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Bastian Bentlage, Karen J Osborn, Dhugal J Lindsay, Russell R Hopcroft, Kevin A Raskoff, Allen G Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Tjaša Kogovšek, Martin Vodopivec, Fabio Raicich, Shin-Ichi Uye, Alenka Malej
A prominent increase in the moon jellyfish (genus Aurelia) populations has been observed since 1980 in two semi-enclosed temperate seas: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Inland Sea of Japan. Therefore, we reviewed long-term environmental and biotic data from the two Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites, along with the increase in the moon jellyfish occurrence to elucidate how these coastal seas shifted to the jellyfish-dominated ecosystems. The principal component analysis of atmospheric data revealed a simultaneous occurrence of similar climatic changes in the early 1980s; thereafter, air temperature increased steadily and precipitation decreased but became more extreme...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicolas Azaña Schnedler-Meyer, Simone Pigolotti, Patrizio Mariani
Many living organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems rely on multiple reproductive strategies to reduce the risk of extinction in variable environments. Examples are provided by the polyp stage of several bloom-forming jellyfish species, which can reproduce asexually using different budding strategies. These strategies broadly fall into three categories: (1) fast localized reproduction, (2) dormant cysts, or (3) motile and dispersing buds. Similar functional strategies are also present in other groups of species...
July 2018: American Naturalist
Qiwen Liao, Guiyi Gong, Shirley Weng In Siu, Clarence Tsun Ting Wong, Huidong Yu, Yu Chung Tse, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoantharian which, together with other cnidarians, like jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, possesses specialized structures in its tissues, the cnidocytes, which deliver an array of toxins in order to capture prey and deter predators. The whole transcriptome of P. caribaeroum was deep sequenced, and a diversity of toxin-related peptide sequences were identified, and some retrieved for functional analysis. In this work, a peptide precursor containing a ShK domain, named PcShK3, was analyzed by means of computational processing, comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, model prediction, and dynamics simulation of peptide-receptor interaction...
June 12, 2018: Toxins
Alex C Keene, Erik R Duboue
Sleep is nearly ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, yet little is known about how ecological factors or perturbations to the environment shape the duration and timing of sleep. In diverse animal taxa, poor sleep negatively impacts development, cognitive abilities and longevity. In addition to mammals, sleep has been characterized in genetic model organisms, ranging from the nematode worm to zebrafish, and, more recently, in emergent models with simplified nervous systems such as Aplysia and jellyfish...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Athena Andreosso, Paramjit S Bansal, Michael J Smout, David Wilson, Jamie E Seymour, Norelle L Daly
The Australian jellyfish Chironex fleckeri , belongs to a family of cubozoan jellyfish known for their potent venoms. CfTX-1 and -2 are two highly abundant toxins in the venom, but there is no structural data available for these proteins. Structural information on toxins is integral to the understanding of the mechanism of these toxins and the development of an effective treatment. Two regions of CfTX-1 have been predicted to have helical structures that are involved with the mechanism of action. Here we have synthesized peptides corresponding to these regions and analyzed their structures using NMR spectroscopy...
June 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Samir M Aljbour, Fuad A Al-Horani, Andreas Kunzmann
Physiological responses of jellyfish to pollution are virtually overlooked. We measured the activity of two glycolytic enzymes (pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein and chlorophyll a content in the jellyfish Cassiopea sp. from polluted and reference sites along the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan. In jellyfish from polluted sites, low PK/LDH ratios and high LDH activity clarify their reliance on anaerobic metabolism. PK and LDH were positively correlated in the jellyfish...
May 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Elliot Gerrard, Eshita Mutt, Takashi Nagata, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Tilman Flock, Elena Lesca, Gebhard F X Schertler, Akihisa Terakita, Xavier Deupi, Robert J Lucas
Box jellyfish and vertebrates are separated by >500 million years of evolution yet have structurally analogous lens eyes that employ rhodopsin photopigments for vision. All opsins possess a negatively charged residue-the counterion-to maintain visible-light sensitivity and facilitate photoisomerization of their retinaldehyde chromophore. In vertebrate rhodopsins, the molecular evolution of the counterion position-from a highly conserved distal location in the second extracellular loop (E181) to a proximal location in the third transmembrane helix (E113)-is established as a key driver of higher fidelity photoreception...
May 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhijun Dong, Tingting Sun
Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have caused two environmental stressors, ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases, which represent major abiotic threats to marine organisms. Here, we investigated for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases on the behavior, survival, and settlement of the planula larvae of Aurelia coerulea, which is considered a nuisance species around the world. Three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two temperature levels (24 °C and 27 °C) were used in the present study...
May 16, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Shiori Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Nagatsuka, Keisuke Ohashi
Cnidaria is an animal phylum, whose members probably have the most ancestral musculature. We prepared and characterized, for the first time to our knowledge, native actomyosin from the striated myoepithelium of the adult moon jelly Aurelia sp. The actomyosin contained myosin, paramyosin-like protein, Ser/Thr-kinase, actin, and two isoforms of tropomyosin, but not troponin, which is known to activate contraction dependent on intracellular Ca2+ signaling in almost all striated muscles of bilaterians. Notably, the myosin comprised striated muscle-type heavy chain and smooth muscle-type regulatory light chains...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Le Zhang, Ming Xiao, Jingsong Zhou, Jun Yu
Motivation: The present study addresses several important questions related to naturally underrepresented sequences: (1) Are there permutations of real genomic DNA sequences in a defined length (k-mer) and a given lineage that do not actually exist or underrepresented? (2) If there are such sequences, what are their characteristics in terms of k-mer length and base composition? Are they related to CpG or TpA underrepresentation known for human sequences? We propose that the answers to these questions are of great significance for the study of sequence-associated regulatory mechanisms, such cytosine methylation and chromosomal structures in physiological or pathological conditions such as cancer...
May 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Naoki Aoyama, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Hitoshi Miyachi, Masahiro Sonoshita, Masaru Okabe, Makoto Mark Taketo
Jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase can serve as versatile tracking markers for identification and quantification of transplanted cancer cells in vivo. However, immune reactions against these markers can hamper the formation of syngraft tumors and metastasis that follows. Here, we report two transgenic (Tg) mouse lines that express nonfunctional mutant marker proteins, namely modified firefly luciferase (Luc2) or enhanced GFP (EGFP). These mice, named as Tg-mLuc2 and Tg-mEGFP, turned out to be immunologically tolerant to the respective tracking markers and thus efficiently accepted syngeneic cancer cells expressing the active forms of the markers...
May 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Indu Choudhary, Hyunkyoung Lee, Min Jung Pyo, Yunwi Heo, Jinho Chae, Seung Shic Yum, Changkeun Kang, Euikyung Kim
Nemopilema nomurai is a giant jellyfish that blooms in East Asian seas. Recently, N. nomurai venom (NnV) was characterized from a toxicological and pharmacological point of view. A mild dose of NnV inhibits the growth of various kinds of cancer cells, mainly hepatic cancer cells. The present study aims to identify the potential therapeutic targets and mechanism of NnV in the growth inhibition of cancer cells. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated with NnV, and its proteome was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS)...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
David Gold
Molecular and fossil data place the initial diversification of animals in the Neoproterozoic, though there remains too much enough uncertainty to produce an exact chronology. This is unfortunate, as the Neoproterozoic represents a period of intense climate change, including multiple global glaciation events as well changes to ocean chemistry and oxygen content. Several authors have suggested that the coevolution of animals and their environment was tightly coupled, but such hypotheses rest on the presence of swimming (pelagic) species...
May 3, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Farah M Djalal, Wouter Voorspoels, Gert Storms, Tom Heyman
Some words are lexically suggestive about the taxonomic position of their referent (e.g., jellyfish in English), and this information can vary across languages (e.g., in Dutch the equivalent of jellyfish holds no taxonomic information: kwal). To evaluate the role of such lexical suggestions, we conducted a cross-linguistic study in which similarity judgements from two language groups (Dutch and English speakers) were compared. We paired asymmetrically informative items with items that are considered to be typical members of the referenced category (e...
May 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sebastian-Alexander Stamatis, Katrine Worsaae, Anders Garm
Cubozoans have the most intricate visual apparatus within Cnidaria. It comprises four identical sensory structures, the rhopalia, each of which holds six eyes of four morphological types. Two of these eyes are camera-type eyes that are, in many ways, similar to the vertebrate eye. The visual input is used to control complex behaviors, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance, and is processed by an elaborate rhopalial nervous system. Several studies have examined the rhopalial nervous system, which, despite a radial symmetric body plan, is bilaterally symmetrical, connecting the two sides of the rhopalium through commissures in an extensive neuropil...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Ariana Zavala-Moreno, Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Alejandro García-Arredondo, Miguel Cuevas-Cruz, Saúl Gómez-Manzo, Jaime Marcial-Quino, Barbarín Arreguín-Lozano, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa
Background: Cnidarian venoms and extracts have shown a broad variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antibacterial and antitumoral effects. Most of these studied extracts were obtained from sea anemones or jellyfish. The present study aimed to determine the toxic activity and assess the antitumor and antiparasitic potential of Palythoa caribaeorum venom by evaluating its in vitro toxicity on several models including human tumor cell lines and against the parasite Giardia intestinalis ...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
John S Torday, William B Miller
The common relationships among a great variety of biological phenomena seem enigmatic when considered solely at the level of the phenotype. The deep connections in physiology, for example, between the effects of maternal food restriction in utero and the subsequent incidence of metabolic syndrome in offspring, the effects of microgravity on cell polarity and reproduction in yeast, stress effects on jellyfish, and their endless longevity, or the relationship between nutrient abundance and the colonial form in slime molds, are not apparent by phenotypic observation...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Zhijun Dong, Tingting Sun, Lei Wang
Blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea frequently occur in coastal waters. The increased availability of substrates for the settlement and proliferation of polyps due to the expansion of artificial structures in coastal areas has been proposed as a possible contributing factor in jellyfish blooms. This paper investigates whether a marine artificial lake (Fenghuang Lake) provides additional substrates for A. coerulea polyps and contributes to jellyfish blooms. High densities of A. coerulea ephyrae were discovered in this lake, with a mean density of 41 individuals/m3 and a maximum measured density of 128 individuals/m3 ...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Vor Yiu, Ming-Luen Jeng
The first Oculogryphus species with associated males and female was found in Hong Kong and is described as new: O. chenghoiyanae sp. n. Adults of both sexes were collected live in the field and their bioluminescent behavior is reported for the first time in the genus. The captive males emit weak and continuous light from a pair of light spots on abdominal ventrite 6 or do so when disturbed. The larviform (highly paedomorphic) females can glow brightly from a pair of light-emitting organs on the abdomen. The females of Oculogryphus and Stenocladius are to date the only documented representatives of paedomorphism in ototretine fireflies...
2018: ZooKeys
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