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G T De-Paula-Costa, I C Guerrante, J Costa-de-Moura, F C Amorim
The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) is responsible for any radioactive waste storage and disposal in the country. The storage of radioactive waste is carried out in the facilities under CNEN regulation and its disposal is operated, managed and controlled by the CNEN. Oil NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in this article refers to waste coming from oil exploitation. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of a regulatory control mechanism...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Mélanie Pierra, Mehdi Golozar, Xu Zhang, Antonin Prévoteau, Michael De Volder, Dominiek Reynaerts, Korneel Rabaey
Bioelectrochemical systems couple electricity demand/supply to the metabolic redox reactions of microorganisms. Generally, electrodes act not only as electron acceptors/donors, but also as physical support for an electroactive biofilm. The microorganism-electrode interface can be modified by changing the chemical and/or topographical features of the electrode surface. Thus far, studies have reported conflicting results on the impact of the electrode surface roughness on the growth and current production of biofilms...
April 12, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
So Hee Dho, Scott R Manson, Sung Hee Jung, Jae Cheong Lim, Steven J Weintraub
In susceptible tumor cells, DNA-damaging antineoplastic agents induce an increase in intracellular pH during the premitochondrial stage of apoptosis. The rate of nonenzymatic deamidation of two asparagines in the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL is accelerated by this increase in pH. Deamidation of these asparagines is a signal for the degradation of Bcl-xL , which is a component of the apoptotic response to DNA damage. It has previously been shown that the increase in pH is mediated by the ion transporter Na+ /H+ exchanger 1 in some cells...
April 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Chun-Ching Chiu, Li-Jeng Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Bor-Show Tzang
Dopaminergic deficits in the prefrontal cortex and striatum have been attributed to the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our recent study revealed that high-dose taurine improves hyperactive behavior and brain-functional signals in SHR rats. This study investigates the effect of taurine on the SHR striatum by detecting the spontaneous alternation, DA transporter (DAT) level, dopamine uptake and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. A significant increase in the total arm entries was detected in both WKY and SHR rats fed with low-dose taurine but not in those fed with high-dose taurine...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ignacio Flor-Parra, Ana Belén Iglesias-Romero, Silvia Salas-Pino, Rafael Lucena, Juan Jimenez, Rafael R Daga
In metazoans, the nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown (NEBD) occurs during "open" mitosis and meiosis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the mitosis and the first meiotic division (MI) are "closed," during which the NE is maintained. Intriguingly, during the second meiotic division (MII), the NE is also maintained, but nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules are mixed similarly to open mitosis, a phenomenon of unknown biological significance called "virtual" NEBD (vNEBD). Here, we show that importin-α-dependent nucleocytoplasmic transport regulates spindle disassembly late in anaphase B at MI, as previously reported for mitosis...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Valentina Corradi, Ruo-Xu Gu, Paola Vergani, D Peter Tieleman
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that regulates the flow of anions across epithelia. Mutations in CFTR cause cystic fibrosis. CFTR belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, and gating is controlled by phosphorylation and ATP binding and hydrolysis. Recently obtained ATP-free and ATP-bound structures of zebrafish CFTR revealed an unwound segment of transmembrane helix (TM) 8, which appears to be a unique feature of CFTR not present in other ATP-binding cassette transporter structures...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Christina A Frieder, Scott L Applebaum, T-C Francis Pan, Donal T Manahan
Exogenous environmental factors alter growth rates, yet information remains scant on the biochemical mechanisms and energy trade-offs that underlie variability in the growth of marine invertebrates. Here we study the biochemical bases for differential growth and energy utilization (as adenosine triphosphate [ATP] equivalents) during larval growth of the bivalve Crassostrea gigas exposed to increasing levels of experimental ocean acidification (control, middle, and high pCO2 , corresponding to ∼400, ∼800, and ∼1100 µatm, respectively)...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Samik Mukherjee, Uri Givan, Stephan Senz, María de la Mata, Jordi Arbiol, Oussama Moutanabbir
Nanowires are a versatile platform to investigate and harness phonon and thermal transport phenomena in nanoscale systems. With this perspective, we demonstrate herein the use of crystal phase and mass disorder as effective degrees of freedom to manipulate the behavior of phonons and control the flow of local heat in silicon nanowires. The investigated nanowires consist of isotopically pure and isotopically mixed nanowires bearing either a pure diamond cubic or a cubic-rhombohedral polytypic crystal phase. The nanowires with tailor-made isotopic compositions were grown using isotopically enriched silane precursors 28SiH4, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4 with purities better than 99...
April 25, 2018: Nano Letters
Ietza Bojorquez, Lina Ojeda-Revah, Rolando Diaz
The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age) women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345); with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants' homes...
2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Mark H Corden, Thanh Huynh, Purnima Mandal, Sanjay Chand, Jennifer Maniscalco
Transport medicine (TM) is a Pediatric Hospital Medicine (PHM) Core Competency and part of the proposed PHM fellowship curricular framework. No published TM curricula are available. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine attitudes toward TM training among PHM fellowship stakeholders and conduct a TM curriculum needs assessment. Unique, web-based, anonymous surveys for PHM fellows, graduates, and program directors (PDs) were administered, with response rates of 57%, 37%, and 44%, respectively. Fellows' interest in completing a TM rotation is greater than their perceived interest by PDs (P = ...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Khic-Houy Prang, Sharon Newnam, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf
BACKGROUND: Social support has been identified as a significant factor in facilitating better health outcomes following injury. However, research has primarily focused on the role of social support from the perspective of the person experiencing an injury. Limited research has examined the experiences of the family members and friends of a person with injury. This study aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of social support and recovery following a transport-related musculoskeletal injury (MSI) in a population of injured persons and their family members and friends...
2018: PloS One
Pamela Cappelletti, Elena Tallarita, Valentina Rabattoni, Paola Campomenosi, Silvia Sacchi, Loredano Pollegioni
L-Proline is a multifunctional amino acid that plays an essential role in primary metabolism and physiological functions. Proline is oxidized to glutamate in the mitochondria and the FAD-containing enzyme proline oxidase (PO) catalyzes the first step in L-proline degradation pathway. Alterations in proline metabolism have been described in various human diseases, such as hyperprolinemia type I, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/Di George syndrome, schizophrenia and cancer. In particular, the mutation giving rise to the substitution Leu441Pro was identified in patients suffering of schizophrenia and hyperprolinemia type I...
2018: PloS One
Bertrand Millet, Christel Pinazo, Daniela Banaru, Rémi Pagès, Pierre Guiart, Ivane Pairaud
Our study highlights the Lagrangian transport of solid particles discharged at the Marseille Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located at Cortiou on the southern coastline. We focused on episodic situations characterized by a coastal circulation pattern induced by intrusion events of the Northern Current (NC) on the continental shelf, associated with SE wind regimes. We computed, using MARS3D-RHOMA and ICHTHYOP models, the particle trajectories from a patch of 5.104 passive and conservative fine particles released at the WWTP outlet, during 2 chosen representative periods of intrusion of the NC in June 2008 and in October 2011, associated with S-SE and E-SE winds, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Hanne S Antila, Erik Luijten
Ion mobility and ionic conductance in nanodevices are known to deviate from bulk behavior, a phenomenon often attributed to surface effects. We demonstrate that dielectric mismatch between the electrolyte and the surface can qualitatively alter ionic transport in a counterintuitive manner. Instead of following the polarization-induced modulation of the concentration profile, mobility is enhanced or reduced by changes in the ionic atmosphere near the interface and affected by a polarization force parallel to the surface...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
K Bennaceur, C Lupien, B Reulet, G Gervais, L N Pfeiffer, K W West
Charge density waves (CDWs) in the second and third Landau levels (LLs) are investigated by both nonlinear electronic transport and noise. The use of a Corbino geometry ensures that only bulk properties are probed, with no contribution from edge states. Sliding transport of CDWs is revealed by narrow band noise in reentrant quantum Hall states R2a and R2c of the second LL, as well as in pinned CDWs of the third LL. Competition between various phases-stripe, pinned CDW, or fractional quantum Hall liquid-in both LLs are clearly revealed by combining noise data with maps of conductivity versus magnetic field and bias voltage...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Marder, Behzad Eftekhari, Tadeusz W Patzek
We present an analytically solvable model for transport in geophysical materials on large length and time scales. It describes the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. We find a solution to this model using Green's function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
B Friess, V Umansky, K von Klitzing, J H Smet
The spontaneous ordering of spins and charges in geometric patterns is currently under scrutiny in a number of different material systems. A topic of particular interest is the interaction of such ordered phases with itinerant electrons driven by an externally imposed current. It not only provides important information on the charge ordering itself but potentially also allows manipulating the shape and symmetry of the underlying pattern if current flow is strong enough. Unfortunately, conventional transport methods probing the macroscopic resistance suffer from the fact that the voltage drop along the sample edges provides only indirect information on the bulk properties because a complex current distribution is elicited by the inhomogeneous ground state...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tyler Cosby, Zachariah Vicars, Maximilian Heres, Joshua Sangoro
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate the impact of supramolecular structure on charge transport and dynamics in hydrogen-bonded 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole. Detailed analyses reveal (i) an inverse relationship between the average supramolecular chain length and proton conductivity and (ii) no direct correlation between the static dielectric permittivity and proton conductivity in imidazoles. These findings raise fundamental questions regarding the widespread notion that extended supramolecular hydrogen-bonded networks facilitate proton conduction in hydrogen bonding materials...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
K Barada, T L Rhodes, K H Burrell, L Zeng, L Bardóczi, Xi Chen, C M Muscatello, W A Peebles
A new, long-lived limit cycle oscillation (LCO) regime has been observed in the edge of near zero torque high performance DIII-D tokamak plasma discharges. These LCOs are localized and composed of density turbulence, gradient drives, and E×B velocity shear damping (E and B are the local radial electric and total magnetic fields). Density turbulence sequentially acts as a predator (via turbulence transport) of profile gradients and a prey (via shear suppression) to the E×B velocity shear. Reported here for the first time is a unique spatiotemporal variation of the local E×B velocity, which is found to be essential for the existence of this system...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Z Qiu, L Chen, F Zonca, W Chen
We demonstrate theoretically that a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) can parametrically decay into a geodesic acoustic mode and kinetic TAE in a toroidal plasma. The corresponding threshold condition for the TAE amplitude is estimated to be |δB_{⊥}/B_{0}|∼O(10^{-4}). Here, δB_{⊥} and B_{0} are, respectively, the perturbed magnetic field of the pump TAE and the equilibrium magnetic field. This novel decay process, in addition to contributing to the nonlinear saturation of energetic-particle or α-particle driven TAE instability, could also contribute to the heating as well as regulating the transports of thermal plasmas...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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