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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328049/pet-attenuation-correction-for-rigid-mr-tx-rx-coils-from-sup-176-sup-lu-background-activity
#1
Christoph W Lerche, Theodoros Kaltsas, Liliana Caldeira, Juergen J Scheins, Elena Rota Kops, Lutz Tellmann, Uwe Pietrzyk, Hans Herzog, Nadim Jon Shah
One challenge for PET-MR hybrid imaging is the correction for attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation radiation by the required RF transmit and/or RF receive coils. Although there are strategies for building PET transparent Tx/Rx coils, such optimised coils still cause signicant attenuation of the annihilation radiation leading to artefacts and biases in the reconstructed activity concentrations. We present a straightforward method to measure the attenuation of Tx/Rx coils in simultaneous MR-PET imaging based on the natural <sup>176</sup>Lu background contained in the scintillator of the PET detector without the requirement of an external CT scanner or PET scanner with transmission source...
January 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326137/expression-changes-in-lactate-and-glucose-metabolism-and-associated-transporters-in-basal-ganglia-following-hypoxic-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-piglets
#2
Y Zheng, X-M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neonatal brain has active energy metabolism, and glucose oxidation is the major energy source of brain tissue. Lactate is produced by astrocytes and released to neurons. In the central nervous system, lactate is transported between neurons and astrocytes via the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes in the basal ganglia of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury piglet model...
January 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322101/a-novel-individual-level-morphological-brain-networks-constructing-method-and-its-evaluation-in-pet-and-mr-images
#3
Jiehui Jiang, Hucheng Zhou, Huoqiang Duan, Xin Liu, Chuantao Zuo, Zhemin Huang, Zhihua Yu, Zhuangzhi Yan
Mapping the human brain is one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century. Brain network analysis is an effective technique based on graph theory that is widely used to investigate network patterns in the human brain. Currently, mapping an individual brain network using a single image has been a hotspot in the field of brain science; techniques, such as the Kullback-Leibler (KL) method, have applications in structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. However, maintaining an image's intensity, shape, texture and gradient information during feature extraction is very challenging...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320333/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-clinical-utility-in-prostate-cancer-normal-patterns-pearls-and-pitfalls
#4
Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks, Tobias Maurer, Matthias Eiber
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast. Currently, gallium 68 (68Ga)-PSMA-11 (or HBED-PSMA) is the most widely used radiotracer for PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PSMA PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319785/diagnostic-accuracy-and-prognostic-value-of-simultaneous-hybrid-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#5
Eleanor C Wicks, Leon J Menezes, Anna Barnes, Saidi A Mohiddin, Neha Sekhri, Joanna C Porter, Helen L Booth, Emily Garrett, Riyaz S Patel, Menelaos Pavlou, Ashley M Groves, Perry M Elliott
Aims: Cardiac death is the leading cause of mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, yet cardiac involvement often remains undetected. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) have been used to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) yet never simultaneously in a cohort. This study sought to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of simultaneous hybrid cardiac PET/MR. Methods and results: Fifty-one consecutive patients with suspected CS (age 50 ± 13 years, 31 males) underwent simultaneous PET/MR following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet and 12-h fast...
January 8, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304105/dosimetric-evaluation-of-magnetic-resonance-generated-synthetic-ct-for-radiation-treatment-of-rectal-cancer
#6
Hesheng Wang, Kevin Du, Juliet Qu, Hersh Chandarana, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the dosimetric equivalence of magnetic resonance (MR)-generated synthetic CT (synCT) and simulation CT for treatment planning in radiotherapy of rectal cancer. METHODS: This study was conducted on eleven patients who underwent whole-body PET/MR and PET/CT examination in a prospective IRB-approved study. For each patient synCT was generated from Dixon MR using a model-based method. Standard treatment planning directives were used to create a four-field box (4F), an oblique four-field (O4F) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan on synCT for treatment of rectal cancer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301781/addition-of-amide-proton-transfer-imaging-to-fdg-pet-ct-improves-diagnostic-accuracy-in-glioma-grading-a-preliminary-study-using-the-continuous-net-reclassification-analysis
#7
A Sakata, T Okada, Y Yamamoto, Y Fushimi, T Dodo, Y Arakawa, Y Mineharu, B Schmitt, S Miyamoto, K Togashi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amide proton transfer imaging has been successfully applied to brain tumors, however, the relationships between amide proton transfer and other quantitative imaging values have yet to be investigated. The aim was to examine the additive value of amide proton transfer imaging alongside [18F] FDG-PET and DWI for preoperative grading of gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients with newly diagnosed gliomas were included in this retrospective study...
January 4, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282518/current-status-of-theranostics-in-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Irene Virgolini, Clemens Decristoforo, Alexander Haug, Stefano Fanti, Christian Uprimny
The aim of this review is to report on the current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed theranostics in prostate cancer (PC) patients. The value of 68Ga-PSMA-directed PET imaging as a diagnostic procedure for primary and recurrent PC as well as the role of evolving PSMA radioligand therapy (PRLT) in castration-resistant (CR)PC is assessed. The most eminent data from mostly retrospective studies currently available on theranostics of prostate cancer are discussed. The current knowledge on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT implicates that primary staging with PET/CT is meaningful in patients with high-risk PC and that the combination with pelvic multi parametric (mp)MR (or PET/mpMR) reaches the highest impact on patient management...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280050/niftypet-a-high-throughput-software-platform-for-high-quantitative-accuracy-and-precision-pet-imaging-and-analysis
#9
Pawel J Markiewicz, Matthias J Ehrhardt, Kjell Erlandsson, Philip J Noonan, Anna Barnes, Jonathan M Schott, David Atkinson, Simon R Arridge, Brian F Hutton, Sebastien Ourselin
We present a standalone, scalable and high-throughput software platform for PET image reconstruction and analysis. We focus on high fidelity modelling of the acquisition processes to provide high accuracy and precision quantitative imaging, especially for large axial field of view scanners. All the core routines are implemented using parallel computing available from within the Python package NiftyPET, enabling easy access, manipulation and visualisation of data at any processing stage. The pipeline of the platform starts from MR and raw PET input data and is divided into the following processing stages: (1) list-mode data processing; (2) accurate attenuation coefficient map generation; (3) detector normalisation; (4) exact forward and back projection between sinogram and image space; (5) estimation of reduced-variance random events; (6) high accuracy fully 3D estimation of scatter events; (7) voxel-based partial volume correction; (8) region- and voxel-level image analysis...
December 26, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279157/pulmonary-nodule-detection-in-oncological-patients-value-of-respiratory-triggered-periodically-rotated-overlapping-parallel-t2-weighted-imaging-evaluated-with-pet-ct-mr
#10
Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Jan Henning Geismar, Gaspar Delso, Michael Messerli, Martin Huellner, Paul Stolzmann, Patrick Veit-Haibach
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the detection and conspicuity of pulmonary nodules in an oncological population, using a tri-modality PET/CT-MR protocol including a respiration-gated T2-PROPELLER sequence for possible integration into a simultaneous PET/MR protocol. METHODS: 149 patients referred for staging of malignancy were prospectively enrolled in this single-center study. Imaging was performed on a tri-modality PET/CT-MR setup and was comprised of PET/CT and 3T-MR imaging with 3D dual-echo GRE pulse sequence (Dixon) and an axial respiration-gated T2-weighted PROPELLER (T2-P) sequence...
January 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273189/soft-tissue-sarcoma-response-to-two-cycles-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-a-multireader-analysis-of-mri-findings-and-agreement-with-recist-criteria-and-change-in-suvmax
#11
Jennifer L Favinger, Daniel S Hippe, Darin J Davidson, Saeed Elojeimy, Eira S Roth, Antoinette W Lindberg, Alice S Ha
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: When soft tissue sarcomas are treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the number of cycles of chemotherapy is usually dependent on the tumor's initial response. Popular methods to assess tumor response include Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria, which rely solely on tumor size, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) reduction in positron emission tomography (PET), which requires an expensive and high radiation test. We hypothesized that contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may offer a good alternative by providing additional information beyond tumor size...
December 19, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273015/diagnostic-accuracy-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-and-mr-imaging-in-patients-with-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#12
Verena Ruhlmann, Thorsten D Poeppel, Johannes Veit, James Nagarajah, Lale Umutlu, Thomas K Hoffmann, Andreas Bockisch, Ken Herrmann, Wolfgang Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) and MRI for local and/or whole-body restaging of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck (ACC). METHODS: Thirty-six patients with ACC underwent conventional MRI of the head and neck and a whole-body PET/CT and were analysed with regards to detection of a local tumor recurrence, lymph node or distant metastases. A consensus interpretation of all available imaging data was used as reference standard...
December 22, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249594/anatomic-versus-metabolic-tumor-response-assessment-after-radioembolization-treatment
#13
Jennifer M J Jongen, Charlotte E N M Rosenbaum, Manon N G J A Braat, Maurice A A J van den Bosch, Daniel Y Sze, Onno Kranenburg, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Marnix G E H Lam, Andor F van den Hoven
PURPOSE: To assess applicability of metabolic tumor response assessment on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) after radioembolization (RE) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) by comparison with one-dimensional size-based response assessment on MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 38 patients with CRLM undergoing RE. MR imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were performed at baseline, 1 month (n = 38), and 3 months (n = 21)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243665/anthropomorphic-thorax-phantom-for-cardio-respiratory-motion-simulation-in-tomographic-imaging
#14
Konstantin Bolwin, Björn Czekalla, Lynn Johann Frohwein, Florian Buther, Klaus P Schäfers
Patient motion during medical imaging using techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single emission computed tomography (SPECT) is well known to degrade images leading to blurring effects or severe artifacts. Motion correction methods try to overcome this degrading effects. However, they need to be validated under realistic conditions. In the present work, a sophisticated anthropomorphic thorax phantom is presented that combines several aspects of a simulator for cardio-respiratory motion...
December 15, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242363/diagnostic-accuracy-of-amino-acid-and-fdg-pet-in-differentiating-brain-metastasis-recurrence-from-radionecrosis-after-radiotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
H Li, L Deng, H X Bai, J Sun, Y Cao, Y Tao, L J States, M D Farwell, P Zhang, B Xiao, L Yang
BACKGROUND: Current studies that analyze the usefulness of amino acid and FDG-PET in distinguishing brain metastasis recurrence and radionecrosis after radiation therapy are limited by small cohort size. PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of amino acid and FDG-PET in differentiating brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis after radiation therapy. DATA SOURCES: Studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library...
December 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232185/18f-fdg-pet-biomarkers-help-detect-early-metabolic-response-to-irreversible-electroporation-and-predict-therapeutic-outcomes-in-a-rat-liver-tumor-model
#16
Xifu Wang, Zhanliang Su, Tianchu Lyu, Matteo Figini, Daniel Procissi, Junjie Shangguan, Chong Sun, Bin Wang, Na Shang, Shanzhi Gu, Quanhong Ma, Andrew C Gordon, Kai Lin, Jian Wang, Robert J Lewandowski, Riad Salem, Vahid Yaghmai, Andrew C Larson, Zhuoli Zhang
Purpose To test the hypothesis that biomarkers of fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) can be used for the early detection of therapeutic response to irreversible electroporation (IRE) of liver tumor in a rodent liver tumor model. Materials and Methods The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Rats were inoculated with McA-RH7777 liver tumor cells in the left median and left lateral lobes. Tumors were allowed to grow for 7 days to reach a size typically at least 5 mm in longest diameter, as verified with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
December 12, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230607/the-effect-of-high-count-rates-on-cardiac-perfusion-quantification-in-a-simultaneous-pet-mr-system-using-a-cardiac-perfusion-phantom
#17
Jim O' Doherty, Zacharias Chalampalakis, Paul Schleyer, Muhummad Sohaib Nazir, Amedeo Chiribiri, Paul K Marsden
BACKGROUND: PET-MRI is under investigation as a new strategy for quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging. Consideration is required as to the maximum scanner count rate in order to limit dead-time losses resulting from administered activity in the scanner field of view during the first pass of the radiotracer. RESULTS: We performed a decaying-source experiment to investigate the high count-rate performance of a PET-MR system (Siemens mMR) over the expected range of activities during a clinical study...
December 11, 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221153/-68ga-pentixafor-for-cxcr4-imaging-in-a-pc-3-prostate-cancer-xenograft-model-comparison-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct-mri-and-ex-vivo-receptor-expression
#18
Sarah M Schwarzenböck, Jan Stenzel, Thomas Otto, Heike V Helldorff, Carina Bergner, Jens Kurth, Stefan Polei, Tobias Lindner, Romina Rauer, Alexander Hohn, Oliver W Hakenberg, Hans J Wester, Brigitte Vollmar, Bernd J Krause
Purpose: The aim was to characterize the properties of [68Ga]Pentixafor as tracer for prostate cancer imaging in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft mouse model and to investigate its correlation with [18F]FDG PET/CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ex vivo analyses. Methods: Static [68Ga]Pentixafor and [18F]FDG PET as well as morphological/ diffusion weighted MRI and 1H MR spectroscopy was performed. Imaging data were correlated with ex vivo biodistribution and CXCR4 expression in PC-3 tumors (immunohistochemistry (IHC), mRNA analysis)...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218626/treatment-related-changes-in-glioblastoma-a-review-on-the-controversies-in-response-assessment-criteria-and-the-concepts-of-true-progression-pseudoprogression-pseudoresponse-and-radionecrosis
#19
REVIEW
P D Delgado-López, E Riñones-Mena, E M Corrales-García
The assessment of response to therapy in glioblastoma remains a challenge, because the surrogate measures of survival are subject to radiographic misinterpretation. A solid and reliable definition of progression is needed for both clinical decision-making and for evaluating response within the clinical trials. Historically, assessment criteria have used radiologic and clinical features aimed to correctly classify patients into progressive or non-progressive disease. The widely used RANO criteria are a valuable tool in disease evaluation, both in the clinical setting and in the clinical trials...
December 7, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218271/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-precision-radiation-therapy-for-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Hannah Bainbridge, Ahmed Salem, Rob H N Tijssen, Michael Dubec, Andreas Wetscherek, Corinne Van Es, Jose Belderbos, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Fiona McDonald
Radiotherapy remains the cornerstone of curative treatment for inoperable locally advanced lung cancer, given concomitantly with platinum-based chemotherapy. With poor overall survival, research efforts continue to explore whether integration of advanced radiation techniques will assist safe treatment intensification with the potential for improving outcomes. One advance is the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the treatment pathway, providing anatomical and functional information with excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure of the patient to radiation...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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