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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646616/curcumin-alleviates-macrophage-activation-and-lung-inflammation-induced-by-influenza-virus-infection-through-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#1
Yiming Xu, Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAV) result in severe public health problems with worldwide each year. Over-response of immune system to IAV infection leads to complications, and ultimately causing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory ability. However, its molecular mechanism in immune responses remains unclear. METHODS: We detected the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) related protein expression in human macrophages or mice infected by IAV with or without curcumin treatment...
June 24, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646583/sebum-lipids-influence-macrophage-polarization-and-activation
#2
M Lovászi, M Mattii, K Eyerich, Attila Gácsi, Erzsébet Csányi, D Kovács, R Rühl, A Szegedi, L Kemény, M Ståhle, C C Zouboulis, S Eyerich, D Törőcsik
BACKGROUND: As lipids are known to regulate macrophage functions it is reasonable to suppose that a sebocyte - macrophage axis mediated by sebum lipids may exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if sebocytes could contribute to the differentiation, polarization and function of macrophages with their secreted lipids. METHODS: Oil-red-O lipid staining and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the dermal lipid content and penetration. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the macrophage subsets...
June 24, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#3
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646455/human-nucleus-pulposus-intervertebral-disc-cells-becoming-senescent-using-different-treatments-exhibit-a-similar-transcriptional-profile-of-catabolic-and-inflammatory-genes
#4
Sotiris-Spyros Vamvakas, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas
PURPOSE: Chronic low back pain has been associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases and inflammatory molecules in the degenerate tissue. IVD degeneration could be the outcome of natural organismal ageing and/or of the exposure of the disc to cumulative stressful environmental stimuli and is accompanied by an increased population of senescent cells in the tissue. On the other hand, senescent cells are known to secrete proteolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules, which can contribute to ECM catabolism...
June 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645823/recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-prevents-acute-lung-injury-in-a-rat-cardiopulmonary-bypass-model
#5
Shingo Hirao, Kenji Minakata, Hidetoshi Masumoto, Kazuhiro Yamazaki, Tadashi Ikeda, Kenji Minatoya, Ryuzo Sakata
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may induce systemic inflammatory responses causing acute lung injury. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is reported to attenuate the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and the high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, which is critical in controlling systemic inflammation and apoptosis. We investigated the protective effects of rTM on CPB-induced lung injury in a rat model. METHODS: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: sham, control (CPB alone), and rTM (CPB + rTM)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645727/inhibition-of-non-canonical-hiv-1-tat-secretion-through-the-cellular-na-k-atpase-blocks-hiv-1-infection
#6
Silvia Agostini, Hashim Ali, Chiara Vardabasso, Antonio Fittipaldi, Ennio Tasciotti, Anna Cereseto, Antonella Bugatti, Marco Rusnati, Marina Lusic, Mauro Giacca
Besides its essential role in the activation of HIV-1 gene expression, the viral Tat protein has the unusual property of trafficking in and out of cells. In contrast to Tat internalization, the mechanism involved in extracellular Tat release has so far remained elusive. Here we show that Tat secretion occurs through a Golgi-independent pathway requiring binding of Tat with three short, non-consecutive intracytoplasmic loops at the C-terminus of the cellular Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pump alpha subunit. Ouabain, a pump inhibitor, blocked this interaction and prevented Tat secretion; virions produced in the presence of this drug were less infectious, consistent the capacity of virion-associated Tat to increase HIV-1 infectivity...
June 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#7
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645246/igmk-paraprotein-from-gammopathy-patient-can-bind-to-cardiolipin-and-interfere-with-coagulation-assay-a-case-report
#8
Xin-Yao Wu, Yu-Feng Yin, Jia-Lin Teng, Li-Wei Zhang, Cheng-de Yang
BACKGROUND: The monoclonal gammopathies are a group of plasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein or paraprotein). Some rare cases have revealed the specific affinity of paraprotein as autoantibody. Here we report a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) accompanied by a remarkable increase of anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and an extensively decreased coagulation factor activity, however, without any clinical signs of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and bleeding...
June 23, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645103/colxv-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-via-inhibiting-dna-methylation-and-camp-pka-pathway-in-mice
#9
Guannv Liu, Meihang Li, Yatao Xu, Song Wu, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Extracellular matrix (ECM), as an essential component of adipose tissue, not only provides mechanical support for adipocyte growth, but also participates in ECM-adipocyte communication via various secreted proteins, including highly enriched collagens. Collagen XV (ColXV) is a secreted non-fibrillar collagen within ECM Basement Membrane (BM) zones and well recognized as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of ColXV in adipose tissue is still unknown. In this study, high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were used as obese model, in which we deeply investigated the interaction between ColXV and adipocyte differentiation or adipose metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644543/osteogenic-potential-of-three-different-autogenous-bone-particles-harvested-during-implant-surgery
#10
Chao Liang, Xiao Lin, Song-Ling Wang, Li-Hua Guo, Xiao-Yu Wang, Jun Li
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare the osteoblast activity and osteogenic potential of autogenous bone particles harvested using three different techniques, determine the most advantageous method of collecting autogenous bone particles. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Bone particles were harvested from 20 patients during dental implant surgery using bone scraping, low-speed drilling, and bone trap filtering. After the osteoblasts were cultured, cell proliferation, migration, mineralization, transcription of osteogenesis-related genes, secretion of osteogenesis-related proteins, and osteoinductive protein content in the bone particle matrix were evaluated...
June 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643940/proteomic-profiling-of-extracellular-vesicles-secreted-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Maria Luisa Zardo, Halisson Tesseroli Miot, Samuel Goldenberg, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Patricia Alves Mörking
Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of hosts worldwide, including humans and domesticated animals causing toxoplasmosis disease. Recently, exosomes, small extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids derived from their original cells were linked with disease protection. The effect of EVs derived from T. gondii on the immune response and its relevance in a physiological context is unknown. Here we disclose the first proteomic profiling of T. gondii EVs compared to EVs isolated from a human foreskin fibroblast infected cell line cultured in a vesicle- free medium...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643224/establishment-of-a-3d-cell-culture-model-of-primary-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-extracted-from-fresh-milk
#12
Maria Hillreiner, Nadine I Müller, Heiner M Koch, Christiane Schmautz, Bernhard Küster, Michael W Pfaffl, Heike Kliem
For the investigation of molecular processes underlying diseases of the bovine mammary gland, primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are used. They are known to contribute to the innate immune system of the bovine mammary gland. The functionality of pbMEC depends on the maintenance of in vivo characteristics. So far, the optimization of pbMEC culture conditions was intended in a variety of experiments. For this purpose, most of the studies used stable cell lines or primary cells obtained from udder biopsies of slaughtered animals...
June 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642969/diverse-metabolic-effects-of-o-glcnacylation-in-the-pancreas-but-limited-effects-in-insulin-sensitive-organs-in-mice
#13
Shogo Ida, Katsutaro Morino, Osamu Sekine, Natsuko Ohashi, Shinji Kume, Tokuhiro Chano, Kanako Iwasaki, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: O-GlcNAcylation is characterised by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and serves in sensing intracellular nutrients by modulating various cellular processes. Although it has been speculated that O-GlcNAcylation is associated with glucose metabolism, its exact role in whole body glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether loss of O-GlcNAcylation globally and in specific organs affected glucose metabolism in mammals under physiological conditions...
June 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642757/the-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-does-not-depend-on-surface-ferric-reductases-for-iron-acquisition
#14
Franziska Gerwien, Abu Safyan, Stephanie Wisgott, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Bernhard Hube
Iron acquisition is a crucial virulence determinant for many bacteria and fungi, including the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata. While the diverse strategies used by C. albicans for obtaining iron from the host are well-described, much less is known about the acquisition of this micronutrient from host sources by C. glabrata - a distant relative of C. albicans with closer evolutionary ties to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which nonetheless causes severe clinical symptoms in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#15
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642685/rab-interacting-molecules-2-and-3-directly-interact-with-the-pore-forming-cav1-3-ca-2-channel-subunit-and-promote-its-membrane-expression
#16
Maria M Picher, Ana-Maria Oprişoreanu, SangYong Jung, Katrin Michel, Susanne Schoch, Tobias Moser
Rab interacting molecules (RIMs) are multi-domain proteins that positively regulate the number of Ca(2+) channels at the presynaptic active zone (AZ). Several molecular mechanisms have been demonstrated for RIM-binding to components of the presynaptic Ca(2+) channel complex, the key signaling element at the AZ. Here, we report an interaction of the C2B domain of RIM2α and RIM3γ with the C-terminus of the pore-forming α-subunit of CaV1.3 channels (CaV1.3α1), which mediate stimulus-secretion coupling at the ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642633/proteases-revisited-roles-and-therapeutic-implications-in-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Jakub Kryczka, Joanna Boncela
Proteases target many substrates, triggering changes in distinct biological processes correlated with cell migration, EMT/EndMT and fibrosis. Extracellular protease activity, demonstrated by secreted and membrane-bound protease forms, leads to ECM degradation, activation of other proteases (i.e., proteolysis of nonactive zymogens), decomposition of cell-cell junctions, release of sequestered growth factors (TGF-β and VEGF), activation of signal proteins and receptors, degradation of inflammatory inhibitors or inflammation-related proteins, and changes in cell mechanosensing and motility...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642584/molecular-switching-system-using-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-to-select-cells-highly-expressing-recombinant-proteins
#18
Emmanuel Matabaro, Zeng'an He, Yi-Shi Liu, Hui-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Dong Gao, Morihisa Fujita
Although many pharmaceutical proteins are produced in mammalian cells, there remains a challenge to select cell lines that express recombinant proteins with high productivity. Since most biopharmaceutical proteins are secreted by cells into the medium, it is difficult to select cell lines that produce large amounts of the target protein. To address this issue, a new protein expression system using the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor was developed. PGAP2 is involved in processing GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) during transport...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642338/cellular-distribution-and-function-of-ion-channels-involved-in-transport-processes-in-rat-tracheal-epithelium
#19
Anne Hahn, Johannes Faulhaber, Lalita Srisawang, Andreas Stortz, Johanna J Salomon, Marcus A Mall, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca(2+) or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca(2+)- dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl(-) secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, the epithelial Na(+) channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642198/treatment-of-intestinal-fibrosis-in-experimental-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-the-pleiotropic-actions-of-a-local-rho-kinase-inhibitor
#20
Tom Holvoet, Sarah Devriese, Karolien Castermans, Sandro Boland, Dirk Leysen, Yves-Paul Vandewynckel, Lindsey Devisscher, Lien Van den Bossche, Sophie Van Welden, Melissa Dullaers, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke, Riet De Rycke, Karel Geboes, Arnaud Bourin, Olivier Defert, Pieter Hindryckx, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis resulting in (sub)obstruction is a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Rho kinases (ROCKs) play multiple roles in TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast activation that could be therapeutic targets. Because systemic ROCK inhibition causes cardiovascular side-effects, we evaluated the effects of a locally acting ROCK inhibitor (AMA0825) on intestinal fibrosis. METHODS: Fibrosis was assessed in mouse models using dextran sulfate sodium and adoptive T cell transfer...
June 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
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