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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031188/azithromycin-sorption-and-biodegradation-in-a-simulated-california-river-system
#1
Monica L Vermillion Maier, Ronald S Tjeerdema
Azithromycin (AZ) is a widely-used macrolide antibiotic that is continually deposited into natural waterways by sewage effluent. Though recognized as an emerging contaminant of concern, little is known about its fate and transport in aquatic systems. American River soils and water were used to determine degradation of AZ in microcosms simulating flooded (anaerobic) and non-flooded (aerobic) California watershed conditions. Under aerobic conditions the degradation rate constant (k=0.0084 ± 0.0039 day(-1)) and DT50 (82...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031113/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-small-animal-pet-shows-pre-and-post-synaptic-striatal-dopaminergic-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-hiv
#2
Sanhita Sinharay, Dianne Lee, Swati Shah, Siva Muthusamy, Georgios Z Papadakis, Xiang Zhang, Dragan Maric, William C Reid, Dima A Hammoud
INTRODUCTION: In vivo imaging biomarkers of various HIV neuropathologies, including dopaminergic dysfunction, are still lacking. Towards developing dopaminergic biomarkers of brain involvement in HIV, we assessed the pre and postsynaptic components of the dopaminergic system in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a well-characterized model of treated HIV+ patients, using small-animal PET imaging. METHODS: Fifteen to 18 month-old Tg and wild type (WT) rats were imaged with both [18F]-FP-CMT, a dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand (n=16), and [18F]-Fallypride, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor (D2/D3DR) ligand (n=16)...
August 31, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031110/determination-of-l-glutamic-acid-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-in-mouse-brain-tissue-utilizing-gc-ms-ms
#3
Christine A Farthing, Don E Farthing, Ronald E Gress, Douglas H Sweet
A rapid and selective method for the quantitation of neurotransmitters, l-Glutamic acid (GA) and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), was developed and validated using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The novel method utilized a rapid online hot GC inlet gas phase sample derivatization and fast GC low thermal mass technology. The method calibration was linear from 0.5 to 100μg/mL, with limits of detections of 100ng/mL and 250ng/mL for GA and GABA, respectively. The method was used to investigate the effects of deletion of organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1) or Oat3 on murine CNS levels of GA and GABA at 3 and 18 mo of age, as compared to age matched wild-type (WT) animals...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031086/natural-iron-isotopes-influence-on-the-neutron-transport
#4
Martin Schulc, Bohumil Jánský, Davit Harutyunyan, Evžen Novák
As an iron is the main structural component of nuclear power plants as well as future fusion power plants, the validation of neutron incident data libraries of iron is a must. Presented paper fits into ongoing validation activities and presents measuring neutron leakage spectra in the 0.1-1.0MeV region from iron sphere of 100cm in diameter by hydrogen proportional detectors. The experimental result is compared with ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and CIELO nuclear data libraries. No library reasonably well describes whole region under study...
October 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031050/paraquat-affects-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-dopamine-system-expression-and-locomotor-activity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Xiao H Wang, Christopher L Souders, Yuan H Zhao, Christopher J Martyniuk
The dipyridyl herbicide paraquat induces oxidative stress in cells and is implicated in adult neurodegenerative diseases. However, less is known about paraquat toxicity in early stages of vertebrate development. To address this gap, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μM paraquat for 96 h. Paraquat did not induce significant mortality nor deformity in embryos and larvae, but it did accelerate time to hatch. To evaluate whether mitochondrial respiration was related to earlier hatch times, oxygen consumption rate was measured in whole embryos...
October 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031033/an-arabidopsis-divergent-pumilio-protein-apum24-is-essential-for-embryogenesis-and-required-for-faithful-pre-rrna-processing
#6
Thiruvenkadam Shanmugam, Nazia Abbasi, Hyung-Sae Kim, Ho Bang Kim, Nam-Il Park, Guen Tae Park, Sung Aeong Oh, Soon Ki Park, Douglas G Muench, Yeonhee Choi, Youn-Il Park, Sang-Bong Choi
Pumilio RNA-binding proteins are largely involved in mRNA degradation and translation repression. However, a few evolutionarily divergent Pumilios are also responsible for proper pre-rRNA processing in human and yeast. Here, we describe an essential Arabidopsis nucleolar Pumilio, APUM24, that is expressed in tissues undergoing rapid proliferation and cell division. A T-DNA insertion for APUM24 did not affect the male and female gametogenesis, but instead resulted in a negative female gametophytic effect on zygotic cell division immediately after fertilization...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031016/preanalytics-of-ammonia-stability-transport-and-temperature-of-centrifugation
#7
Julien Favresse, Noémie Despas, Lidvine Boland, Damien Gruson, Pierre-Françoise Laterre, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Marie-Françoise Vincent, Catherine Fillée
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029336/differential-effects-of-exposure-to-single-versus-a-mixture-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-steroidogenesis-pathway-in-mouse-testes
#8
Julio Buñay, Eduardo Larriba, Daniel Patiño-Garcia, Leonor Cruz-Fernandes, Sergio Castañeda-Zegarra, María Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jesús Del Mazo, Ricardo D Moreno
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) generate reproductive dysfunctions affecting the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and genes of the steroidogenic pathway. EDCs effects are mainly reported as a result of exposure to single compounds. However, humans are environmentally exposed to a mixture of EDCs. Herein, we assess chronic exposure to single alkylphenols and phthalates versus a mixture in mouse testes histology and steroidogenesis. Pregnant mice were exposed through drinking water to: 0.3 mg/Kg-body weight (BW)/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP), 0...
September 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029322/a-dynamic-mathematical-model-of-bile-acid-clearance-in-heparg-cells
#9
Daniel Kaschek, Ahmad Sharanek, André Guillouzo, Jens Timmer, Richard J Weaver
A dynamic model based on ordinary differential equations that describes uptake, basolateral and canalicular export of taurocholic acid in human HepaRG cells is presented. The highly reproducible inter-assay experimental data were used to reliably estimate model parameters. Primary human hepatocytes were similarly evaluated to establish a mathematical model, but with notably higher inter-assay differences in taurocholic acid clearance and bile canaliculi dynamics. By use of the HepaRG cell line, the simultaneous taurocholic acid clearance associated to basolateral uptake, canalicular and sinusoidal efflux, was predicted...
September 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029252/time-on-task-effect-during-sleep-deprivation-in-healthy-young-adults-is-modulated-by-dopamine-transporter-genotype
#10
Brieann C Satterfield, Jonathan P Wisor, Michelle A Schmidt, Hans P A Van Dongen
Study Objectives: The time-on-task (TOT) effect and total sleep deprivation (TSD) have similar effects on neurobehavioral functioning, including increased performance instability during tasks requiring sustained attention. The TOT effect is exacerbated by TSD, suggesting potentially overlapping mechanisms. We probed these mechanisms by investigating genotype-phenotype relationships on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance for three a-priori selected genes previously linked to the TOT effect and/or TSD: DAT1, COMT, and TNFα...
October 4, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029209/genetic-evidence-for-the-introduction-of-rhagoletis-pomonella-diptera-tephritidae-into-the-northwestern-united-states
#11
Sheina B Sim, Meredith M Doellman, Glen R Hood, Wee L Yee, Thomas H Q Powell, Dietmar Schwarz, Robert B Goughnour, Scott P Egan, Gilbert St Jean, James J Smith, Tracy E Arcella, Jason D K Dzurisin, Jeffrey L Feder
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. The fly is believed to have been introduced into the Pacific Northwest via the transport of larval-infested apples near Portland, Oregon, within the last 40 yr. However, R. pomonella also attacks native black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii Lindley (Rosales: Rosaceae), and introduced ornamental hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna Jacquin, in the region. It is, therefore, possible that R...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029205/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-integument
#12
Gustavo M Calderón-Fernández, Débora E Moriconi, Andrea B Dulbecco, M Patricia Juárez
The insect integument, formed by the cuticle and the underlying epidermis, is essential for insect fitness, regulation of lipid biosynthesis and storage, insect growth and feeding, together with development progress. Its participation in insecticide resistance has also been outlined. Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in South America; however, genomic data are scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the nymph integument in order to identify which genes are expressed and their putative role...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029153/modeling-the-environmental-suitability-for-aedes-stegomyia-aegypti-and-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#13
Tammi L Johnson, Ubydul Haque, Andrew J Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Micah B Hahn, Mary H Hayden, Harry M Savage, Janet McAllister, John-Paul Mutebi, Rebecca J Eisen
The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029130/alternative-sample-types-for-hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-testing
#14
Dolly Singh, Adit Dhummakupt, Lilly Siems, Deborah Persaud
Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is critical for assessing ART effectiveness and treatment outcomes for HIV-1-infected individuals, including children, worldwide. Traditionally, testing for HIV-1 drug resistance has primarily been performed on plasma samples, and with commercially available, clinically validated assays that are costly and difficult to access. While plasma is the preferred sample for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping, plasma analysis requires sophisticated laboratory equipment, personnel, space, and stringent storage conditions for maintenance of sample integrity and transport...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029121/clinical-heterogeneity-and-phenotypic-expansion-of-napi-iia-associated-disease
#15
Korcan Demir, Melek Yildiz, Hilla Bahat, Michael Goldman, Nisreen Hassan, Shay Tzur, Ayala Ofir, Daniella Magen
Context: NaPi-IIa, encoded by SLC34A1 is a key phosphate transporter in the mammalian proximal tubule, and plays a cardinal role in renal phosphate handling. NaPi-IIa impairment has been linked to various overlapping clinical syndromes, including hypophosphatemic nephrolithiasis with osteoporosis, renal Fanconi's syndrome with chronic kidney disease, and most recently, with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis. Objectives: We studied the molecular basis of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia with partial proximal tubulopathy in two apparently unrelated patients of Israeli and Turkish descent...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029094/thyroid-hormone-metabolism-defects-in-a-mouse-model-of-sbp2-deficiency
#16
Jiao Fu, Haruki Fujisawa, Benjamin Follman, Xiao-Hui Liao, Alexandra M Dumitrescu
SBP2 (selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2) is an essential factor in selenoprotein synthesis. Patients with SBP2 defects have a characteristic thyroid phenotype and additional manifestations such as growth delay, male infertility, impaired motor coordination and developmental delay. The thyroid phenotype has become pathognomonic for this defect and putative deficiencies in the iodothyronine deiodinases selenoenzymes have been implicated. To investigate the role of SBP2 and selenoproteins in thyroid physiology and answer questions raised by the human syndrome we generated a tamoxifen inducible Sbp2 conditional knockout (iCKO) mouse model...
September 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029025/insulin-deficient-mouse-%C3%AE-cells-do-not-fully-mature-but-can-be-remedied-through-insulin-replacement-by-islet-transplantation
#17
Adam Ramzy, Majid Mojibian, Timothy J Kieffer
Insulin receptor insufficiency in β-cells leads to impaired insulin secretion and reduced β-cell hyperplasia in response to hyperglycemia. Selective insulin receptor deficiency in β-cells in later embryological development may lead to compensatory β-cell hyperplasia. Though these findings suggest insulin signaling on the β-cell is important for β-cell function, they are confounded by loss of signaling by the IGFs through the insulin receptor. To determine if insulin itself is necessary for β-cell development and maturation, we performed a characterization of pancreatic islets in mice with deletions of both non-allelic insulin genes (Ins1-/-Ins2-/-)...
September 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028950/epidemiology-and-relative-severity-of-influenza-subtypes-in-singapore-in-the-post-pandemic-period-from-2009-to-2010
#18
Ee Hui Goh, Lili Jiang, Jung Pu Hsu, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Wei Yen Lim, Meng Chee Phoon, Yee Sin Leo, Ian G Barr, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Vernon J Lee, Cui Lin, Raymond Lin, Sapna P Sadarangani, Barnaby Young, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: After 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1) [A(H1N1)pdm09] cocirculated with A(H3N2) and B in Singapore. Methods: A cohort of 760 participants contributed demographic data and up to 4 blood samples each from October 2009 to September 2010. We compared epidemiology of the 3 subtypes and investigated evidence for heterotypic immunity through multivariable logistic regression using a generalized estimating equation. To examine age-related differences in severity between subtypes, we used LOESS (locally weighted smoothing) plots of hospitalization to infection ratios and explored birth cohort effects referencing the pandemic years (1957; 1968)...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028868/symplasmic-and-apoplasmic-transport-inside-feather-moss-stems-of-pleurozium-schreberi-and-hylocomium-splendens
#19
K Sokolowska, M Turzanska, M-C Nilsson
Background and Aims: The ubiquitous feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens form a thick, continuous boundary layer between the soil and the atmosphere, and play important roles in hydrology and nutrient cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. The water fluxes among these mosses and environmental factors controlling them are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether feather mosses are capable of internal transport and to provide a better understanding of species-specific morphological traits underlying this function...
September 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028836/affected-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators-in-gene-expression-response-to-an-ultra-marathon-trail-global-and-independent-activity-approaches
#20
Maria Maqueda, Emma Roca, Daniel Brotons, Jose Manuel Soria, Alexandre Perera
Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US)...
2017: PloS One
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