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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649681/bio-inspired-colorful-flexible-defrostable-light-scattering-hybrid-films-for-the-effective-distribution-of-led-light
#1
Seongpil An, Hong Seok Jo, Yong Il Kim, Kyo Yong Song, Min-Woo Kim, Kyu Bum Lee, Alexander L Yarin, Sam S Yoon
Bioluminescent jellyfish has a unique structure derived from fiber/polymer interfaces that is advantageous for effective light scattering in the dark, deep sea water. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of bio-inspired hybrid films by mimicry of the jellyfish's structure, leading to excellent light-scattering performance and defrosting capability. A haze value reaching 59.3% and a heating temperature of up to 292 °C were achieved with the films. Accordingly, the developed surface constitutes an attractive optical device for lighting applications, especially for street or vehicle luminaries for freezing Arctic-climate countries...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639958/pediatric-jellyfish-envenomation-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#2
Miguel Glatstein, Dikla Adir, Bella Galil, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Dikla Pivko-Levy, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Several species of jellyfish native to the western Indian Ocean have entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Since the late 1980s, each summer Rhopilema nomadica forms swarms as long as 100 km in the southeastern Levant and since the millennium aggregations of additional nonnative jellyfish have been sighted. The aim of this study was to evaluate children seen in the emergency department after jellyfish envenomations and to establish patterns of toxicity associated with this organism...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632275/architectures-of-soft-robotic-locomotion-enabled-by-simple-mechanical-principles
#3
Liangliang Zhu, Yunteng Cao, Yilun Liu, Zhe Yang, Xi Chen
In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614409/environmental-control-of-asexual-reproduction-and-somatic-growth-of-aurelia-spp-cnidaria-scyphozoa-polyps-from-the-adriatic-sea
#4
Nathan Hubot, Cathy H Lucas, Stefano Piraino
Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613387/dielectrophoretic-characterization-and-isolation-of-jellyfish-stinging-capsules
#5
Sinwook Park, Daniel Capelin, Gadi Piriatinskiy, Tamar Lotan, Gilad Yossifon
Jellyfish stinging capsules known as nematocysts are explosive, natural-injection systems with high potential as a natural drug-delivery system. These organelles consist of a capsule containing a highly folded thin needle-like tubule and a matrix highly concentrated with charged constituents that enable the tubule to fire and penetrate a target. For the purpose of using these nematocysts as drug delivery system it is first required to purify sub-populations from heterogeneous population of capsules and to investigate each subpopulation's distinct function and characteristics...
June 14, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589847/comparison-of-the-inducing-effect-of-indole-compounds-on-medusa-formation-in-different-classes-of-medusozoa
#6
Luna Yamamori, Kazuya Okuizumi, Chika Sato, Shuhei Ikeda, Haruhiko Toyohara
Scyphozoa, Cubozoa and Hydrozoa are classes in the phylum Cnidaria that undergo metagenesis involving a dramatic morphological transition. In Scyphozoa and Cubozoa, when exposed to species- or strain-specific transition-inducing stimuli, asexually reproducing benthic polyps transform into sexually reproducing planktonic medusae. In Hydrozoa, exposure to species- or strainspecific transition-inducing stimuli causes formation of medusa buds in the polyp's body. In Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae), polyp-to-jellyfish transition is induced by some simple indole compounds...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545145/respiratory-response-to-temperature-of-three-populations-of-aurelia-aurita-polyps-in-northern-europe
#7
Danja P Höhn, Cathy H Lucas, Sven Thatje
The benthic life stage (polyp or scyphistoma) of the bloom-forming jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1759), also known as the moon jellyfish, contributes to the seasonal occurrence and abundance of medusa blooms via asexual reproduction. A. aurita is widely distributed in coastal areas in northern Europe, and one of the most studied jellyfish species. While the physiology of the visible medusa is largely understood, understanding of the physiology of the perennial benthic life-stage is scarce. To measure the physiological tolerance of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526336/activation-of-na-h-exchanger-other-than-formation-of-transmembrane-pore-underlies-the-cytotoxicity-of-nematocyst-venom-from-chrysaora-helvola-brandt-jellyfish
#8
Lanlan Fan, Jun Luo, Xiaoyong Li, Ming Chen, Wei Shu, Xiaosheng Qu
We previously reported unexpected apoptosis-like cell death induced by nematocyst venom (NV) from Chrysaora helvola Brandt (C. helvola) jellyfish. To assess whether the pore formation mechanism underlay the action of NV, the change in cell membrane permeability was studied in both chicken erythrocytes and human CNE-2 cells. Initially, paradoxical results were derived from osmoprotectant protection assays. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)2000, which completely inhibited the NV induced hemolysis, failed to protect CNE-2 cells...
July 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515419/new-insights-into-ocean-sunfish-mola-mola-abundance-and-seasonal-distribution-in-the-northeast-atlantic
#9
Patricia Breen, Ana Cañadas, Oliver Ó Cadhla, Mick Mackey, Meike Scheidat, Steve C V Geelhoed, Emer Rogan, Mark Jessopp
The ocean sunfish, Mola mola, is the largest teleost fish in the world. Despite being found in all oceans of the world, little is known about its abundance and factors driving its distribution. In this study we provide the first abundance estimates for sunfish in offshore waters in the northeast Atlantic and the first record of extensive sunfish presence in these waters year-round. Abundance estimates and predictive distributions for sunfish in approximately 300,000 km² of the northeast Atlantic were derived from large scale offshore aerial surveys in 2015-2016 using distance sampling techniques...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503385/intervention-effects-of-five-cations-and-their-correction-on-hemolytic-activity-of-tentacle-extract-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#10
Hui Zhang, Qianqian Wang, Liang Xiao, Liming Zhang
Cations have generally been reported to prevent jellyfish venom-induced hemolysis through multiple mechanisms by spectrophotometry. Little attention has been paid to the potential interaction between cations and hemoglobin, potentially influencing the antagonistic effect of cations. Here, we explored the effects of five reported cations, La(3+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Fe(2+), on a hemolytic test system and the absorbance of hemoglobin, which was further used to measure their effects on the hemolysis of tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494358/herbicide-effects-on-the-growth-and-photosynthetic-efficiency-of-cassiopea-maremetens
#11
David J Rowen, Michelle A Templeman, Michael J Kingsford
Herbicides from agricultural run-off have been measured in coastal systems of the Great Barrier Reef over many years. Non-target herbicide exposure, especially photosystem II herbicides has the potential to affect seagrasses and other marine species. The symbiotic benthic jellyfish Cassiopea maremetens is present in tropical/sub-tropical estuarine and marine environments. Jellyfish (n = 8 per treatment) were exposed to four separate concentrations of agricultural formulations of diuron or hexazinone to determine their sensitivity and potential for recovery to pulsed herbicide exposure...
May 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492805/first-record-of-craspedacusta-sowerbii-lankester-1880-hydrozoa-limnomedusae-in-a-natural-freshwater-lagoon-of-uruguay-with-notes-on-polyp-stage-in-captivity
#12
M G Failla Siquier, W S Serra Alanis, C Martinez Debat
The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, medusae and colonies from a natural lagoon in August 2010, allowing us to observe the morphology and behavior of the polyp stage in captivity...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484259/the-physiological-and-molecular-response-of-aurelia-sp-1-under-hypoxia
#13
Guoshan Wang, Yu Zhen, Zhigang Yu, Yan Shi, Qing Zhao, Jianyan Wang, Tiezhu Mi
Few studies have been published on the mechanisms of hypoxia response and tolerance in jellyfish, especially with respect to the regulatory mechanism at the molecular level. In this study, Aurelia sp.1, which is frequently found in Chinese coastal waters, was cultivated in a hypoxic system to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying its hypoxic response by studying the physiological activity, gene expression and metabolite contents in the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing system...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439470/mitochondrial-diversity-in-gonionemus-trachylina-hydrozoa-and-its-implications-for-understanding-the-origins-of-clinging-jellyfish-in-the-northwest-atlantic-ocean
#14
Annette F Govindarajan, Mary R Carman, Marat R Khaidarov, Alexander Semenchenko, John P Wares
Determining whether a population is introduced or native to a region can be challenging due to inadequate taxonomy, the presence of cryptic lineages, and poor historical documentation. For taxa with resting stages that bloom episodically, determining origin can be especially challenging as an environmentally-triggered abrupt appearance of the taxa may be confused with an anthropogenic introduction. Here, we assess diversity in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences obtained from multiple Atlantic and Pacific locations, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the origin of clinging jellyfish Gonionemus in the Northwest Atlantic...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419691/the-low-diverse-gastric-microbiome-of-the-jellyfish-cotylorhiza-tuberculata-is-dominated-by-four-novel-taxa
#15
Tomeu Viver, Luis H Orellana, Janet K Hatt, Mercedes Urdiain, Sara Díaz, Michael Richter, Josefa Antón, Massimo Avian, Rudolf Amann, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ramon Rosselló-Móra
Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial-animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413728/mechanism-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-phosphorylation-and-activation-by-tentacle-extract-from-the-jellyfish-cyanea-capillata
#16
Beilei Wang, Dan Liu, Chao Wang, Qianqian Wang, Hui Zhang, Guoyan Liu, Xia Tao, Liming Zhang
Our previous study demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata) could cause a weak relaxation response mediated by nitric oxide (NO) using isolated aorta rings. However, the intracellular mechanisms of TE-induced vasodilation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the role of TE on Akt/eNOS/NO and Ca(2+) signaling pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results showed that TE induced dose- and time-dependent increases of eNOS activity and NO production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396155/partial-purification-and-identification-of-a-metalloproteinase-with-anticoagulant-activity-from-rhizostoma-pulmo-barrel-jellyfish
#17
Akriti Rastogi, Angshuman Sarkar, Dibakar Chakrabarty
Rhizostoma pulmo (Barrel Jellyfish) is one of the commonly found jellyfishes on the South-Goan coast of India. Here we present characterization of R. pulmo tentacle extract. The tentacle extracts were found to be capable of affecting the hemostatic system at three different levels, as it exhibited fibrinogenolysis, fibrinolysis and inhibition of ADP induced platelet aggregation. It preferentially cleaved the Aα chain of fibrinogen, followed by the Bβ chain and the γ chain. The tentacle extract also showed significant hemolytic activity against human RBCs and strong proteolytic activity for substrates like (azo) casein and gelatin...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390081/symbiodinium-mitigate-the-combined-effects-of-hypoxia-and-acidification-on-a-non-calcifying-cnidarian
#18
Shannon G Klein, Kylie A Pitt, Matthew R Nitschke, Samantha Goyen, David T Welsh, David J Suggett, Anthony R Carroll
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O2 and assimilate CO2 , and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for non-calcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp...
April 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389791/isolation-and-characterization-of-14-tetranucleotide-microsatellite-loci-for-the-cannonball-jellyfish-stomolophus-sp-by-next-generation-sequencing
#19
Leandro Nicolás Getino-Mamet, Tania Valdivia-Carrillo, Liza Gómez Daglio, Francisco Javier García-De León
The Cannonball jellyfish (Stomolophus sp.) is a species of jellyfish with high relevance in artisanal fishing. Studies of their populations do not extend beyond the morphological descriptions knowing that presents a great morphological variability. However, there are no genetic studies to determine the number of independent populations, so microsatellite markers become a suitable option. Since there are no species-specific microsatellite loci, in this paper, 14 new microsatellite loci are characterized. Microsatellite loci were isolated de novo through next generation sequencing, by two runs on Illumina MiSeq...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388360/molecular-characterization-of-aspartylglucosaminidase-a-lysosomal-hydrolase-upregulated-during-strobilation-in-the-moon-jellyfish-aurelia-aurita
#20
Natsumi Tsujita, Hiroyuki Kuwahara, Hiroki Koyama, Noriyuki Yanaka, Kenji Arakawa, Hisato Kuniyoshi
The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites...
May 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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