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Pediatric atelectasis

Senem Alkan Ozdemir, Esra Arun Ozer, Ozkan Ilhan, Sumer Sutcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is an essential therapy in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants. However, optimal ventilation strategy continues to be difficult to define. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of volume guarantee (VG) combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and VG combined with pressure support ventilation (PSV) on the pulmonary mechanics and short term prognosis in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Lu Gong, Lan Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of electronic bronchoscopy in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of pediatric intensive care patients with difficult ventilator weaning. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 92 pediatric intensive care patients with difficult ventilator weaning and underwent electronic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: Among all the 92 children, the most common underlying disease was respiratory system disease (39 children)...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Stephen Morgan, Christoph P Hornik, Niyati Patel, Walter L Williford, David A Turner, Ira M Cheifetz
BACKGROUND: Continuous high-frequency oscillation (CHFO) creates a pressure gradient in the small airways that accelerates expiratory flow. The intended use of CHFO therapy is to facilitate secretion removal and treat atelectasis. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of CHFO in the mechanically ventilated pediatric population. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of mechanically ventilated children treated with CHFO (the MetaNeb system) at our institution from July 1, 2007 through August 31, 2012...
August 16, 2016: Respiratory Care
Jennifer H Chao, Raymond Chou-Jui Lin, Shashidhar Marneni, Shreya Pandya, Sana Alhajri, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: An abnormal Chest-X-ray (CXR) inconsistent with simple bronchiolitis is found in 7%-23% of cases. Despite national guidelines stating "current evidence does not support routine radiography in children with bronchiolitis"; the use of CXR in these patients remains high. Inappropriate use of CXR not only exposes children to excess radiation, but also increases medical costs. The majority of the time, CXRs are obtained to diagnose or rule-out pneumonia. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach defining the utility of CXR in bronchiolitis for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia...
July 18, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Q Han, Y Shi, H X Li, W W Tang, H X Liu, D Y Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of bronchitis obliterans that complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). METHOD: The clinical manifestations, characteristic imaging and pathology of a case with pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) complicated with bronchitis obliterans and BOOP were summarized and relative articles were reviewed. RESULT: A 10-year-old girl complained of recurrent paroxysmal cough and episodes of wheezing with exercise, productive of yellowish sputum, irregular fever for 1 month presented with lower breath sounds of left lower lobe and localized tubular breath sounds...
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Caiyun Ni, Huafeng Yu, Xiaorong Han, Chen Meng, Yanqin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic cryotherapy for pediatric disease of poor ventilation. METHODS: A total of 156 pediatric patients with airway stenosis and obstruction as well as pulmonary atelectasis received bronchoscopic cryotherapy. Before cryotherapy and after the last cryotherapy treatment, the treatment efficacy was evaluated by examining the patients' clinical presentations and lesions in airway under bronchoscope...
July 10, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Masataka Takamiya, Hisae Niitsu, Kiyoshi Saigusa, Koji Dewa
Here we report an autopsy case of asphyxia due to aspiration of a salmon egg (ikura) into the airway. The patient was a 19-month-old girl. During breakfast, she put salmon eggs into her mouth, and began to walk. She slipped, fell down, and collapsed. She was pronounced dead following 2 h of resuscitation. The body was autopsied 28 h after death. The gastric contents consisted of rice, orange sections, and white salmon eggs. The lungs were deeply congested and over-inflated. In the right lung, areas of atelectasis in the upper and middle lobes were seen...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Kelsey A Miller, Amir Kimia, Michael C Monuteaux, Joshua Nagler
BACKGROUND: Correct positioning of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during emergent pediatric intubations can be challenging, and incorrect placement may be associated with higher rates of complications. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to: 1) assess the prevalence of clinically undetected misplaced ETTs after intubation in the pediatric emergency department; 2) identify predictors of ETT misplacement; and 3) evaluate for any association between intubation-related complications and ETT position...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jamie Golden, Mubina Isani, Jordan Bowling, Jessica Zagory, Catherine J Goodhue, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey S Upperman, Christopher P Gayer
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (chest CT) is overused in blunt pediatric thoracic trauma. Chest CT adds to the diagnosis of thoracic injury but rarely changes patient management. We sought to identify a subset of blunt pediatric trauma patients who would benefit from a screening chest CT based on their admission chest x-ray (CXR) findings. We hypothesize that limiting chest CT to patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette identifies intrathoracic vascular injuries not otherwise seen on CXR...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Vered Nir, Anat Ilivitky, Fahed Hakim, Ronen Bar Yoseph, Michal Gur, Hana Mandel, Lea Bentur
BACKGROUND: Prolidase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, in which pulmonary manifestations have been sporadically reported. AIMS: We have encountered two patients who presented with severe pulmonary cystic lesions leading to respiratory failure. This led us to retrospectively evaluate pulmonary involvement in patients with prolidase deficiency treated in our hospital. RESULTS: Of 21 patients (including the 2 mentioned above), 12 had a history of recurrent pulmonary infections and 10 were diagnosed as having chronic lung disease...
May 1, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Kimberley S Noij, Daniel P Noij, Johannes Borgstein
In treating atelectasis of the middle ear multiple techniques have been described, including grafting of the eardrum defect e.g. with perichondrium or cartilage.(1) Several studies suggested that excision of the retraction pocket in pediatric ears does not require grafting. The spontaneous healing capacity of the pediatric tympanic membrane (TM) ranged from 87.2% to 96.8%.(2-5) These results are comparable to spontaneous healing after traumatic perforations of the tympanic membrane, which is generally treated conservatively, and to results of myringoplasty operations for perforated membranes...
January 4, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Sherri L Katz, Nicholas Barrowman, Andrea Monsour, Santana Su, Lynda Hoey, Douglas McKim
RATIONALE: Lung volume recruitment therapy slows rate of decline of lung function in neuromuscular disease, possibly due to enhanced airway clearance, reduced atelectasis, or prevention of chest wall contractures. OBJECTIVES: To determine if lung volume recruitment maintains maximal insufflation capacity (MIC), despite decline in VC. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study (1991-2008) of individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy at pediatric and adult tertiary centers...
February 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Guo-Qiang Zhang, Jing Ye, Jun-Yong Chen, Wei Liu, Kai-Can Cai
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of one lung ventilation (OLV) preconditioning on perioperative oxygenation during pediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATS). METHODS: A total of 171 children aged 5 days to 11 years underwent VATS for empyema dissection and abscess excisions (n=55), mediastinal tumor resection (n=34), repair of the diaphragmatic hernia or diaphragmatic plication (n=21), pulmonary lobectomy or biopsy (n=43), or esophageal disease (n=18)...
October 2015: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ali Güneş, Ünal Uluca, Fesih Aktar, Çapan Konca, Velat Şen, Aydın Ece, Salih Hoşoğlu, Mehmet Ali Taş, Fuat Gürkan
BACKGROUND: A delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) may lead to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, radiological and laboratory findings of TBM on a cohort of 185 pediatric patients at a single centre over a 10 year period and to investigate relationship between the stage of the disease. METHODS: The hospital records of 185 TBM children that presented to the Pediatric Clinics of Dicle University Hospital were retrospectively evaluated...
2015: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
James A Lin, Andranik Madikians
Acute viral bronchiolitis is a leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care units, but research on the care of these critically ill infants has been limited. Pathology of viral bronchiolitis revealed respiratory obstruction due to intraluminal debris and edema of the airways and vasculature. This and clinical evidence suggest that airway clearance interventions such as hypertonic saline nebulizers and pulmonary toilet devices may be of benefit, particularly in situations of atelectasis associated with bronchiolitis...
August 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Erin E Shaughnessy, Cynthia White, Samir S Shah, Brittany Hubbell, Heidi Sucharew, Hemant Sawnani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: At our institution, one-fifth of pediatric patients undergoing hip and spine surgery require prolonged oxygen supplementation, most likely due to postoperative atelectasis. Using quality improvement methodology, we aimed to implement an innovative postoperative respiratory care algorithm for hip and spine surgery patients, with a global aim of improving respiratory outcomes. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team developed a care algorithm that relied on an activated respiratory therapist (RT) and engagement of patients and families...
August 2015: Pediatrics
Shawna L Strickland, Bruce K Rubin, Carl F Haas, Teresa A Volsko, Gail S Drescher, Catherine A O'Malley
Aerosolized medications are used as airway clearance therapy to treat a variety of airway diseases. These guidelines were developed from a systematic review with the purpose of determining whether the use of these medications to promote airway clearance improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics, reduces ventilator time and ICU stay, and/or resolves atelectasis/consolidation compared with usual care. Recombinant human dornase alfa should not be used in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis...
July 2015: Respiratory Care
Go Miyano, Masaya Yamoto, Masakatsu Kaneshiro, Hiromu Miyake, Keiichi Morita, Hiroshi Nouso, Mariko Koyama, Manabu Okawada, Takashi Doi, Hiroyuki Koga, Koji Fukumoto, Geoffrey J Lane, Atsuyuki Yamataka, Naoto Urushihara
AIM: To determine the best way to perform diaphragmatic plication for diaphragmatic eventration (DE) using minimally invasive surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric cases of DE treated between 2007 and 2012. Thoracoscopic plication (TP) is performed using single-lung ventilation with three 5-mm ports; laparoscopic plication (LP) is performed using three or four 5-mm ports. The choice of technique was determined preferentially by the treating surgeon...
April 2015: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Hernán Lucio Talamoni, Néstor Daniel Pisapia, Jefferson Antonio Buendía
UNLABELLED: Most patients with pulmonary atelectasis have complete resolution with medical therapy. In patients with persistent atelectasis, endoscopic treatment has proven to be an effective therapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience using flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children with persistent atelectasis. This is a case series report of children treated with flexible bronchoscopy between January 2005 and December 2013, at the Pediatric Pulmonology Section of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires...
April 2015: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Linda E Sousse, David N Herndon, Clark R Andersen, Arham Ali, Nicole C Benjamin, Thomas Granchi, Oscar E Suman, Ronald P Mlcak
BACKGROUND: Inhalation injury, which is among the causes of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), continues to represent a significant source of mortality in burned patients. Inhalation injury often requires mechanical ventilation, but the ideal tidal volume strategy is not clearly defined in burned pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low and high tidal volume on the number of ventilator days, ventilation pressures, and incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia, and ARDS in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury within 1 year post burn injury...
April 2015: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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