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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342156/specialized-attachment-structure-of-the-fish-pathogenic-oomycete-saprolegnia-parasitica
#1
Svetlana Rezinciuc, Jose Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Yolanda Ruiz-León, Pieter van West, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
The secondary cysts of the fish pathogen oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica possess bundles of long hooked hairs that are characteristic to this economically important pathogenic species. Few studies have been carried out on elucidating their specific role in the S. parasitica life cycle and the role they may have in the infection process. We show here their function by employing several strategies that focus on descriptive, developmental and predictive approaches. The strength of attachment of the secondary cysts of this pathogen was compared to other closely related species where bundles of long hooked hairs are absent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341894/protective-effects-of-antioxidin-rl-from-odorrana-livida-against-ultraviolet-b-irradiated-skin-photoaging
#2
Di Qin, Wen-Hui Lee, Zhiqin Gao, Weifen Zhang, Meiyu Peng, Tongyi Sun, Yuanyuan Gao
The unavoidable daily exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is proven to have deleterious effects. The action mechanism of antioxidin-RL, an antioxidant peptide purified from skin secretions of frog Odorrana livida with amino acid sequence of AMRLTYNRPCIYAT, is well characterized by NMR titration and mutation based on ABTS+ scavenging activities. In order to explore the protective effects of antioxidin-RL against UVB-irradiated skin photoaging, cell uptake assay was used to detect the location of antioxidin-RL molecules serving various biological functions in the cells...
January 13, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341888/protection-against-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-on-cultured-neuronal-cells-by-lovastatin-involves-elevated-expression-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-activating-phosphorylation-of-protein-kinases
#3
Liang Zhao, Yan Xiao, Jin Xiu, Long-Chun Tan, Zhi-Zhong Guan
The treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with statins has drawn increasing attention, but the related molecular mechanisms remain elusive. To examine the pleiotropic cholesterol-independent effects of statins in connection with the treatment of Alzheimer disease, we probed the influence of lovastatin on the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) , expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase in primary cultured neurons and SH-SY5Y cells over-expressing human APP670/671...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341830/pregnancy-related-hormones-progesterone-and-human-chorionic-gonadotrophin-upregulate-expression-of-maternal-plasma-gelsolin
#4
Renu Garg, Nagesh Peddada, Kunzes Dolma, Neeraj Khatri, Ashish Ashish
Plasma gelsolin (pGSN), a protein primarily involved in clearance of circulating actin filaments, is an upcoming novel biomarker. Its level changes in multiple disease and injury conditions, attributable mainly to its consumption during actin clearance, the endogenous regulation of its expression, however, remains elusive as well as unexplored. Here, we are reporting first isolation of the promoter region of pGSN gene and investigation of its transcriptional regulation during pregnancy (a natural process associated with a well programmed injury course of parturition)...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341617/enhancing-docetaxel-delivery-to-multidrug-resistant-cancer-cells-with-albumin-coated-nanocrystals
#5
Sheryhan F Gad, Joonyoung Park, Ji Eun Park, Gihan N Fetih, Sozan S Tous, Wooin Lee, Yoon Yeo
Intravenous delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs such as docetaxel (DTX) is challenging due to the low bioavailability and the toxicity related to solubilizing excipients. Colloidal nanoparticles are used as alternative carriers, but low drug loading capacity and circulation instability limit their clinical translation. To address these challenges, DTX nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared using Pluronic F127 as an intermediate stabilizer and albumin as a functional surface modifier, which were previously found to be effective in producing small and stable NCs...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341486/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-periodontal-disease-what-are-the-similarities-and-differences
#6
REVIEW
Rongbin Li, Cheng Tian, Arnold Postlethwaite, Yan Jiao, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Debendra Pattanaik, Dongmei Wei, Weikuan Gu, Jianwei Li
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) are chronic inflammatory diseases that share similar osteoclasia, human leukocyte antigen-DR4 allelic genes and immunological profile, and characteristic cytokines. Smoking can contribute to more severe RA and PD; secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators destroys the soft synovial membrane and periodontium, respectively. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and anti-α-enolase antibody are characteristic of these two diseases. Some studies suggest that PD may be associated with RA...
December 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341484/nasal-ventilation-is-an-important-factor-in-evaluating-the-diagnostic-value-of-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-allergic-rhinitis
#7
Jing Hou, Hongfei Lou, Yang Wang, Fei He, Feifei Cao, Chengshuo Wang, Luo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The role of nasal nitric oxide (NO) in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is controversial. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may affect levels of nasal NO in AR patients and evaluate the role of nasal NO in the diagnosis of AR. METHODS: Seventy-five AR patients and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. AR symptom scores were assessed using the visual analog scale. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, nasal NO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyzer, and nasal airway resistance (NAR) was assessed by active anterior rhinomanometry...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341430/tuberculosis-vaccines-opportunities-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340960/higher-levels-of-progranulin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-lymphoma-and-carcinoma-with-cns-metastasis
#9
Akio Kimura, Masao Takemura, Ginette Serrero, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Yuichi Hayashi, Kuniaki Saito, Takashi Inuzuka
Assessing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with lymphoma or carcinoma is important in determining therapy and prognosis. Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycosylated protein with roles in cancer growth and survival; it is highly expressed in aggressive cancer cell lines and specimens from many cancer types. We examined PRGN levels by Enzyme Immuno-Assay (EIA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 230 patients, including 18 with lymphoma [12 with CNS metastasis (CNS+); 6 without CNS metastasis (CNS-)], 21 with carcinomas (10 CNS+; 11 CNS-), and 191 control patients with non-cancer neurological diseases, and compared PRGN levels among these disease groups...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340620/delivery-of-tapasin-modified-ctl-epitope-peptide-via-cytoplasmic-transduction-peptide-induces-ctls-by-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-in-vivo
#10
Shanshan Wu, Xiaohua Chen, Yuyan Tang, Yi Zhang, Dan Li, Jie Chen, Jieling Wang, Zhenghao Tang, Guoqing Zang, Yongsheng Yu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a vital role in viral control and clearance. Recent studies have elucidated that Tapasin, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, is a well-known molecule that appears to be essential in peptide-loading process. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway plays an important role in immune response regulation and cytokines secretion. We have previously verified that fusion protein CTP-HBcAg18-27-Tapasin could facilitate the maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and enhance specific CTLs responses in vitro, which might be associated with the activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway...
January 11, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340375/enhancement-of-bmp-2-mediated-angiogenesis-and-osteogenesis-by-2-n-6-o-sulfated-chitosan-in-bone-regeneration
#11
Yuanzhong Pan, Jie Chen, Yuanman Yu, Kai Dai, Jing Wang, Changsheng Liu
Sulfated polysaccharides are attractive semi-synthesized materials that can be used as a mimic of heparan sulfate to modulate the protein activity and other physiological processes. In this study, we employed sulfated chitosan to enhance the angiogenic capacity of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured in a combination of BMP-2 and 2-N,6-O-sulfated chitosan (SCS) group exhibited a higher cell viability and sprouting ability. The cells also secreted more VEGF and NO. The expression patterns of angiogenic and osteogenic genes were analyzed, and VEGFR2 signaling was found to play a role in the enhancing effect of SCS...
January 17, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340091/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-enhances-prostate-cancer-progression-by-upregulating-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-stromal-cell-cytokine-production
#12
Mingguo Huang, Shintaro Narita, Takamitsu Inoue, Atsushi Koizumi, Mitsuru Saito, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Kazuyuki Numakura, Shigeru Satoh, Hiroshi Nanjo, Takehiko Sasaki, Tomonori Habuchi
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is an abundant protein in adipocytes, and its production is influenced by high-fat diet (HFD) or obesity. The prostate stromal microenvironment induces proinflammatory cytokine production, which is key for the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that high FABP4 expression and its secretion by PCa cells directly stimulated PCa cell invasiveness by upregulating matrix metalloproteinases through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340032/c3g-promotes-a-selective-release-of-angiogenic-factors-from-activated-mouse-platelets-to-regulate-angiogenesis-and-tumor-metastasis
#13
Víctor Martín-Granado, Sara Ortiz-Rivero, Rita Carmona, Sara Gutiérrez-Herrero, Mario Barrera, Laura San-Segundo, Celia Sequera, Pedro Perdiguero, Francisco Lozano, Francisco Martín-Herrero, José Ramón González-Porras, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Almudena Porras, Carmen Guerrero
Previous observations indicated that C3G (RAPGEF1) promotes α-granule release, evidenced by the increase in P-selectin exposure on the platelet surface following its activation. The goal of the present study is to further characterize the potential function of C3G as a modulator of the platelet releasate and its implication in the regulation of angiogenesis. Proteomic analysis revealed a decreased secretion of anti-angiogenic factors from activated transgenic C3G and C3G∆Cat platelets. Accordingly, the secretome from both transgenic platelets had an overall pro-angiogenic effect as evidenced by an in vitro capillary-tube formation assay with HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and by two in vivo models of heterotopic tumor growth...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339798/shedding-light-on-the-cell-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles
#14
REVIEW
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo, Graça Raposo
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339498/mafa-missense-mutation-causes-familial-insulinomatosis-and-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Donato Iacovazzo, Sarah E Flanagan, Emily Walker, Rosana Quezado, Fernando Antonio de Sousa Barros, Richard Caswell, Matthew B Johnson, Matthew Wakeling, Michael Brändle, Min Guo, Mary N Dang, Plamena Gabrovska, Bruno Niederle, Emanuel Christ, Stefan Jenni, Bence Sipos, Maike Nieser, Andrea Frilling, Ketan Dhatariya, Philippe Chanson, Wouter W de Herder, Björn Konukiewitz, Günter Klöppel, Roland Stein, Márta Korbonits, Sian Ellard
The β-cell-enriched MAFA transcription factor plays a central role in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while also demonstrating oncogenic transformation potential in vitro. No disease-causing MAFA variants have been previously described. We investigated a large pedigree with autosomal dominant inheritance of diabetes mellitus or insulinomatosis, an adult-onset condition of recurrent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by multiple insulin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Using exome sequencing, we identified a missense MAFA mutation (p...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339461/cooperative-immune-suppression-by-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-effector-proteins
#16
Maarten F de Jong, Neal M Alto
The enteric attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens EHEC and EPEC and invasive pathogens EIEC and Shigella encode Type III secretion systems (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins into human host cells during infection. Among these are a group of effectors required for NF-κB mediated host immune evasion. Recent studies have identified several effector proteins from A/E pathogens and EIEC/Shigella that are involved in suppression of NF-κB and uncovered their cellular and molecular functions. A novel mechanism among these effectors from both groups of pathogens is to coordinate effector function during infection...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339460/dot-icm-translocated-proteins-important-for-biogenesis-of-the-coxiella-burnetii-containing-vacuole-identified-by-screening-of-an-effector-mutant-sub-library
#17
Emerson Crabill, Whitman B Schofield, Hayley J Newton, Andrew L Goodman, Craig R Roy
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a lysosome-derived vacuole. A determinant necessary for C. burnetii virulence is the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4SS). The Dot/Icm system delivers more than 100 proteins, called type IV effectors (T4E), across the vacuolar membrane into the host cell cytosol. Several T4Es have been shown to be important for vacuolar biogenesis. Here, transposon insertion sequencing technology (INSeq) was used to identify C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II mutants in an arrayed library, which facilitated the identification and clonal isolation of mutants deficient in 70 different T4E proteins...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339445/bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Hagit Shapiro, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Daniel Halstuch, Eran Elinav
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol-derived metabolites that facilitate the intestinal absorption and transport of dietary lipids. Recently, BAs also emerged as pivotal signaling molecules controlling glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism by binding to the nuclear hormone farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5) in multiple organs, leading to regulation of intestinal incretin secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, energy expenditure, inflammation, and gut microbiome configuration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339429/the-biochemistry-of-sensing-enteric-pathogens-regulate-type-iii-secretion-in-response-to-environmental-and-host-cues
#19
REVIEW
Nicole J De Nisco, Giomar Rivera-Cancel, Kim Orth
Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339422/the-role-of-angiopoietin-like-protein-4-in-phenylephrine-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy
#20
Yu Sun, Yi Li, Chen Liu, Ruicong Xue, Bin Dong, Huiling Huang, Longyun Peng, Jun Liu, Yugang Dong
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a multifunctional secreted protein that can be induced by fasting, hypoxia and glucocorticoids. ANGPTL4 has been associated with a variety of diseases, however, the role of ANGPTL4 in cardiac hypertrophy remains poorly understood. In our study, we aimed to explore the effect of ANGPTL4 on phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results showed that knockdown of ANGPTL4 expression significantly exacerbated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as demonstrated by increased hypertrophic marker expression, including ANP and cell surface area...
January 16, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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