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Pediatric atelectasis

Yu Kawai, Andrea G DeMonbrun, Rebecca S Chambers, Danielle A Nolan, Bram A Dolcourt, Nasuh M Malas, Michael W Quasney
A 14-year-old previously healthy female was transferred from a local emergency department after being found unresponsive at home. Parental questioning revealed she had fever and pharyngitis 2 weeks before presentation. Past mental health history was negative, including concern for past or present suicidal ideation/attempts, suspected substance use, or toxic ingestion. In the emergency department, she was orotracheally intubated due to a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3. She was hemodynamically stable and euglycemic...
January 2017: Pediatrics
Cecilia M Acosta, Gerardo Tusman, Mauro Costantini, Camila Echevarría, Sergio Pollioto, Diego Abrego, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann, Stephan H Böhm
BACKGROUND: Doppler images of pulmonary vessels in pulmonary diseases associated with subpleural consolidations have been described. Color Doppler easily identifies such vessels within consolidations while spectral Doppler analysis allows the differentiation between pulmonary and bronchial arteries. Thus, Doppler helps in diagnosing the nature of consolidations. To our knowledge, Doppler analysis of pulmonary vessels within anesthesia-induced atelectasis has never been described before...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
V Arnoux, A Carsin, E Bosdure, K Retornaz, B Chabrol, G Gorincour, J Mancini, A Dabadie, J-C Dubus
OBJECTIVE: A management protocol for infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis, established after the study conducted in our unit in 2012, recommends a chest X-ray when the clinical course is unusual or if a differential diagnosis is suspected. The goal of this study was to evaluate professional practices after the introduction of this new management protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study in two pediatric units from October 2013 to March 2015, including infants (0-23 months) hospitalized for their first episode of acute bronchiolitis without any underlying chronic condition...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Sureyya Burcu Gorkem, Seçil Köse, Edward Y Lee, Selim Doğanay, Ayse Seda Coskun, Mehmet Köse
BACKGROUND: Childhood sarcoidosis is a very rare granulomatous disorder with an unknown etiology. Stage 1 disease is the most common whereas stages 2, 3, and 0 are rare in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate thoracic findings of pediatric pulmonary sarcoidosis on MRI and to compare them with CT findings. METHODS: Between August 2010 and May 2015, seven consecutive pediatric patients (four male, three female; age range: 8-18 years, mean age: 13...
October 31, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Marlon E F Wilsterman, Pauline de Jager, Robert Blokpoel, Inez Frerichs, Sandra K Dijkstra, Marcel J I J Albers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Dick G Markhorst, Martin C J Kneyber
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been shown to improve outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults, challenging maintaining spontaneous breathing when there is severe lung injury. We tested in a prospective physiological study the hypothesis that continuous administration of NMB agents in mechanically ventilated children with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) improves the oxygenation index without a redistribution of tidal volume V T toward non-dependent lung zones...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Senem Alkan Ozdemir, Esra Arun Ozer, Ozkan Ilhan, Sumer Sutcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is an essential therapy in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants. However, optimal ventilation strategy continues to be difficult to define. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of volume guarantee (VG) combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and VG combined with pressure support ventilation (PSV) on the pulmonary mechanics and short term prognosis in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Lu Gong, Lan Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of electronic bronchoscopy in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of pediatric intensive care patients with difficult ventilator weaning. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 92 pediatric intensive care patients with difficult ventilator weaning and underwent electronic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: Among all the 92 children, the most common underlying disease was respiratory system disease (39 children)...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Stephen Morgan, Christoph P Hornik, Niyati Patel, Walter L Williford, David A Turner, Ira M Cheifetz
BACKGROUND: Continuous high-frequency oscillation (CHFO) creates a pressure gradient in the small airways that accelerates expiratory flow. The intended use of CHFO therapy is to facilitate secretion removal and treat atelectasis. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of CHFO in the mechanically ventilated pediatric population. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of mechanically ventilated children treated with CHFO (the MetaNeb system) at our institution from July 1, 2007 through August 31, 2012...
August 16, 2016: Respiratory Care
Jennifer H Chao, Raymond Chou-Jui Lin, Shashidhar Marneni, Shreya Pandya, Sana Alhajri, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: An abnormal Chest-X-ray (CXR) inconsistent with simple bronchiolitis is found in 7%-23% of cases. Despite national guidelines stating "current evidence does not support routine radiography in children with bronchiolitis"; the use of CXR in these patients remains high. Inappropriate use of CXR not only exposes children to excess radiation, but also increases medical costs. The majority of the time, CXRs are obtained to diagnose or rule-out pneumonia. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach defining the utility of CXR in bronchiolitis for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia...
July 18, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Q Han, Y Shi, H X Li, W W Tang, H X Liu, D Y Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of bronchitis obliterans that complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). METHOD: The clinical manifestations, characteristic imaging and pathology of a case with pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) complicated with bronchitis obliterans and BOOP were summarized and relative articles were reviewed. RESULT: A 10-year-old girl complained of recurrent paroxysmal cough and episodes of wheezing with exercise, productive of yellowish sputum, irregular fever for 1 month presented with lower breath sounds of left lower lobe and localized tubular breath sounds...
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Caiyun Ni, Huafeng Yu, Xiaorong Han, Chen Meng, Yanqin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic cryotherapy for pediatric poor ventilation. METHODS: A total of 156 pediatric patients with airway stenosis and obstruction as well as pulmonary atelectasis received bronchoscopic cryotherapy. Treatment efficacy was evaluated on bronchoscopy Before cryotherapy and after the last cryotherapy treatment. Pulmonary atelectasis was assessed according to range of atelectasis on chest computed tomography (CT), and tracheobronchial stenosis according to pulmonary function, tidal volume analysis and dyspnea index...
January 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Masataka Takamiya, Hisae Niitsu, Kiyoshi Saigusa, Koji Dewa
Here we report an autopsy case of asphyxia due to aspiration of a salmon egg (ikura) into the airway. The patient was a 19-month-old girl. During breakfast, she put salmon eggs into her mouth, and began to walk. She slipped, fell down, and collapsed. She was pronounced dead following 2 h of resuscitation. The body was autopsied 28 h after death. The gastric contents consisted of rice, orange sections, and white salmon eggs. The lungs were deeply congested and over-inflated. In the right lung, areas of atelectasis in the upper and middle lobes were seen...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Kelsey A Miller, Amir Kimia, Michael C Monuteaux, Joshua Nagler
BACKGROUND: Correct positioning of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during emergent pediatric intubations can be challenging, and incorrect placement may be associated with higher rates of complications. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to: 1) assess the prevalence of clinically undetected misplaced ETTs after intubation in the pediatric emergency department; 2) identify predictors of ETT misplacement; and 3) evaluate for any association between intubation-related complications and ETT position...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jamie Golden, Mubina Isani, Jordan Bowling, Jessica Zagory, Catherine J Goodhue, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey S Upperman, Christopher P Gayer
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (chest CT) is overused in blunt pediatric thoracic trauma. Chest CT adds to the diagnosis of thoracic injury but rarely changes patient management. We sought to identify a subset of blunt pediatric trauma patients who would benefit from a screening chest CT based on their admission chest x-ray (CXR) findings. We hypothesize that limiting chest CT to patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette identifies intrathoracic vascular injuries not otherwise seen on CXR...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Vered Nir, Anat Ilivitky, Fahed Hakim, Ronen Bar Yoseph, Michal Gur, Hana Mandel, Lea Bentur
BACKGROUND: Prolidase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, in which pulmonary manifestations have been sporadically reported. AIMS: We have encountered two patients who presented with severe pulmonary cystic lesions leading to respiratory failure. This led us to retrospectively evaluate pulmonary involvement in patients with prolidase deficiency treated in our hospital. RESULTS: Of 21 patients (including the 2 mentioned above), 12 had a history of recurrent pulmonary infections and 10 were diagnosed as having chronic lung disease...
May 1, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Kimberley S Noij, Daniel P Noij, Johannes Borgstein
In treating atelectasis of the middle ear multiple techniques have been described, including grafting of the eardrum defect e.g. with perichondrium or cartilage.(1) Several studies suggested that excision of the retraction pocket in pediatric ears does not require grafting. The spontaneous healing capacity of the pediatric tympanic membrane (TM) ranged from 87.2% to 96.8%.(2-5) These results are comparable to spontaneous healing after traumatic perforations of the tympanic membrane, which is generally treated conservatively, and to results of myringoplasty operations for perforated membranes...
January 4, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Sherri L Katz, Nicholas Barrowman, Andrea Monsour, Santana Su, Lynda Hoey, Douglas McKim
RATIONALE: Lung volume recruitment therapy slows rate of decline of lung function in neuromuscular disease, possibly due to enhanced airway clearance, reduced atelectasis, or prevention of chest wall contractures. OBJECTIVES: To determine if lung volume recruitment maintains maximal insufflation capacity (MIC), despite decline in VC. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study (1991-2008) of individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy at pediatric and adult tertiary centers...
February 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Guo-Qiang Zhang, Jing Ye, Jun-Yong Chen, Wei Liu, Kai-Can Cai
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of one lung ventilation (OLV) preconditioning on perioperative oxygenation during pediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATS). METHODS: A total of 171 children aged 5 days to 11 years underwent VATS for empyema dissection and abscess excisions (n=55), mediastinal tumor resection (n=34), repair of the diaphragmatic hernia or diaphragmatic plication (n=21), pulmonary lobectomy or biopsy (n=43), or esophageal disease (n=18)...
October 2015: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ali Güneş, Ünal Uluca, Fesih Aktar, Çapan Konca, Velat Şen, Aydın Ece, Salih Hoşoğlu, Mehmet Ali Taş, Fuat Gürkan
BACKGROUND: A delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) may lead to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, radiological and laboratory findings of TBM on a cohort of 185 pediatric patients at a single centre over a 10 year period and to investigate relationship between the stage of the disease. METHODS: The hospital records of 185 TBM children that presented to the Pediatric Clinics of Dicle University Hospital were retrospectively evaluated...
2015: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
James A Lin, Andranik Madikians
Acute viral bronchiolitis is a leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care units, but research on the care of these critically ill infants has been limited. Pathology of viral bronchiolitis revealed respiratory obstruction due to intraluminal debris and edema of the airways and vasculature. This and clinical evidence suggest that airway clearance interventions such as hypertonic saline nebulizers and pulmonary toilet devices may be of benefit, particularly in situations of atelectasis associated with bronchiolitis...
August 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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