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M A Mohd Suan, W L Tan, S A Soelar, H P Cheng, M Osman
INTRODUCTION: Jellyfish stings are the most frequently reported marine animal envenomation worldwide. However, data on jellyfish sting from Malaysia remains obscure due to inadequate research. METHODS: We investigated the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of patients presenting at the emergency department of Langkawi Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. Secondary data on the nature of the incident, patient demographics, clinical presentation, and treatment were retrieved from the patients' medical records...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Ronelle E Welton, David J Williams, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: This study provides the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography in Australia in the timeframe 2000-2013. METHODS: Analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. RESULTS: Over the study period, deaths were due to an anaphylactic event (0...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Yunwi Heo, Young Chul Kwon, Kyoungsoon Shin, Won Duk Yoon, Chang Hoon Han, Seungshic Yum, Euikyung Kim
We have shown that Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) contains various kinds of proteolytic enzyme activities, including phospholipase (PLA), metalloproteinase (MP) and hyaluronidase activities. In this study, we reported the full-length cDNA and gene sequences of two PLA2 isoforms: acidic PLA2 PA4 and PLA2 PA3A/PA3B/PA5. The full-length cDNA of acidic PLA2 PA4 contains 483 nucleotides (nt), which encode 160 amino acids (and the stop codon), including a signal peptide, six cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds, and metal-binding and catalytic active sites...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mark Little, Richard Fitzpatrick, Jamie Seymour
Currently the Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) recommends dousing with vinegar followed by ice as first aid for jellyfish stings in tropical Australia, with limited evidence to support this recommendation (Li et al., 2013). We report our successful experience in using hot water immersion as first aid in treating two people stung by venomous tropical Australian jellyfish, one by Chironex fleckeri and one by Carukia barnesi.
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Hannah E Westlake, Louise R Page
Staurozoan cnidarians display an unusual combination of polyp and medusa characteristics and their morphology may be informative about the evolutionary origin of medusae. We studied neuromuscular morphology of two staurozoans, Haliclystus 'sanjuanensis' and Manania handi, using whole mount immunohistochemistry with antibodies against FMRFamide and α-tubulin to label neurons and phalloidin to label muscles. All muscles appeared to lack striations. Longitudinal interradial muscles are probable homologues of stalk muscles in scyphopolyps, but in adult staurozoans they are elaborated to inwardly flex marginal lobes of the calyx during prey capture; these muscles are pennate in M...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Guo Zhan Lum, Zhou Ye, Xiaoguang Dong, Hamid Marvi, Onder Erin, Wenqi Hu, Metin Sitti
Shape-programmable matter is a class of active materials whose geometry can be controlled to potentially achieve mechanical functionalities beyond those of traditional machines. Among these materials, magnetically actuated matter is particularly promising for achieving complex time-varying shapes at small scale (overall dimensions smaller than 1 cm). However, previous work can only program these materials for limited applications, as they rely solely on human intuition to approximate the required magnetization profile and actuating magnetic fields for their materials...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Thomas G Dahlgren, Helena Wiklund, Muriel Rabone, Diva J Amon, Chiho Ikebe, Les Watling, Craig R Smith, Adrian G Glover
BACKGROUND: We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Y Ikawa, N Fujita, Y Yachi, N Inoue, A Kato, M Kuroda, A Yachie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Xingyi Ma, June Huh, Wounjhang Park, Luke P Lee, Young Jik Kwon, Sang Jun Sim
Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures...
September 16, 2016: Nature Communications
Brad J Gemmell, Hernando P Bacosa, Zhanfei Liu, Edward J Buskey
Gelatinous zooplankton are known for their capacity to excrete copious amounts of mucus that can be utilized by other organisms. The release of mucus is exacerbated by stressful conditions. Despite the recognized importance of cnidarian mucus to production and material flux in marine ecosystems, the role of gelatinous zooplankton in influencing the fate of oil spills is unknown. In this study we used laboratory experiments to observe the influence of mucus from the moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) on the aggregation and degradation of crude oil...
September 5, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Anna Török, Philipp H Schiffer, Christine E Schnitzler, Kris Ford, James C Mullikin, Andreas D Baxevanis, Antony Bacic, Uri Frank, Sebastian G Gornik
BACKGROUND: Cnidarians are a group of early branching animals including corals, jellyfish and hydroids that are renowned for their high regenerative ability, growth plasticity and longevity. Because cnidarian genomes are conventional in terms of protein-coding genes, their remarkable features are likely a consequence of epigenetic regulation. To facilitate epigenetics research in cnidarians, we analysed the histone complement of the cnidarian model organism Hydractinia echinata using phylogenomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and mRNA in situ hybridisations...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne Rl Morlighem, Hefeng Zhou, Érica P Lima, Paula B Gomes, Jing Cai, Inchio Lou, Carlos D Pérez, Simon Ming Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Luciano M Chiaverano, Keith M Bayha, William M Graham
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156588.].
2016: PloS One
Cheryl Lewis Ames, Joseph F Ryan, Alexandra E Bely, Paulyn Cartwright, Allen G Collins
BACKGROUND: Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are cnidarians that have evolved a number of distinguishing features. Many cubozoans have a particularly potent sting, effected by stinging structures called nematocysts; cubozoans have well-developed light sensation, possessing both image-forming lens eyes and light-sensitive eye spots; and some cubozoans have complex mating behaviors, including aggregations, copulation and internal fertilization. The cubozoan Alatina alata is emerging as a cnidarian model because it forms predictable monthly nearshore breeding aggregations in tropical to subtropical waters worldwide, making both adult and larval material reliably accessible...
2016: BMC Genomics
David A Gold, Nagayasu Nakanishi, Nicholai M Hensley, Volker Hartenstein, David K Jacobs
The moon jellyfish Aurelia exhibits a dramatic reorganization of tissue during its metamorphosis from planula larva to polyp. There are currently two competing hypotheses regarding the fate of embryonic germ layers during this metamorphosis. In one scenario, the original endoderm undergoes apoptosis and is replaced by a secondary endoderm derived from ectodermal cells. In the second scenario, both ectoderm and endoderm remain intact through development. In this study, we performed a pulse-chase experiment to trace the fate of larval ectodermal cells...
August 18, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Tomohiro Sugihara, Takashi Nagata, Benjamin Mason, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Akihisa Terakita
Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrum spectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation...
2016: PloS One
Yoshinori Hasegawa, Takashi Watanabe, Masaki Takazawa, Osamu Ohara, Shin Kubota
In most animals, aging is an irreversible process; however the species Turritopsis sp. has been observed to undergo a rejuvenation process as many as 14 times. In the present study, we used multiplexed RNA libraries to obtain the transcriptome from four developmental stages (St) of Turritopsis sp., including (I) immature medusa, (II) dumpling, (III) dumpling with a short stolon, and (IV) polyp, which had recently rejuvenated. A total of 4.02 billion paired-end reads were assembled de novo, yielding 90,327 contigs...
August 2016: Zoological Science
Erik A Rodriguez, Geraldine N Tran, Larry A Gross, Jessica L Crisp, Xiaokun Shu, John Y Lin, Roger Y Tsien
Far-red fluorescent proteins (FPs) are desirable for in vivo imaging because with these molecules less light is scattered, absorbed, or re-emitted by endogenous biomolecules compared with cyan, green, yellow, and orange FPs. We developed a new class of FP from an allophycocyanin α-subunit (APCα). Native APC requires a lyase to incorporate phycocyanobilin. The evolved FP, which we named small ultra-red FP (smURFP), covalently attaches a biliverdin (BV) chromophore without a lyase, and has 642/670-nm excitation-emission peaks, a large extinction coefficient (180,000 M(-1)cm(-1)) and quantum yield (18%), and photostability comparable to that of eGFP...
September 2016: Nature Methods
Lodewijk van Walraven, Floor Driessen, Judith van Bleijswijk, Anneke Bol, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, Joop W P Coolen, Oscar G Bos, Adriaan Gittenberger, Niels Schrieken, Victor T Langenberg, Henk W van der Veer
For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area...
2016: Marine Biology
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