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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150935/generation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-pva-scaffold-by-optimized-differentiation-protocol
#1
Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Masoud Soleimani, Yousef Mortazavi, Samad Nadri, Ali Salimi
The studies have been done on patient-specific human adipose-derived from mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) like a series of autologous growth factors and nanofibrous scaffolds (3D culture) will probably have many benefits for regenerative medicine in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients in the future. For this purpose, we established a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold and a differentiation protocol by adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) that induces the hADSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). The Characteristics of the derived IPCs in 3D culture were compared with conventional culture (2D) groups evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150934/the-current-status-and-perspectives-regarding-the-clinical-implication-of-intracellular-calcium-in-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Alireza Pasdar, Mehdi Rezaee, Mostafa Fazeli, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Zahra FarshchiyanYazdi, Tayebe Younesi Rad, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan
Calcium ions (Ca(2+) ) act as second messengers in intracellular signaling. Ca(2+) pumps, channels, sensors, and calcium binding proteins, regulate the concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+) as a key regulator of important cellular processes such as gene expression, proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, apoptosis, metastasis, and hormone secretion. Intracellular Ca(2+) also influences the functions of several organelles, that include: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, the Golgi, and cell membrane both in normal and breast cancer cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150932/high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-blocks-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-4%C3%AE-and-leads-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#3
Dongsheng Yu, Gang Chen, Minglin Pan, Jia Zhang, Wenping He, Yang Liu, Xue Nian, Liang Sheng, Bin Xu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease with manifestation of over-accumulation of fat in liver. Increasing evidences indicate that NAFLD may be in part caused by malfunction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), a nuclear receptor protein, plays an important role in sustain hepatic lipid homeostasis via transcriptional regulation of genes involved in secretion of VLDL, such as apolipoprotein B (ApoB). However, the exact functional change of HNF4α in NAFLD remains to be elucidated...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150501/glna-truncation-in-salmonella-enterica-results-in-a-small-colony-variant-phenotype-attenuated-host-cell-entry-and-reduced-expression-of-flagellin-and-spi-1-associated-effector-genes
#4
Philipp Aurass, Juliane Düvel, Susanne Karste, Ulrich Nübel, Wolfgang Rabsch, Antje Flieger
Many pathogenic bacteria use sophisticated survival strategies to overcome harsh environmental conditions. One is the formation of slow-growing subpopulations termed small colony variants (SCVs). Here we characterize an SCV, which spontaneously emerged from an axenic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium water culture. We found that the SCV harbors a frameshift mutation in the glutamine synthetase gene glnA leading to a ∼90% truncation of the corresponding protein. Glutamine synthetase, a central enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, converts glutamate and ammonia to glutamine...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150449/claudin-10-isoform-expression-and-cation-selectivity-change-with-salinity-in-salt-secreting-epithelia-of-f-heteroclitus
#5
William S Marshall, Jason P Breves, Ellen M Doohan, Christian K Tipsmark, Scott P Kelly, George N Robertson, Patricia M Schulte
To provide insight into claudin (Cldn) tight junction (TJ) protein contributions to branchial salt secretion in marine teleost fishes, this study examined cldn-10 TJ protein isoforms of a euryhaline teleost (mummichog; Fundulus heteroclitus) in association with salinity change and measurements of transepithelial cation selectivity. Mummichogs were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW, 35 ‰) and from SW to hypersaline SW (2SW, 60 ‰) in a time course with transfer control groups (FW to FW and SW to SW)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150411/an-epithelial-biomarker-signature-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-an-analysis-from-the-multicentre-profile-cohort-study
#6
Toby M Maher, Eunice Oballa, Juliet K Simpson, Joanne Porte, Anthony Habgood, William A Fahy, Aiden Flynn, Philip L Molyneaux, Rebecca Braybrooke, Hrushikesh Divyateja, Helen Parfrey, Doris Rassl, Anne-Marie Russell, Gauri Saini, Elisabetta A Renzoni, Anne-Marie Duggan, Richard Hubbard, Athol U Wells, Pauline T Lukey, Richard P Marshall, R Gisli Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal disorder with a variable disease trajectory. The aim of this study was to assess potential biomarkers to predict outcomes for people with IPF. METHOD: PROFILE is a large prospective longitudinal cohort of treatment-naive patients with IPF. We adopted a two-stage discovery and validation design using patients from the PROFILE cohort. For the discovery analysis, we examined 106 patients and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls from Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and the Royal Brompton Hospital...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150361/post-translational-mechanisms-of-host-subversion-by-bacterial-effectors
#7
REVIEW
Nichollas E Scott, Elizabeth L Hartland
Bacterial effector proteins are a specialized class of secreted proteins that are translocated directly into the host cytoplasm by bacterial pathogens. Effector proteins have diverse activities and targets, and many mediate post-translational modifications of host proteins. Effector proteins offer potential in novel biotechnological and medical applications as enzymes that may modify human proteins. Here, we discuss the mechanisms used by effectors to subvert the human host through blocking, blunting, or subverting immune mechanisms...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149631/prostaglandin-j2-promotes-o-glcnacylation-raising-app-processing-by-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-secretases-relevance-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Teneka Jean-Louis, Patricia Rockwell, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira
Regulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by α- and β-secretases is of special interest to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as these proteases prevent or mediate amyloid beta formation, respectively. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in AD. Our data demonstrate that the endogenous mediator of inflammation prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) promotes full-length APP (FL-APP) processing by α- and β-secretases. The decrease in FL-APP was independent of proteasomal, lysosomal, calpain, caspase, and γ-secretase activities...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149403/structure-function-relationship-of-tctp
#9
Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a small, multifunctional protein found in most, if not all, eukaryotic lineages, involved in a myriad of key regulatory processes. Among these, the control of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, as well as differentiation, are the most important, and it is probable that other responses are derived from the ability of TCTP to influence them in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In the latter, an additional function for TCTP stems from its capacity to be secreted via a nonclassical pathway and function in a non-cell autonomous (paracrine) manner, thus affecting the responses of neighboring or distant cells to developmental or environmental stimuli (as in the case of serum TCTP/histamine-releasing factor in mammals and phloem TCTP in Arabidopsis)...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149170/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vtra-is-a-membrane-bound-regulator-and-is-activated-via-oligomerization
#10
Ryu Okada, Shigeaki Matsuda, Tetsuya Iida
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding domain. VtrA activates the gene expression of VtrB, which in turn activates Vp-PAI gene expression; however, the mechanism of this transcriptional activation by VtrA is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148898/enhancement-of-invadopodia-activity-in-glioma-cells-by-sublethal-doses-of-irradiation-and-temozolomide
#11
Leon Mao, Clarissa A Whitehead, Lucia Paradiso, Andrew H Kaye, Andrew P Morokoff, Rodney B Luwor, Stanley S Stylli
OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma is the most common primary central nervous system tumor in adults. These tumors are highly invasive and infiltrative and result in tumor recurrence as well as an extremely poor patient prognosis. The current standard of care involves surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, previous studies have suggested that glioblastoma cells that survive treatment are potentially more invasive. The goal of this study was to investigate whether this increased phenotype in surviving cells is facilitated by actin-rich, membrane-based structures known as invadopodia...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148792/proteomic-markers-of-the-functional-sperm-population-in-bovines-1-comparison-of-low-and-high-density-spermatozoa-following-cryopreservation
#12
Olivier D'Amours, Gilles Frenette, Sylvie Bourassa, Ezequiel Calvo, Patrick Blondin, Robert Sullivan
Mammalian semen contains a heterogeneous population of sperm cells. This heterogeneity results from variability in the complex processes of cell differentiation in the testis, biochemical modifications undergone by spermatozoa during transit along the male reproductive tract, interactions with secretions from accessory sex glands at ejaculation, and, in the context of reproductive technologies, in the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to resist damage associated with freeze-thaw procedures. When submitted to density gradient centrifugation, ejaculated spermatozoa distribute themselves into two distinct populations: a low-density population characterized by low motility parameters, and a high-density population with high motility characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148236/emerging-roles-of-er-stress-in-the-aetiology-and-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Yannis Gerakis, Claudio Hetz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by synaptic dysfunction and accumulation of abnormal aggregates formed by amyloid-β peptides or phophorylated Tau proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network is a salient feature of AD. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main compartment involved in protein folding and secretion and is drastically affected in AD neurons. ER stress triggers the activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a signal transduction pathway that enforces adaptive programs to recover homeostasis or trigger apoptosis of irreversibly damaged cells...
November 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147902/expression-of-dj-1-in-cancer-cells-its-correlation-with-clinical-significance
#15
Takahiko Kawate, Benio Tsuchiya, Keiichi Iwaya
Upregulation of DJ-1 mRNA is commonly observed in various human cancers such as ductal carcinoma of the breast, non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma, urinary transitional cell carcinoma, and gynecologic carcinoma. At the protein level, intensity and intracellular localization of DJ-1 expression is varied, and the DJ-1 protein regulates cancer progression, clinical aggressiveness, differentiation, cancer cell morphology, and drug sensitivity. Thus, DJ-1 plays a critical role in cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147622/factors-released-by-the-tumor-far-microenvironment-are-decisive-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-development-and-progression
#16
REVIEW
Juan L Iovanna, Daniel Closa
The REG3β protein was identified more than 2 decades ago, but its role in PDAC development was only recently reported. In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC), REG3β protein is expressed and released by the far microenvironment, which is situated out of the tumor, at the periphery of the tumor mass, and is part of the healthy peri-tumoral region. This compartment is completely unrelated to the classical microenvironment that corresponds to the intra-tumoral stoma. Clinically relevant, the far microenvironment, and the factors released by it, could be novel and original therapeutic targets for treating patients with a PDAC...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147088/evaluation-and-characterization-of-milk-derived-microvescicle-isolated-from-bovine-colostrum
#17
Brighton E Maburutse, Mi-Ri Park, Sangnam Oh, Younghoon Kim
Extracellular microvesicles are membranous nano-sized cellular organelles secreted by a variety of cells under normal and pathological conditions and heterogeneous in size ranging from 30 nm to 1 μm. They carry functional microRNAs that can influence immunity and development. For a particular application of microvesicles, choice of isolation method is particularly important; however, their isolation methods from colostrum in particular have not been described clearly. In this work, differential ultracentrifugation as a conventional method, ultracentrifugation with some modification such as additional precipitations, ultrafiltration, sucrose gradient separation and ExoQuick™ as a commercial reagent were compared...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146912/structural-insights-into-legionella-ridl-vps29-retromer-subunit-interaction-reveal-displacement-of-the-regulator-tbc1d5
#18
Kevin Bärlocher, Cedric A J Hutter, A Leoni Swart, Bernhard Steiner, Amanda Welin, Michael Hohl, François Letourneur, Markus A Seeger, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila can cause Legionnaires' disease and replicates intracellularly in a distinct Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation is a complex process that involves a plethora of type IV-secreted effector proteins. The effector RidL binds the Vps29 retromer subunit, blocks retrograde vesicle trafficking, and promotes intracellular bacterial replication. Here, we reveal that the 29-kDa N-terminal domain of RidL (RidL2-281) adopts a "foot-like" fold comprising a protruding β-hairpin at its "heel"...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146505/muscarinic-receptor-oligomerization
#19
REVIEW
Sara Marsango, Richard J Ward, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Graeme Milligan
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing numbers of studies have supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of the GPCR oligomerization remain topics of intense speculation...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146248/phosphatidylcholine-absence-affects-the-secretion-of-lipodepsipeptide-phytoxins-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-syringae-van-hall-cfcc-1336
#20
Fang Cao, Min Xiong, Shunyi Li, Huawan Cai, Yufang Sun, Sheng Yang, Xin Liu, Rong Zhu, Xuejing Yu, Xingguo Wang
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall CFCC 1336 (Pss 1336) is the causal agent of bacterial disease of stone fruit trees, and also able to elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host tobacco. It is known that this pathogen uses PCS-pathway to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC), and mutation of the pcs gene abolishes bacterial PC synthesis. Previous study also found that the 1336 pcs(-) mutant lacking PC in its membrane phospholipids was unable to secrete HrpZ harpin and elicit HR in non-host plants...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
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