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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922740/a-conserved-dggk-motif-is-essential-for-the-function-of-the-pglb-oligosaccharyltransferase-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#1
Yasmin Barre, Harald Nothaft, Cody Thomas, Xin Liu, Jianjun Li, Kenneth K S Ng, Christine M Szymanski
In Campylobacter jejuni, the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a heptasaccharide from a lipid donor to asparagine within the D/E-X1-N-X2-S/T sequon (X1,2 ≠ P) or releases this heptasaccharide as free oligosaccharides (fOS). Using available crystal structures and sequence alignments, we identified a DGGK motif near the active site of PglB that is conserved among all Campylobacter species. We demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the aspartate and lysine residues result in loss of protein glycosylation in the heterologous Escherichia coli system...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922724/oyster-ostrea-plicatula-gmelin-polysaccharides-intervention-ameliorates-cyclophosphamide-induced-genotoxicity-and-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-via-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#2
Shuting Lin, Gengxin Hao, Min Long, Fei Lai, Qingqin Li, Yongmei Xiong, Yan Tian, Dong Lai
In this study, we explored the protective effects of oyster (Ostrea plicatula Gmelin) polysaccharides (OPS) against genotoxicity and liver injury induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in BALB/c mice. OPS was administered to mice at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg for 7 consecutive days, then 50mg/kg CP was injected via abdomen. Then mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. Bone marrow micronuclei (MN) and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE): normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) ratio were calculated to evaluate CP induced genetic toxicity...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922569/strategies-for-analysis-of-isomeric-peptides
#3
Erik T Jansson
This review presents an overview and recent progress of strategies for detecting isomerism in peptides, with focus on d/l epimerization and the various isomers that the presence of an aspartic acid residue may yield in a protein or peptide. While mass spectrometry has become a majorly used method of choice within proteomics, isomerism is inherently difficult to analyze because it is a modification that does not yield any change in mass of the analyte. Here, several techniques used for analysis of peptide isomerism are discussed, including enzymatic assays, liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922500/total-synthesis-of-the-diglycosidic-tetramic-acid-ancorinoside-a
#4
Markus Petermichl, Rainer Schobert
Ancorinoside A, a metabolite of a sponge Ancorina sp., was prepared in 18 steps as the first derivative of this class of glycosylated 3-acyltetramic acids. It features a β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galacturonic acid linked to a D-aspartic acid derived tetramic acid via a 3-docosanoyl spacer. The diglycoside was built up by connecting the protected monosaccharides D-galactose and D-glucose via a thioglycoside glycosylation. Attachment of the spacer by a subsequent Schmidt glycosylation of this diglycoside, TEMPO oxidation to the uronic acid, functionalisation of the spacer terminus with an N-(β-ketoacyl)aspartate, and a final Dieckmann cyclisation of the latter were the key steps leading to ancorinoside A...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922421/effects-of-acute-administration-of-donepezil-or-memantine-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-young-and-aged-non-human-primate-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#5
Anisur Rahman, Yves Lamberty, Esther Schenker, Massimo Cella, Solène Languille, Régis Bordet, Jill Richardson, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard
The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921908/biphasic-insulin-aspart-30-reduces-glycemic-variability-to-a-greater-degree-than-insulin-detemir-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-once-daily-insulin-regimens-using-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#6
Daisuke Tsujino, Rimei Nishimura, Yoshiko Onda, Chiaki Seo, Kiyotaka Ando, Kazunori Utsunomiya
INTRODUCTION: We compared the efficacy of insulin detemir and biphasic insulin aspart-30 given in the morning as an add-on to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (8%≤HbA1c<11%) being treated with OHA mono- or combination therapy with biguanides, sulfonylureas, or thiazolidinediones. The patients were randomly assigned to insulin detemir (group D) or insulin aspart-30 (group A) given in the morning as add-on to OHAs...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921900/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-from-basal-insulin-to-once-daily-insulin-idegasp-in-japanese-patients-with-inadequately-controlled-type-2-diabetes-a-4-week-randomized-open-label-treat-to-target-study
#7
Yoshio Nagai, Ami Nishine, Eriko Hashimoto, Taiga Nakayama, Yosuke Sasaki, Mariko Murakami, Satoshi Ishii, Hiroyuki Kato, Yasushi Tanaka
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: A prospective, 4-week, single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target study was performed to develop an algorithm for safe and effective switching from basal insulin to once-daily insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to continue their current basal insulin therapy (n=10) or to switch to IDegAsp on a 1: 1 unit basis (n=10)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921744/cholinergic-basal-forebrain-structures-are-not-essential-for-mediation-of-the-arousing-action-of-glutamate
#8
Zoltán Lelkes, Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921630/metabolic-assessment-of-a-migraine-model-using-relaxation-enhanced-1-h-spectroscopy-at-ultrahigh-field
#9
Nastaren Abad, Jens T Rosenberg, Tangi Roussel, Dillon C Grice, Michael G Harrington, Samuel C Grant
PURPOSE: This study evaluates biochemical imbalances in a rat model that reflects dysfunctional pathways in migraine. The high sensitivity and spectral dispersion available to (1) H MRS at 21.1 T expands metabolic profiling in this migraine model to include lactate (Lac), taurine (Tau), aspartate, and Gly-a mixture of glycine, glutamine, and glutamate. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered in situ an intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin (NTG) to induce the migraine analogue or saline as a control...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921625/solving-doubts-about-l-ornithine-l-aspartate-for-overt-he-whom-and-how-to-treat
#10
EDITORIAL
Piero Amodio, Javier Ampuero
Randomized controlled trials about the treatment of bouts of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) are difficult to design and interpret, since bouts of OHE i) are relatively short episodes in which the dynamic of the response to treatment is relevant, ii) their occurrence and treatment is frequently linked to precipitating events. The study by Sidhu et al. in this issue of Hepatology is a model of proper design and provides evidence that L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusion for 5 days is an effective add on treatment to speed up recovery from bouts of OHE in comparison with a placebo treatment that does not contain amino acid nutrients...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920930/gator1-regulates-nitrogenic-cataplerotic-reactions-of-the-mitochondrial-tca-cycle
#11
Jun Chen, Benjamin M Sutter, Lei Shi, Benjamin P Tu
The GATOR1 (SEACIT) complex consisting of Iml1-Npr2-Npr3 inhibits target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in response to amino acid insufficiency. In glucose medium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking the function of this complex grow poorly in the absence of amino acid supplementation, despite showing hallmarks of increased TORC1 signaling. Such mutants sense that they are amino acid replete and thus repress metabolic activities that are important for achieving this state. We found that npr2Δ mutants have defective mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle activity and retrograde response...
September 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920818/biochemistry-panel-reference-intervals-for-juvenile-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#12
Laura A Adamovicz, Macy R Trosclair, Gregory A Lewbart
Reference intervals for diagnostic tests are vitally important for clinical decision making. Despite the popularity of pet goldfish (Carassius auratus), reference intervals have not been generated for routine biochemistry panel analytes in this species. This study establishes de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume and total solids, using 47 apparently healthy immature goldfish, and for 11 common chemistry panel analytes (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulin, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) using 39 immature goldfish...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920570/brain-relevant-antibodies-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-matched-case-control-study
#13
Fiona Gaughran, John Lally, Katherine Beck, Ruaidhri McCormack, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Ester Coutinho, Leslie Jacobson, Bethan Lang, Ricardo Sainz-Fuertes, Evangelos Papanastasiou, Marta Di Forti, Tim Nicholson, Angela Vincent, Robin M Murray
BACKGROUND: There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study...
September 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920440/unrestricted-mass-spectrometric-data-analysis-for-identification-localization-and-quantification-of-oxidative-protein-modifications
#14
Martin Rykær, Birte Svensson, Michael J Davies, Per Hägglund
Oxidation generates multiple diverse post-translational modifications resulting in changes in protein structure and function, associated with a wide range of diseases. Of these modifications, carbonylations have often been used as hallmarks of oxidative damage. However, accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that other oxidation products may be quantitatively more important under physiological conditions. To address this issue we have developed a holistic mass spectrometry-based approach for simultaneous identification, localization and quantification of a broad range of oxidative modifications based on so-called 'dependent peptides'...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919690/subchronic-toxicity-of-nile-tilapia-with-different-exposure-routes-to-microcystis-aeruginosa-histopathology-liver-functions-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers
#15
H M R Abdel-Latif, A M Abou Khashaba
BACKGROUND: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs]) have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota. AIM: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919538/roles-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-during-the-sensory-stimulation-evoked-field-potential-responses-in-mouse-cerebellar-cortical-molecular-layer
#16
Yin-Hua Xu, Guang-Jian Zhang, Jing-Tong Zhao, Chun-Ping Chu, Yu-Zi Li, De-Lai Qiu
The functions of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in cerebellar cortex have been widely studied under in vitro condition, but their roles during the sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar cortical molecular layer in living animals are currently unclear. We here investigated the roles of NMDARs during the air-puff stimulation on ipsilateral whisker pad-evoked field potential responses in cerebellar cortical molecular layer in urethane-anesthetized mice by electrophysiological recording and pharmacological methods...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919470/preparation-and-characterization-of-amorphous-ciprofloxacin-amino-acid-salts
#17
Hanah Mesallati, Daryl Conroy, Sarah Hudson, Lidia Tajber
The amorphization of the poorly soluble drug ciprofloxacin (CIP) may be facilitated by the use of a suitable stabilizer. In this study seven amino acids, with various side chain properties, were evaluated in this regard. Solid dispersions were prepared by ball milling 1:1 molar ratios of CIP with the amino acids, and their solid-state and pharmaceutical properties were then examined. Fully X-ray amorphous solid dispersions were obtained with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and arginine. In each case, evidence of salt formation between the drug and amino acids was found via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919011/dabrafenib-plus-trametinib-in-patients-with-previously-untreated-braf-v600e-mutant-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-open-label-phase-2-trial
#18
David Planchard, Egbert F Smit, Harry J M Groen, Julien Mazieres, Benjamin Besse, Åslaug Helland, Vanessa Giannone, Anthony M D'Amelio, Pingkuan Zhang, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Bruce E Johnson
BACKGROUND: BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas and acts as an oncogenic driver. Dabrafenib, alone or combined with trametinib, has shown substantial antitumour activity in patients with previously treated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess the activity and safety of dabrafenib plus trametinib treatment in previously untreated patients with BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic NSCLC. METHODS: In this phase 2, sequentially enrolled, multicohort, multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study, adults (≥18 years of age) with previously untreated metastatic BRAF(V600E)-mutant NSCLC were enrolled into cohort C from 19 centres in eight countries within North America, Europe, and Asia...
September 8, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918652/investigation-of-pump-compatibility-of-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Eric Zijlstra, Marek Demissie, Tina Graungaard, Tim Heise, Leszek Nosek, Bruce Bode
BACKGROUND: Ultra-fast-acting insulins, such as fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart), have pharmacokinetic properties that may be advantageous for patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), provided that they are compatible with and safe to use in CSII. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, actively controlled trial evaluating compatibility, efficacy, and safety of faster aspart in adults with type 1 diabetes using their own MiniMed Paradigm pump with Quick-Set or Silhouette infusion sets...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918601/effects-of-phoxim-induced-hepatotoxicity-on-sd-rats-and-the-protection-of-vitamin-e
#20
Jing Zhang, Wentao Song, Yuecheng Sun, Anshan Shan
Currently, public pay more attention to the adverse effect of organophosphate pesticides on human and animal health and on the environment in developing nations. Vitamin E may protect the hepatocyte and increase the function of liver. The study was to investigate the effects of phoxim-induced hepatotoxicity on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and the protection of vitamin E. SD rats received by gavage 180 mg kg(-1) (per body weight) of phoxim, 200 mg kg(-1) (per body weight) of vitamin E, and phoxim + vitamin E...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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