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Jing Lu, Feng-Hou Gao
DNA damage repair is a kind of cellular self-protection mechanism that some relevant proteins are activated when DNA damage response happens in order to maintain the intracellular function stability and structure integrity. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins can rapidly confers to them more complicated structure and sophisticated function by covalently combining with different small molecules with target proteins, which in turn plays an important regulatory role in DNA damage repair. It was reported that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) could be involved in DNA damage repair process under the regulation of its many post-translational modifications, including methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and phosphorylation...
November 29, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Paulo André Dias Bastos, João Pinto da Costa, Rui Vitorino
Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are a key bacterial feature that holds the capability to modulate protein function and responses to environmental cues. Until recently, their role in the regulation of prokaryotic systems has been largely neglected. However, the latest developments in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have allowed an unparalleled identification and quantification of proteins and peptides that undergo PTMs in bacteria, including in species which directly or indirectly affect human health...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Min Jee Kwon, Sunhong Kim, Myeong Hoon Han, Sung Bae Lee
Afflicted neurons in various neurodegenerative diseases generally display diverse and complex pathological features before catastrophic occurrence of massive neuronal loss at the late stages of the diseases. This complex nature of neuronal pathophysiology inevitably implicates systemwide changes in basic cellular activities such as transcriptional controls and signal cascades, and so on, as a cause. Recently, as one of these systemwide cellular changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases, epigenetic changes caused by protein toxicity have begun to be highlighted...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Nitin Raj, Laura D Attardi
The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcriptional activator, with discrete domains that participate in sequence-specific DNA binding, tetramerization, and transcriptional activation. Mutagenesis and reporter studies have delineated two distinct activation domains (TADs) and specific hydrophobic residues within these TADs that are critical for their function. Knockin mice expressing p53 mutants with alterations in either or both of the two TADs have revealed that TAD1 is critical for responses to acute DNA damage, whereas both TAD1 and TAD2 participate in tumor suppression...
November 18, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Cindy Chiang, Michaela U Gack
Mammalian cells recognize virus-derived nucleic acids using a defined set of intracellular sensors including the DNA sensors cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) and interferon gamma (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) as well as viral RNA receptors of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family. Following innate immune recognition, these sensors launch an immune response that is characterized by the transcriptional upregulation of many antiviral molecules, including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and IFN-stimulated genes...
November 15, 2016: Trends in Immunology
Isabelle A MacLean, Amanda M S Mattice, Nadine J Adam, Kenneth B Storey
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has a crucial role in maintaining ATP production as the terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolysis. This study will determine the effect of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on the activity of LDH in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas of an estivating snail, Otala lactea. LDH in foot muscle of O. lactea was purified to homogeneity and partially purified in hepatopancreas in a two-step and three-step process, respectively. The kinetic properties and stability of these isoforms were determined where there was a significant difference in Km and I50 values with pyruvate and urea separately in foot muscle; however, hepatopancreas exhibited significant differences in Km and I50 in salt between control and stress...
December 2016: Protein Journal
Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia
Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play an essential role in chromatin biology, as they model chromatin structure and recruit enzymes involved in gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation. Such PTMs are mostly localized on histone N-terminal tails where, as single units or in a combinatorial manner, they influence chromatin reader protein binding and fine-tune the abovementioned activities. Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the most adopted strategy to characterize proteins and protein PTMs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Manjinder S Cheema, Juan Ausió
The accumulating discoveries of new posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and the increasing relevance of histone variants within the frame of epigenetics demand the availability of methods for a rapid and efficient nucleosome reconstitution to analyze their structural and functional implications. Here we describe a method suitable for this purpose, starting from bacterially expressed histones, solubilized by acid and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. This method allows the preparation of micrograms to milligram amounts of in vitro-assembled nucleosomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sophie Beyer, Philippe Robin, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali
Protein purification by tandem affinity purification (TAP)-tag coupled to mass spectrometry analysis is usually used to reveal protein complex composition. Here we describe a TAP-tag purification of chromatin-bound proteins along with associated nucleosomes, which allow exhaustive identification of protein partners. Moreover, this method allows exhaustive identification of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the associated histones. Thus, in addition to partner characterization, this approach reveals the associated epigenetic landscape that can shed light on the function and properties of the studied chromatin-bound protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Raja Rajeswary Thanmalagan, Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Amouda Venkatesan
Breast cancer affects every 1 of 3000 pregnant women or in the first post-partum year is referred as Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) in mid 30s. Even-though rare disease, classified under hormone receptor negative status which metastasis quickly to other parts by extra cellular matrix degradation. Hence it is important to find an optimal treatment option for a PABC patient. Also additional care should be taken to choose the drug; in order to avoid fetal malformation and post-partum stage side-effects...
November 10, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Behnam Keshavarzi, Beverley A Hale
In this study a total of 30 street dusts and 10 surface soils were collected in the central district of Tehran and analyzed for major potentially toxic metals. Street dust was found to be greatly enriched in Sb, Pb, Cu and Zn and moderately enriched in Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni. Contamination of Cu, Sb, Pb and Zn was clearly related to anthropogenic sources such as brake wear, tire dust, road abrasion and fossil fuel combustion. Spatial distribution of pollution load index in street dust suggested that industries located south-west of the city intensify street dust pollution...
November 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michael D Hebert, Aaron R Poole
The biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small Cajal body-specific RNPs (scaRNPs), small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) and the telomerase RNP involves Cajal bodies (CBs). Although many components enriched in the CB contain post-translational modifications (PTMs), little is known about how these modifications impact individual protein function within the CB and, in concert with other modified factors, collectively regulate CB activity. Since all components of the CB also reside in other cellular locations, it is also important that we understand how PTMs affect the subcellular localization of CB components...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Masahiro Abo, Daniel W Bak, Eranthie Weerapana
Cysteine residues serve critical roles in protein function and are susceptible to numerous posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that serve to modulate the activity and localization of diverse proteins. Many of these PTMs are highly transient and labile, necessitating methods to study these modifications directly within the context of living cells. We previously reported a caged electrophilic probe, CBK1, which can be activated by UV for temporally controlled covalent modification of cysteine residues in living cells...
November 3, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Stefka Tyanova, Tikira Temu, Juergen Cox
MaxQuant is one of the most frequently used platforms for mass-spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data analysis. Since its first release in 2008, it has grown substantially in functionality and can be used in conjunction with more MS platforms. Here we present an updated protocol covering the most important basic computational workflows, including those designed for quantitative label-free proteomics, MS1-level labeling and isobaric labeling techniques. This protocol presents a complete description of the parameters used in MaxQuant, as well as of the configuration options of its integrated search engine, Andromeda...
December 2016: Nature Protocols
Sujun Li, Haixu Tang
This chapter introduces computational methods used in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, including those for addressing the critical problems such as peptide identification and protein inference, peptide and protein quantification, characterization of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), and data-independent acquisitions (DIA). The chapter concludes with emerging applications of proteomic techniques, such as metaproteomics, glycoproteomics, and proteogenomics.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Paula Korkuć, Dirk Walther
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) represent an important regulatory layer influencing the structure and function of proteins. With broader availability of experimental information on the occurrences of different PTM types, the investigation of a potential "crosstalk" between different PTM types and combinatorial effects have moved into the research focus. Hypothesizing that relevant interferences between different PTM types and sites may become apparent when investigating their mutual physical distances, we performed a systematic survey of pairwise homo- and heterotypic distances of seven frequent PTM types considering their sequence and spatial distances in resolved protein structures...
November 1, 2016: Proteins
Kenji Ishimoto, Natsuko Kawamata, Yoshie Uchihara, Moeka Okubo, Reiko Fujimoto, Eiko Gotoh, Keisuke Kakinouchi, Eiichi Mizohata, Nobumasa Hino, Yoshiaki Okada, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Toshiya Tanaka, Takao Hamakubo, Juro Sakai, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Keisuke Tachibana, Takefumi Doi
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a crucial role in regulating protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and stability of the protein. SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) is a histone methyltransferase that regulates the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), gene silencing, and transcriptional repression. The C-terminal region of SETDB1 is a key site for PTMs, and is essential for its enzyme activity in mammalian and insect cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate more precisely the effect of PTMs on the H3K9 methyltransferase activity of SETDB1...
2016: PloS One
Marton Miskei, Csaba Antal, Monika Fuxreiter
FuzDB ( compiles experimentally observed fuzzy protein complexes, where intrinsic disorder (ID) is maintained upon interacting with a partner (protein, nucleic acid or small molecule) and directly impacts biological function. Entries in the database have both (i) structural evidence demonstrating the structural multiplicity or dynamic disorder of the ID region(s) in the partner bound form of the protein and (ii) in vitro or in vivo biological evidence that indicates the significance of the fuzzy region(s) in the formation, function or regulation of the assembly...
October 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Hao Hu, Xi Gu, Liang-Jiao Xue, Prashant S Swamy, Scott A Harding, Chung-Jui Tsai
Cortical microtubules (MTs) are evolutionarily conserved cytoskeletal components with specialized roles in plants, including regulation of cell wall biogenesis. MT functions and dynamics are dictated by the composition of their monomeric subunits, α- (TUA) and β-tubulins (TUB), which in animals and protists are subject to both transcriptional regulation and post-translational modifications (PTM). While spatiotemporal regulation of tubulin gene expression has been reported in plants, whether and to what extent tubulin PTMs occur in these species remain poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marcin Tatjewski, Marcin Kierczak, Dariusz Plewczynski
Here, we present two perspectives on the task of predicting post translational modifications (PTMs) from local sequence fragments using machine learning algorithms. The first is the description of the fundamental steps required to construct a PTM predictor from the very beginning. These steps include data gathering, feature extraction, or machine-learning classifier selection. The second part of our work contains the detailed discussion of more advanced problems which are encountered in PTM prediction task...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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