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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797581/surviving-stress-modulation-of-atf4-mediated-stress-responses-in-normal-and-malignant-cells
#1
REVIEW
Inge M N Wortel, Laurens T van der Meer, Michael S Kilberg, Frank N van Leeuwen
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress-induced transcription factor that is frequently upregulated in cancer cells. ATF4 controls the expression of a wide range of adaptive genes that allow cells to endure periods of stress, such as hypoxia or amino acid limitation. However, under persistent stress conditions, ATF4 promotes the induction of apoptosis. Recent advances point to a role for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic mechanisms in balancing these pro- and anti-survival effects of ATF4...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796949/mecp2-and-ctcf-enhancing-the-cross-talk-of-silencers
#2
Juan Ausio, Philippe T Georgel
This paper provides a brief introductory review of the most recent advances in our knowledge about structural and functional aspects of two transcriptional regulators: the methyl-CpG protein binding 2 (MeCP2), a protein whose mutated forms are involved in Rett syndrome and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a constitutive transcriptional insulator. This is followed by a description of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) affecting these two proteins and an analysis of their known interacting partners. A special emphasis is placed on the recent studies connecting these two proteins focusing on the still poorly understood potential structural and functional interactions between the two of them on the chromatin substrate...
August 10, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782624/post-translational-modifications-of-the-mitochondrial-f1fo-atpase
#3
REVIEW
Salvatore Nesci, Fabiana Trombetti, Vittoria Ventrella, Alessandra Pagliarani
BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase has the main role in synthesizing most of ATP, thus providing energy to living cells, but it also works in reverse and hydrolyzes ATP, depending on the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Within the same complex the vital role of the enzyme of life coexists with that of molecular switch to trigger programmed cell death. The two-faced vital/lethal role makes the enzyme complex an intriguing biochemical target to fight pathogens resistant to traditional therapies and diseases linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions...
August 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771176/regulation-of-chemokine-function-the-roles-of-gag-binding-and-post-translational-nitration
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Thompson, Beatriz Martínez-Burgo, Krishna Mohan Sepuru, Krishna Rajarathnam, John A Kirby, Neil S Sheerin, Simi Ali
The primary function of chemokines is to direct the migration of leukocytes to the site of injury during inflammation. The effects of chemokines are modulated by several means, including binding to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and through post-translational modifications (PTMs). GAGs, present on cell surfaces, bind chemokines released in response to injury. Chemokines bind leukocytes via their GPCRs, which directs migration and contributes to local inflammation...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769967/a-proteomic-view-on-the-role-of-legume-symbiotic-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Estíbaliz Larrainzar, Stefanie Wienkoop
Legume plants are key elements in sustainable agriculture and represent a significant source of plant-based protein for humans and animal feed worldwide. One specific feature of the family is the ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. Additionally, like most vascular flowering plants, legumes are able to form a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These beneficial associations can enhance the plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding how symbiotic interactions influence and increase plant stress tolerance are relevant questions toward maintaining crop yield and food safety in the scope of climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762722/posttranslational-modification-of-heme-b-in-a-bacterial-peroxidase-the-role-of-heme-to-protein-ester-bonds-in-ligand-binding-and-catalysis
#6
Andrea Nicolussi, Markus Auer, Julia Weissensteiner, Georg Schuetz, Sonja Katz, Daniel Maresch, Stefan Hofbauer, Marzia Bellei, Gianantonio Battistuzzi, Paul G Furtmüller, Christian Obinger
The existence of covalent heme to protein bonds is the most striking structural feature of mammalian peroxidases including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO). These autocatalytic posttranslational modifications (PTMs) were shown to strongly influence the biophysical and biochemical properties of these oxidoreductases. Recently, we reported the occurrence of stable LPO-like counterparts with two heme to protein ester linkages in bacteria. The present study focuses on the model wild-type peroxidase from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp...
August 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759212/targeted-protein-detection-using-an-all-in-one-mass-spectrometry-cartridge
#7
Chengsen Zhang, Trevor Glaros, Nicholas E Manicke
We developed a simple 3D printed cartridge for mass spectrometry (MS) targeted detection of plasma proteins, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). The cartridge uses an integrated antibody enrichment column to preconcentrate the protein target as well as a novel built-in substrate to ionize the protein targets for MS detection. We show several examples of using this cartridge to perform rapid detection of clinically significant proteoforms from plasma samples.
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756252/potential-use-of-lime-combined-with-additives-on-im-mobilization-and-phytoavailability-of-heavy-metals-from-pb-zn-smelter-contaminated-soils
#8
Altaf Hussain Lahori, Zengqiang Zhang, Zhanyu Guo, Amanullah Mahar, Ronghua Li, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Tanveer Ali Sial, Farhana Kumbhar, Ping Wang, Feng Shen, Junchao Zhao, Hui Huang
This explorative study was aimed to assess the efficiency of lime alone and in combined with additives to immobilize Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in soil and reduce their phytoavailability for plant. A greenhouse pot experiment was performed by using low and heavily contaminated top soils viz. Tongguan contaminated (TG-C); Fengxian heavily contaminated (FX-HC) and Fengxian low contaminated (FX-LC). The contaminated soils were treated with lime (L) alone and in combined with Ca-bentonite (CB), Tobacco biochar (TB) and Zeolite (Z) at 1% and cultivated by Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L)...
July 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754825/fluorescent-imaging-of-protein-myristoylation-during-cellular-differentiation-and-development
#9
Andrew J Witten, Karin F K Ejendal, Lindsey M Gengelbach, Meghan A Traore, Xu Wang, David M Umulis, Sarah Calve, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem
Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) serve to give proteins new cellular functions and can influence spatial localization and enzymatic activity; greatly enriching the complexity of the proteome. Lipidation is a PTM that regulates protein stability, function and subcellular localization. To complement advances in proteomic identification of lipidated proteins, we have developed methods to image the spatial distribution of proteins that have been co- and post-translationally modified via the addition of myristic acid to the N-terminus...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744851/post-translational-regulation-of-antiviral-innate-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Yilong Zhou, Chenxi He, Wang Lin, Baoxue Ge
The innate immune system initiates immune responses by pattern-recognition receptors (PRR). Virus-derived nucleic acids are sensed by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family and the toll-like receptor (TLR) family as well as the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). These receptors activate IRF3/7 and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines firing antiviral responses within the cell. However, to achieve a favorable outcome for the host, a balanced production of IFNs and activation of antiviral responses is required...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738681/optimizing-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-the-identification-of-low-abundance-post-translational-modifications-of-intact-proteins
#11
Lisa E Kilpatrick, Eric L Kilpatrick
Intact protein analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now possible due to the improved capabilities of mass spectrometers yielding greater resolution, mass accuracy, and extended mass ranges. Concurrent measurement of post-translational modifications (PTMs) during LC-MS of intact proteins is advantageous while monitoring critical proteoform status, such as for clinical samples or during production of reference materials. However, difficulties exist for PTM identification when the protein is large or contains multiple modification sites...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736529/detection-of-ros-induced-proteomic-signatures-by-mass-spectrometry
#12
REVIEW
Brian McDonagh
Reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs) induced by endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulatory enzymes and proteins plays an essential role in cellular signaling. Almost all cellular processes including metabolism, transcription, translation and degradation have been identified as containing redox regulated proteins. Specific redox modifications of key amino acids generated by ROS offers a dynamic and versatile means to rapidly alter the activity or functional structure of proteins in response to biochemical, environmental, genetic and pathological perturbations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734548/ubiquitin-like-modifications-in-the-dna-damage-response
#13
REVIEW
Zhifeng Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1)...
July 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724604/a-simple-toolset-to-identify-endogenous-post-translational-modifications-for-a-target-protein-a-snapshot-of-the-egfr-signaling-pathway
#14
Henrick Horita, Andy Law, Soonjin Hong, Kim Middleton
Identification of a novel post-translational modification (PTM) for a target protein, defining its physiologic role, and studying its potential crosstalk with other PTMs is a challenging process. A set of highly sensitive tools termed Signal-Seeker kits was developed, which enables rapid and simple detection of post-translational modifications on any target protein.  The methodology for these tools utilizes affinity purification of modified proteins from a cell or tissue lysate and immunoblot analysis. These tools utilize a single lysis system that is effective at identifying endogenous, dynamic PTM changes, as well as the potential crosstalk between PTMs...
July 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723107/chemical-approaches-to-investigate-labile-peptide-and-protein-phosphorylation
#15
Anett Hauser, Martin Penkert, Christian P R Hackenberger
Protein phosphorylation is by far the most abundant and most studied post-translational modification (PTM). For a long time, phosphate monoesters of serine (pSer), threonine (pThr), and tyrosine (pTyr) have been considered as the only relevant forms of phosphorylation in organisms. Recently, several research groups have dedicated their efforts to the investigation of other, less characterized phosphoamino acids as naturally occurring PTMs. Such apparent peculiar phosphorylations include the phosphoramidates of histidine (pHis), arginine (pArg), and lysine (pLys), the phosphorothioate of cysteine (pCys), and the anhydrides of pyrophosphorylated serine (ppSer) and threonine (ppThr)...
July 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717646/genetic-variation-and-its-reflection-on-posttranslational-modifications-in-frequency-clock-and-mating-type-a-1-proteins-in-sordaria-fimicola
#16
Rabia Arif, Faiza Akram, Tazeen Jamil, Hamid Mukhtar, Siu Fai Lee, Muhammad Saleem
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) occur in all essential proteins taking command of their functions. There are many domains inside proteins where modifications take place on side-chains of amino acids through various enzymes to generate different species of proteins. In this manuscript we have, for the first time, predicted posttranslational modifications of frequency clock and mating type a-1 proteins in Sordaria fimicola collected from different sites to see the effect of environment on proteins or various amino acids pickings and their ultimate impact on consensus sequences present in mating type proteins using bioinformatics tools...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714959/o-glcnacylation-modulates-bmi-1-protein-stability-and-potential-oncogenic-function-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Y Li, L Wang, J Liu, P Zhang, M An, C Han, Y Li, X Guan, K Zhang
The Polycomb group transcriptional repressor Bmi-1 often overexpressed and participated in stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis initiating of prostate cancer. In this progression, Bmi-1 protein was regulated by transcription and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Nobly, the underlying PTMs regulation of Bmi-1 is poorly known. Here we use co-immunoprecipitation show that in C4-2 cell line, Bmi-1 directly interacted with OGT which is the only known enzyme catalyzed the O-GlcNAcylation in human. Furthermore, we identified that Ser255 is the site for Bmi-1 O-GlcNAcylation, and O-GlcNAcylation promoted Bmi-1 protein stability and its oncogenic activity...
July 17, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702092/pat-h-ms-coupled-with-laser-microdissection-to-study-histone-post-translational-modifications-in-selected-cell-populations-from-pathology-samples
#18
Roberta Noberini, Rémi Longuespée, Cristina Richichi, Giancarlo Pruneri, Mark Kriegsmann, Giuliana Pelicci, Tiziana Bonaldi
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) have been linked with various pathologies, including cancer, and could not only represent useful biomarkers but also suggest possible targetable epigenetic mechanisms. We have recently developed an approach, termed pathology tissue analysis of histones by mass spectrometry (PAT-H-MS), that allows performing a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of histone PTMs from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pathology samples...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689445/abundance-matters-role-of-albumin-in-diabetes-a-proteomics-perspective
#19
Shweta Bhat, Mashanipalya G Jagadeeshaprasad, Vinashya Venkatasubramani, Mahesh J Kulkarni
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a multifaceted protein with vital physiological functions. It is the most abundant plasma protein with inherent capability to bind to diverse ligands, and thus susceptible to various post-translational modifications (PTMs) which alter its structure and functions. One such PTM is glycation, a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugar and protein leading to formation of heterogeneous advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Glycated albumin (GA) concentration increases significantly in diabetes and is implicated in development of secondary complications...
July 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689146/chemical-modulators-for-epigenome-reader-domains-as-emerging-epigenetic-therapies-for-cancer-and-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Nilesh Zaware, Ming-Ming Zhou
Site-specific lysine acetylation and methylation on histones are critical post-translational modifications (PTMs) that govern ordered gene transcription in chromatin. Mis-regulation of these histone PTM-mediated processes has been shown to be associated with human diseases. Since the 2010 landmark reports of small molecules (+)-JQ1 and I-BET762 that target the acetyl-lysine 'reader' Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (BET) proteins, there have been relentless efforts to develop epigenetic therapy with small molecules to modulate molecular interactions of epigenome reader domain proteins with PTMs...
July 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
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