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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209582/noninvasive-evaluation-of-cbf-and-perfusion-delay-of-moyamoya-disease-using-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-with-multiple-postlabeling-delays-comparison-with-15-o-gas-pet-and-dsc-mri
#1
S Hara, Y Tanaka, Y Ueda, S Hayashi, M Inaji, K Ishiwata, K Ishii, T Maehara, T Nariai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging with multiple postlabeling delays has a potential to evaluate various hemodynamic parameters. To clarify whether arterial spin-labeling MR imaging can identify CBF and perfusion delay in patients with Moyamoya disease, we compared arterial spin-labeling, DSC, and (15)O-gas PET in terms of their ability to identify these parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with Moyamoya disease (5 men, 13 women; ages, 21-55 years) were retrospectively analyzed...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208155/pet-mr-in-invasive-ductal-breast-cancer-correlation-between-imaging-markers-and-histological-phenotype
#2
Onofrio Antonio Catalano, Gary Lloyd Horn, Alberto Signore, Carlo Iannace, Maria Lepore, Mark Vangel, Angelo Luongo, Marco Catalano, Constance Lehman, Marco Salvatore, Andrea Soricelli, Ciprian Catana, Umar Mahmood, Bruce Robert Rosen
BACKGROUND: Differences in genetics and receptor expression (phenotypes) of invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) impact on prognosis and treatment response. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), the most used technique for IDC phenotyping, has some limitations including its invasiveness. We explored the possibility of contrast-enhanced positron emission tomography magnetic resonance (CE-FDG PET/MR) to discriminate IDC phenotypes. METHODS: 21 IDC patients with IHC assessment of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2), and antigen Ki-67 (Ki67) underwent CE-FDG PET/MR...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195909/capillary-hemangioma-of-thoracic-spinal-cord-pet-ct-and-mr-findings
#3
Guohua Shen, Minggang Su, Junyi Zhao, Bin Liu, Anren Kuang
Capillary hemangiomas are frequently encountered superficially in the cutaneous, subcutaneous, or mucosal tissues during the childhood and early adulthood, but the occurrence of spinal intradural capillary hemangioma is relatively rare. Herein, we report a case with capillary hemangioma of the thoracic spine. MR and PET/CT features of this lesion are presented, and awareness of this entity may help differentiate it from other spinal intradural tumors.
February 13, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194632/characterization-of-an-orthotopic-colorectal-cancer-mouse-model-and-its-feasibility-for-accurate-quantification-in-positron-emission-tomography
#4
Sara Rapic, Christel Vangestel, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Tim Van den Wyngaert, Rukun Hinz, Marleen Verhoye, Patrick Pauwels, Steven Staelens, Sigrid Stroobants
PURPOSE: Quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC) is challenging due to difficult tumor delineation. We aimed to establish a reproducible delineation approach, evaluate its feasibility for reliable PET quantification and compare its added translational value with its subcutaneous counterpart. PROCEDURES: A subcutaneous Colo205-luc2 tumor fragment harvested from a donor mouse was transplanted onto the caecum of nude mice, with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) the addition of an X-ray detectable thread...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192624/mr-based-synthetic-ct-generation-using-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-method
#5
Xiao Han
PURPOSE: Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for the purpose of dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184942/radiological-biomarkers-for-assessing-response-to-locoregional-therapies-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-morphological-to-functional-imaging-review
#6
Xiao-Dan Ye, Zuguo Yuan, Jian Zhang, Zheng Yuan
Many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients do not qualify for curative surgical intervention and are instead treated with locoregional therapies (LRTs) including ablative and endovascular therapies. Assessment of imaging response is essential in the management of HCC for determining efficacy of therapy and as a surrogate marker for improved survival. The established morphological image biomarkers for tumor burden measurement continue to be applied, as size measurement can easily be used in clinical practice...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183991/cardiac-and-respiratory-motion-correction-for-simultaneous-cardiac-pet-mr
#7
Christoph Kolbitsch, Mark A Ahlman, Cynthia Davies-Venn, Robert Evers, Michael Hansen, Devis Peressutti, Paul Marsden, Peter Kellman, David A Bluemke, Tobias Schaeffter
Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a versatile imaging technique providing important diagnostic information about ischemic heart diseases. Respiratory and cardiac motion of the heart can strongly impair image quality and therefore diagnostic accuracy of cardiac PET scans. The aim of this study is to investigate a new cardiac PET-Magnetic Resonance (MR) approach providing respiratory and cardiac motion-compensated MR and PET images in less than five minutes. Methods: Free-breathing 3D MR data was acquired and retrospectively binned into multiple respiratory and cardiac motion states...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182581/application-of-single-and-dual-energy-ct-brain-tissue-segmentation-to-pet-monitoring-of-proton-therapy
#8
Bianca Berndt, Guillaume Landry, Florian Schwarz, Thomas Tessonnier, Florian Kamp, Georgios Dedes, Christian Thieke, Matthias Wuerl, Christopher Kurz, Ute Ganswindt, Frank Verhaegen, Juergen Debus, Claus Belka, Wieland Sommer, Maximilian Reiser, Julia Bauer, Katia Parodi
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β<sup>+</sup> activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
February 9, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181479/multi-atlas-attenuation-correction-supports-full-quantification-of-static-and-dynamic-brain-pet-data-in-pet-mr
#9
Ines Merida, Anthonin Reilhac, Jerome Redoute, Rolf Heckemann, Nicolas Costes, Alexander Hammers
Introduction In simultaneous PET-MR, attenuation maps are not directly available. Essential for absolute radioactivity quantification, they need to be derived from MR or PET data to correct for gamma photon attenuation by the imaged object. We evaluate a multi-atlas attenuation correction method for brain imaging (MaxProb) on static [18F]FDG PET and, for the first time, on dynamic PET, using the serotoninergic tracer [18F]MPPF. Methods A database of 40 MR/CT image pairs (atlases) was used. The MaxProb method synthesises subject-specific pseudo-CTs by registering each atlas to the target subject space...
February 9, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175020/p199-pet-mr-for-evaluating-subclinical-inflammation-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-remission
#10
S C Wei, I-L Shih, B-R Lin, R-F Yen, Y-C Chang, J-M Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161723/-18-f-fdg-pet-mri-in-patients-suffering-from-lymphoma-how-much-mri-information-is-really-needed
#11
Julian Kirchner, Cornelius Deuschl, Johannes Grueneisen, Ken Herrmann, Michael Forsting, Philipp Heusch, Gerald Antoch, Lale Umutlu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced/contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted (18)F-FDG PET/MR imaging for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in lymphoma patients. METHODS: A total of 101 (18)F-FDG PET/MRI datasets including a (1) transverse T2-w HASTE and (18)F-FDG PET (PET/MRI1), (2) with an additional contrast enhanced VIBE (PET/MRI2), and (3) with additional diffusion-weighted imaging (PET/MRI3) were evaluated...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155582/image-derived-input-function-estimation-on-a-tof-enabled-pet-mr-for-cerebral-blood-flow-mapping
#12
Mohammad Mehdi Khalighi, Timothy W Deller, Audrey Peiwen Fan, Praveen K Gulaka, Bin Shen, Prachi Singh, Jun-Hyung Park, Frederick T Chin, Greg Zaharchuk
(15)O-H2O PET imaging is an accurate method to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) but it requires an arterial input function (AIF). Historically, image-derived AIF estimation suffers from low temporal resolution, spill-in, and spill-over problems. Here, we optimized tracer dose on a time-of-flight PET/MR according to the acquisition-specific noise-equivalent count rate curve. An optimized dose of 850 MBq of (15)O-H2O was determined, which allowed sufficient counts to reconstruct a short time-frame PET angiogram (PETA) during the arterial phase...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149758/defining-the-endpoints-how-to-measure-the-efficacy-of-drugs-that-are-active-against-central-nervous-system-metastases
#13
REVIEW
Alessandra Fabi, Antonello Vidiri
Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common cause of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults. In the recent past, patients with BMs were excluded from clinical trials, but now, with the advent of new biological and immunological drugs, their inclusion is more common. In the last era response and progression criteria used across clinical trials have defined the importance to consider not only measurement changes of brain lesions but also the modification of parameters related to the metastases such as metabolism of tissue and its pathological features...
December 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133747/on-the-potential-for-rf-heating-in-mri-to-affect-metabolic-rates-and-18-fdg-signal-in-pet-mr-simulations-of-long-duration-maximum-normal-mode-heating
#14
Giuseppe Carluccio, Yu-Shin Ding, Jean Logan, Christopher M Collins
PURPOSE: To examine the possibility that MR-induced RF power deposition (SAR) and the resulting effects on temperature-dependent metabolic rates or perfusion rates might affect observed 18FDG signal in PET/MR. METHODS: Using numerical simulations of the SAR, consequent temperature increase, effect on rates of metabolism or perfusion, and [18FDG] throughout the body, we simulated the potential effect of maximum-allowable whole-body SAR for the entire duration of an hour-long PET/MR scan on observed PET signal for two different 18FDG injection times: one hour before onset of imaging and concurrent with the beginning of imaging...
December 9, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131593/pet-mri-in-children
#15
Sergios Gatidis, Benjamin Bender, Matthias Reimold, Jürgen F Schäfer
During the past decade, combined PET/MRI has been translated from a basic technical concept to a clinical research tool and a clinically applied hybrid imaging modality. Numerous clinical and scientific applications have been proposed for this novel hybrid modality including oncologic, neurologic and cardiovascular imaging. Among these, PET/MRI in children has emerged as a key application, not only due to possible diagnostic advantages but also because of reduced radiation exposure compared to alternative techniques...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129606/pet-mr-versus-pet-ct-in-the-initial-staging-of-head-and-neck-cancer-using-a-trimodality-pet-ct-mr-system
#16
Tetsuro Sekine, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Felix P Kuhn, Irene A Burger, Paul Stolzmann, Gerhard F Huber, Spyros S Kollias, Gustav K von Schulthess, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Martin W Huellner
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET+MR with PET/CT in the initial staging of head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast-enhanced PET/CT+MR was performed in 27 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer. PET/CT and PET+MR were evaluated separately, and the TNM stage and factors influencing treatment were assessed. RESULTS: The TNM staging by PET+MR was comparable to PET/CT (T: p=0.331, N: p=0.453, M: p=0.034)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126915/mixed-responses-to-systemic-therapy-revealed-potential-genetic-heterogeneity-and-poor-survival-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Zhong-Yi Dong, Hao-Ran Zhai, Qing-Yi Hou, Jian Su, Si-Yang Liu, Hong-Hong Yan, Yang-Si Li, Zhi-Yong Chen, Wen-Zhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fosters mixed responses (MRs) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or chemotherapy. However, little is known about the clinical and molecular features or the prognostic significance and potential mechanisms. METHODS: The records of 246 consecutive patients with NSCLC receiving single-line chemotherapy or TKI treatment and who were assessed by baseline and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans were collected retrospectively...
January 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126884/pet-mr-imaging-in-the-presence-of-metal-implants-completion-of-the-attenuation-map-from-pet-emission-data
#18
Niccolo Fuin, Stefano Pedemonte, Onofrio Antonio Catalano, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Andrea Soricelli, Marco Salvatore, Keith Heberlein, Jacob M Hooker, Koen Van Leemput, Ciprian Catana
: We present a novel technique for accurate whole body attenuation correction (AC) in the presence of metallic endoprosthesis, on integrated non-time-of-flight (non-TOF) PET/MR imaging scanners. The proposed implant PET-based attenuation map completion (IPAC) method performs a joint reconstruction of radioactivity and attenuation from the emission data to determine the position, shape and linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) of metallic implants. METHODS: The initial estimate of the attenuation map is obtained using the MR Dixon-method currently available on the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126030/a-review-of-substitute-ct-generation-for-mri-only-radiation-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Jens M Edmund, Tufve Nyholm
Radiotherapy based on magnetic resonance imaging as the sole modality (MRI-only RT) is an area of growing scientific interest due to the increasing use of MRI for both target and normal tissue delineation and the development of MR based delivery systems. One major issue in MRI-only RT is the assignment of electron densities (ED) to MRI scans for dose calculation and a similar need for attenuation correction can be found for hybrid PET/MR systems. The ED assigned MRI scan is here named a substitute CT (sCT)...
January 26, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124091/clinical-evaluation-of-tof-versus-non-tof-on-pet-artifacts-in-simultaneous-pet-mr-a-dual-centre-experience
#20
Edwin E G W Ter Voert, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Sangtae Ahn, Florian Wiesinger, M Mehdi Khalighi, Craig S Levin, Andrei H Iagaru, Greg Zaharchuk, Martin Huellner, Gaspar Delso
PURPOSE: Our objective was to determine clinically the value of time-of-flight (TOF) information in reducing PET artifacts and improving PET image quality and accuracy in simultaneous TOF PET/MR scanning. METHODS: A total 65 patients who underwent a comparative scan in a simultaneous TOF PET/MR scanner were included. TOF and non-TOF PET images were reconstructed, clinically examined, compared and scored. PET imaging artifacts were categorized as large or small implant-related artifacts, as dental implant-related artifacts, and as implant-unrelated artifacts...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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