of colorectal carcinoma evaluation. Large prospective clinical trials have shown only colorectal cancer (CRC) with wild-type KRAS and NRAS responds to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor treatment. Hence, mutation analysis is necessary prior to treatment. It is essential to conduct studies to learn about the mutation signature of such tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hotspot mutations in KRAS and NRAS genes in Iranian CRC patients and to explore their correlations with clinicopathologic parameters...
May 25, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Yunxia Qi, Xiaowei Zhao, Dongwei Huang, Xiaocheng Pan, Huiling Zhao, Han Hu, Guanglong Cheng, Yongxin Yang
In contrast to colostral immunoglobulins, changes in metabolite composition of ingested colostrum in the gut have received little attention. Here, we characterized the metabolite profiles of colostrum and milk, ingested colostrum and milk, and serum of neonatal calves by LC-MS and GC-MS metabolomics approaches. Colostrum and milk underwent similar changes in metabolite profiles in the gut after being ingested. These changes were characterized by increase in methionine, glutamate, thymine and phosphorylcholine...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bernhard Scheiner, Paul René Stammet, Sebastian Pokorny, Theresa Bucsics, Philipp Schwabl, Andrea Brichta, Johannes Thaler, Katharina Lampichler, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Cihan Ay, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Michael Trauner, Mattias Mandorfer, Thomas Reiberger
BACKGROUND: Non-malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is common in patients with advanced liver disease. Anticoagulation (AC) increases the chances of recanalization and may improve liver function in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: We retrospectively assessed the course of non-malignant PVT in patients receiving AC. METHODS: Parameters related to hepatic injury (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), severity of disease (ascites) and synthesis function (albumin) as well as AC, rates of PVT regression/progression and AC-associated complications were documented...
June 18, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Pavan Bhat, Ameer Ahmed, Preetam Jolepalem, Charmian Sittambalam
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis is a potentially fatal autoimmune syndrome in which there is antibody production against the NMDAR causing profound dysregulation of neurotransmission. The syndrome is frequently associated with ovarian teratomas and women are disproportionately affected. Patients most often present with a constellation of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms, including memory loss, hallucinations, and decreased level of consciousness. This condition is lethal if left untreated...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Kristyna Skrenkova, Sanghyeon Lee, Katarina Lichnerova, Martina Kaniakova, Hana Hansikova, Martin Zapotocky, Young Ho Suh, Martin Horak
N -methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play critical roles in both excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. NMDARs containing the nonconventional GluN3A subunit have different functional properties compared to receptors comprised of GluN1/GluN2 subunits. Previous studies showed that GluN1/GluN2 receptors are regulated by N -glycosylation; however, limited information is available regarding the role of N -glycosylation in GluN3A-containing NMDARs. Using a combination of microscopy, biochemistry, and electrophysiology in mammalian cell lines and rat hippocampal neurons, we found that two asparagine residues (N203 and N368) in the GluN1 subunit and three asparagine residues (N145, N264 and N275) in the GluN3A subunit are required for surface delivery of GluN3A-containing NMDARs...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
S R Eman, A A Kubesy, T A Baraka, F A Torad, I S Shaymaa, Faten F Mohammed
Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miRNA)-122 in acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 16 dogs out of 26 showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hematobiochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Priyanka Samanta, Yitang Wang, Shadi Fuladi, Jinjing Zou, Ye Li, Le Shen, Christopher Weber, Fatemeh Khalili-Araghi
Tight junctions are macromolecular structures that traverse the space between adjacent cells in epithelia and endothelia. Members of the claudin family are known to determine tight junction permeability in a charge- and size-selective manner. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to build and refine an atomic model of claudin-15 channels and study its transport properties. Our simulations indicate that claudin-15 forms well-defined channels for ions and molecules and otherwise "seals" the paracellular space through hydrophobic interactions...
June 18, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
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