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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239846/inhibition-of-6-phosphofructo-2-kinase-suppresses-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-mediated-synovial-inflammation-and-joint-destruction-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Yaoyao Zou, Shan Zeng, Mingcheng Huang, Qian Qiu, Youjun Xiao, Maohua Shi, Zhongping Zhan, Liuqin Liang, Xiuyan Yang, Hanshi Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal glycolytic metabolism contributes to joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aims of this study were to investigate the role of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), a bifunctional enzyme that controls the glycolytic rate, in regulating fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS)-mediated synovial inflammation and invasiveness in RA. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A specific PFKFB3 inhibitor, PFK15, and siRNA were used to evaluate the role of PFKFB3...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239053/transforming-growth-factor-beta-and-forkhead-box-o-transcription-factors-as-cardiac-fibroblast-regulators
#2
Ignacio Norambuena-Soto, Constanza Núñez-Soto, Fernanda Sanhueza-Olivares, Nicole Cancino-Arenas, David Mondaca-Ruff, Raul Vivar, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Rosemarie Mellado, Mario Chiong
Fibroblasts play several homeostatic roles, including electrical coupling, paracrine signaling and tissue repair after injury. Fibroblasts have low secretory activity. However, in response to injury, they differentiate to myofibroblasts. These cells have an increased extracellular matrix synthesis and secretion, including collagen fibers, providing stiffness to the tissue. In pathological conditions myofibroblasts became resistant to apoptosis, remaining in the tissue, causing excessive extracellular matrix secretion and deposition, which contributes to the progressive tissue remodeling...
February 24, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238807/beyond-amino-acids-use-of-the-corynebacterium-glutamicum-cell-factory-for-the-secretion-of-heterologous-proteins
#3
Roland Freudl
The Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long tradition in industry as a potent cell factory for the production of various amino acids. Besides this, in the last few years it became increasingly clear that this microorganism can also efficiently be used as a host organism for the expression and secretion of biotechnologically or pharmaceutically relevant heterologous proteins. In this review, first a short overview is given on the two main protein export pathways (Sec and Tat) of C...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238783/visualization-of-glucagon-secretion-from-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-by-bioluminescence-video-microscopy-identification-of-secretion-sites-in-the-intercellular-contact-regions
#4
Satoru Yokawa, Takahiro Suzuki, Satoshi Inouye, Yoshikazu Inoh, Ryo Suzuki, Takao Kanamori, Tadahide Furuno, Naohide Hirashima
We have firstly visualized glucagon secretion using a method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging. The fusion protein of proglucagon and Gaussia luciferase (PGCG-GLase) was used as a reporter to detect glucagon secretion and was efficiently expressed in mouse pancreatic α cells (αTC1.6) using a preferred human codon-optimized gene. In the culture medium of the cells expressing PGCG-GLase, luminescence activity determined with a luminometer was increased with low glucose stimulation and KCl-induced depolarization, as observed for glucagon secretion...
February 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238749/persistent-kallikrein5-activation-induces-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-architecture-independent-of-par2-activity
#5
Yanan Zhu, Joanne Underwood, Derek Macmillan, Leila Shariff, Ryan O'Shaughnessy, John I Harper, Chris Pickard, Peter S Friedmann, Eugene Healy, Wei-Li Di
BACKGROUND: Up-regulation of kallikreins (KLK) including KLK5 has been reported in atopic dermatitis (AD). KLK5 has biological functions which include degrading desmosomal proteins and inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion through protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2). However, due to the complex interactions between various cells in AD inflamed skin, it is difficult to dissect the precise and multiple roles of up-regulated KLK5 in AD skin. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of up-regulated KLK5 on the expression of epidermal related proteins and cytokines in keratinocytes and on skin architecture...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238735/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-matrix-non-peptidase-mnp-1-is-required-for-neuronal-cell-migration-and-interacts-with-the-ror-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-cam-1
#6
Teresa R Craft, Wayne C Forrester
Directed cell migration is critical for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans development many neuronal, muscle and other cell types migrate. Multiple classes of proteins have been implicated in cell migration including secreted guidance cues, receptors for guidance cues and intracellular proteins that respond to cues to polarize cells and produce the forces that move them. In addition, cell surface and secreted proteases have been identified that may clear the migratory route and process guidance cues...
February 23, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238531/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-fgf2-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-vegfa-synergistically-promote-steroidogenesis-and-survival-of-cultured-buffalo-granulosa-cells
#7
S R Mishra, Jaya Bharati, G Rajesh, V S Chauhan, G Taru Sharma, S Bag, V P Maurya, G Singh, M Sarkar
The present study investigated the combined effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) on estradiol (E2) secretion and relative abundance of mRNA for aromatase enzyme (CYP19A1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX) in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). Follicles were isolated and classified into four groups based on size and E2 concentration in follicular fluid (FF): Small, 4-6mm diameter, E2<0.5ng/ml; Medium, 7-9mm, E2=0...
February 21, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238527/interferon-alpha-impairs-insulin-production-in-human-beta-cells-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#8
Angela Lombardi, Yaron Tomer
Despite substantial advances in the research exploring the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unknown. We hypothesized in this study that interferon alpha (IFNα) participates in the early stages of T1D development by triggering endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To verify our hypothesis, human islets and human EndoC-βH1 cells were exposed to IFNα and tested for ER stress markers, glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin content. IFNα treatment induced upregulation of ER stress markers including Binding immunoglobulin Protein, phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, spliced- X-box binding protein-1, C/EBP homologous protein and activating transcription factor 4...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238471/structural-basis-of-substrate-recognition-by-the-multidrug-resistance-protein-mrp1
#9
Zachary Lee Johnson, Jue Chen
The multidrug resistance protein MRP1 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that confers resistance to many anticancer drugs and plays a role in the disposition and efficacy of several opiates, antidepressants, statins, and antibiotics. In addition, MRP1 regulates redox homeostasis, inflammation, and hormone secretion. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we determined the molecular structures of bovine MRP1 in two conformations: an apo form at 3.5 Å without any added substrate and a complex form at 3.3 Å with one of its physiological substrates, leukotriene C4...
February 22, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238213/extracellular-renalase-protects-cells-and-organs-by-outside-in-signalling
#10
REVIEW
Yang Wang, Robert Safirstein, Heino Velazquez, Xiao-Jia Guo, Lindsay Hollander, John Chang, Tian-Min Chen, Jian-Jun Mu, Gary V Desir
Renalase was discovered as a protein synthesized by the kidney and secreted in blood where it circulates at a concentration of approximately 3-5 μg/ml. Initial reports suggested that it functioned as an NAD(P)H oxidase and could oxidize catecholamines. Administration of renalase lowers blood pressure and heart rate and also protects cells and organs against ischaemic and toxic injury. Although renalase's protective effect was initially ascribed to its oxidase properties, a paradigm shift in our understanding of the cellular actions of renalase is underway...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238104/microbial-carcinogenic-toxins-and-dietary-anti-cancer-protectants
#11
REVIEW
Trevor W Stone, L Gail Darlington
Several toxins are known which account for the ability of some bacteria to initiate or promote carcinogenesis. These ideas are summarised and evidence is discussed for more specific mechanisms involving chymotrypsin and the bacterial chymotryptic enzyme subtilisin. Subtilisin and Bacillus subtilis are present in the gut and environment and both are used commercially in agriculture, livestock rearing and meat processing. The enzymes deplete cells of tumour suppressors such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and neogenin, so their potential presence in the food chain might represent an important link between diet and cancer...
February 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237903/exploring-functional-membrane-microdomains-in-bacteria-an-overview
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Lopez, Gudrun Koch
Recent studies show that internal organization of bacterial cells is more complex than previously appreciated. A clear example of this is the assembly of the nanoscale membrane platforms termed functional membrane microdomains. The lipid composition of these regions differs from that of the surrounding membrane; these domains confine a set of proteins involved in specific cellular processes such as protease secretion and signal transduction. It is currently thought that functional membrane microdomains act as oligomerization platforms and promote efficient oligomerization of interacting protein partners in bacterial membranes...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237882/a-comparative-secretome-analysis-of-industrial-aspergillus-oryzae-and-its-spontaneous-mutant-zjgs-lz-21
#13
Yuanyuan Zhu, Xinle Liang, Hong Zhang, Wei Feng, Ye Liu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Aspergillus oryzae koji plays a crucial role in fermented food products due to the hydrolytic activities of secreted enzymes. In the present study, we performed a comparative secretome analysis of the industrial strain of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and its spontaneous mutantZJGS-LZ-21. One hundred and fifty two (152) differential protein spots were excised (p<0.05), and 25 proteins were identified. Of the identified proteins, 91.3% belonged to hydrolytic enzymes acting on carbohydrates or proteins. Consistent with their enzyme activities, the expression of 14 proteins involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, starch and proteins, increased in the ZJGS-LZ-21isolate...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237871/assessment-of-serum-he4-levels-throughout-the-normal-menstrual-cycle
#14
Richard G Moore, Beth Plante, Erin Hartnett, Jessica Mitchel, Christine A Raker, Wendy Vitek, Elizabeth Eklund, Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian
BACKGROUND: Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) is a serum biomarker to aid in differentiating benign and malignant disease in women with a pelvic mass. Interpretation of HE4 results relies on robust normative data. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HE4 levels are variable in women during the normal menstrual cycle. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy women, ages 18-45 years, with regular menstrual cycles were recruited from community gynecological practices in Rhode Island...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237678/cultivation-of-pichia-pastoris-carrying-the-scfv-anti-ldl-antibody-fragment-effect-of-preculture-carbon-source
#15
Cesar Andres Diaz Arias, Daniela de Araujo Viana Marques, Luciana Pellegrini Malpiedi, Andrea Queiroz Maranhão, Dulcineia Abdalla Saes Parra, Attilio Converti, Adalberto Pessoa Junior
Antibodies and antibody fragments are nowadays among the most important biotechnological products, and Pichia pastoris is one of the most important vectors to produce them as well as other recombinant proteins. The conditions to effectively cultivate a P. pastoris strain previously genetically modified to produce the single-chain variable fragment anti low density lipoprotein (-) under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter have been investigated in this study. In particular, it was evaluated if, and eventually how, the carbon source (glucose or glycerol) used in the preculture preceding cryopreservation in 20% glycerol influences both cell and antibody fragment productions either in flasks or in bioreactor...
February 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237651/gip-3-30-nh2-is-a-potent-competitive-antagonist-of-the-gip-receptor-and-effectively-inhibits-gip-mediated-insulin-glucagon-and-somatostation-release
#16
A H Sparre-Ulrich, M N Gabe, L S Gasbjerg, C B Christiansen, B Svendsen, B Hartmann, J J Holst, M M Rosenkilde
Alternative processing of the precursor protein pro-GIP results in endogenously produced GIP(1-30)NH2, that by DPP-4 cleavage in vivo results in the metabolite GIP(3-30)NH2. We showed previously that GIP(3-30)NH2 is a high affinity antagonist of the human GIPR in vitro. Here we determine whether it is suitable for studies of GIP physiology in rats since effects of GIP agonists and antagonists are strictly species-dependent. Transiently transfected COS-7 cells were assessed for cAMP accumulation upon ligand stimulation or assayed in competition binding using human (125)I-GIP(1-42) as radioligand...
February 22, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236974/vegf-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-key-regulators-of-vascular-function
#17
Alberto Álvarez-Aznar, Lars Muhl, Konstantin Gaengel
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases are key regulators of vascular development in vertebrates. Their activation is regulated through a family of secreted glycoproteins, the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). Expression, proteolytic processing, and diffusion range of VEGF proteins need to be tightly regulated, due to their crucial roles in development. While some VEGFs form concentration gradients across developing tissues and act as morphogenes, others function as inhibitors of receptor activation and downstream signaling...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236846/the-prevention-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-bph
#18
W G Roper
Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were the first to show that the chronic diseases (gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis) were caused by an infection (Helicobacter pylori). The chronic disease benign prostatic hyperplasia belongs to the same ilk, except that the infection process is much more subtle and complex. The enzyme Phospholipase D (PLD) which is attached to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has now been almost completely proven to be the basic cause of BPH. The evidence for this process is now extremely strong and compelling...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236765/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-exposed-to-spiramycin-at-different-nutrient-levels
#19
Shi Chen, Ying Liu, Jian Zhang, Baoyu Gao
Research on the combined effects of antibiotic contaminants and environmental factors in cyanobacteria is still limited. This study focused on the action and its mechanism of spiramycin combined with changes in nitrogen and phosphorus level in Microcystis aeruginosa at environmentally relevant concentrations. Though photosynthetic activity was stimulated by spiramycin at a high nutrient level, no significant correlation (p>0.05) was found between photosynthesis-related proteins and growth-related proteins, and the growth rate was inhibited by 200ngL(-1) of spiramycin...
February 20, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236763/palmatine-inhibits-trif-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-against-inflammation-induced-by-lps-in-goat-endometrial-epithelial-cells
#20
Baoqi Yan, Dongsheng Wang, Shuwei Dong, Zhangrui Cheng, Lidong Na, Mengqi Sang, Hongzao Yang, Zhiqiang Yang, Shidong Zhang, Zuoting Yan
Palmatine, a natural pharmaceutical drug, possesses many biological activities. But its clinical application is rarely reported in the veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of palmatine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in goat endometrial epithelial cells (gEECs), and the possible molecular mechanisms. Palmatine cell toxicity was determined by MTT assay, and the production of inflammatory cytokine in the cultured medium was measured with ELISA, qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
February 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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