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Predominantly inattentive

Matthew A Jarrett, Anna Van Meter, Eric A Youngstrom, Dane C Hilton, Thomas H Ollendick
Guidelines exist for the assessment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but they are often unclear as to how a clinician should consider multiple informants, methods, and co-occurring symptoms to reach an overall diagnostic probability for an individual patient. The current study used receiver operating characteristic analyses and evidence-based medicine methods to evaluate the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment measures and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test for ADHD diagnosis in youth...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Yusaku Takamura, Maho Imanishi, Madoka Osaka, Satoko Ohmatsu, Takanori Tominaga, Kentaro Yamanaka, Shu Morioka, Noritaka Kawashima
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemispheric stroke. While most patients lack insight into their neglect behaviour and do not initiate compensatory behaviours in the early recovery phase, some patients recognize it and start to pay attention towards the neglected space. We aimed to characterize visual attention capacity in patients with unilateral spatial neglect with specific focus on cortical processes underlying compensatory gaze shift towards the neglected space during the recovery process...
September 23, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lauren M Haack, Yuan Jiang, Kevin Delucchi, Nina Kaiser, Keith McBurnett, Stephen Hinshaw, Linda Pfiffer
We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors...
September 24, 2016: Family Process
Lauren M Haack, Miguel Villodas, Keith McBurnett, Stephen Hinshaw, Linda J Pfiffner
We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Stephen Z Levine, Stefan Leucht
BACKGROUND: Reasons for the recent mixed success of research into negative symptoms may be informed by conceptualizing negative symptoms as a system that is identifiable from network analysis. We aimed to identify: (I) negative symptom systems; (I) central negative symptoms within each system; and (III) differences between the systems, based on network analysis of negative symptoms for baseline, endpoint and change. METHODS: Patients with chronic schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms participated in three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60days (n=487)...
September 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Mary C Kral, Michelle D Lally, Andrea D Boan
PURPOSE: To further characterize Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinic-referred sample of youth with epilepsy. METHODS: Children and adolescents with epilepsy who were referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation comprised the sample. Data were obtained via archival record review. Youth with epilepsy were grouped according to ADHD diagnosis (no ADHD, ADHD - Combined Type, and ADHD - Predominantly Inattentive Type) and compared for a number of neurocognitive variables, seizure-related variables, and parent and teacher completed behavior rating scale variables...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
T S Jaisoorya, K V Beena, M Beena, K Ellangovan, Sanju George, K Thennarasu, Shoba Srinath
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. METHOD: Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. RESULTS: Three hundred five (4...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Arianna M Gard, Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
We examined the longitudinal associations between prenatal tobacco smoke exposure (PSE) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom domains in adolescence and young adulthood. A sample of girls with ADHD combined presentation (N=93), ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation (N=47), and matched comparisons (N= 88) was assessed prospectively. Symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IA), and oppositionality (oppositional defiant disorder) were measured via multiple informants 5 (M age =14 years; retention rate =92%) and 10 years (M age =20 years; retention rate =95%) following childhood ascertainment...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
Christina Gray, Emma A Climie
Reading is a multifaceted skillset that has the potential to profoundly impact a child's academic performance and achievement. Mastery of reading skills is often an area of difficulty for children during their academic journey, particularly for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading (SLD-R), or children with a comorbid diagnosis of both ADHD and SLD-R. ADHD is characterized by executive functioning and impulse control deficits, as well as inattention and impulsivity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
John E Leikauf, Mary V Solanto
OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) have been considered a potential subset of symptoms of ADHD, predominantly inattentive presentation (ADHD-I), or as a separate but related symptom dimension. We sought to characterize the relationships between SCT and both internalizing symptoms and executive functioning in adults with ADHD. METHOD: One hundred two adults diagnosed with ADHD completed clinical interviews and clinical rating scales. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the independent predictive power of SCT symptoms for executive dysfunction after considering ADHD inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and internalizing symptoms...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Emily Buss, Heather L Porter, Lori J Leibold, John H Grose, Joseph W Hall
OBJECTIVES: Detection thresholds in quiet become adult-like earlier in childhood for high than low frequencies. When adults listen for sounds near threshold, they tend to engage in behaviors that reduce physiologic noise (e.g., quiet breathing), which is predominantly low frequency. Children may not suppress self-generated noise to the same extent as adults, such that low-frequency self-generated noise elevates thresholds in the associated frequency regions. This possibility was evaluated by measuring noise levels in the ear canal simultaneous with adaptive threshold estimation...
July 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Masafumi Sanefuji, Michael Craig, Valeria Parlatini, Mitul A Mehta, Declan G Murphy, Marco Catani, Leonardo Cerliani, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Two core symptoms characterize Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes: inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. While previous brain imaging research investigated ADHD as if it was a homogenous condition, its two core symptoms may originate from different brain mechanisms. We, therefore, hypothesized that the functional connectivity of cortico-striatal and attentional networks would be different between ADHD subtypes. We studied 165 children (mean age 10.93 years; age range, 7-17 year old) diagnosed as having ADHD based on their revised Conner's rating scale score and 170 typical developing individuals (mean age 11...
June 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mark Kennedy, Jana Kreppner, Nicky Knights, Robert Kumsta, Barbara Maughan, Dennis Golm, Michael Rutter, Wolff Schlotz, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
BACKGROUND: Early-life institutional deprivation is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) later in childhood and adolescence. In this article, we examine, for the first time, the persistence of deprivation-related ADHD into young adulthood in a sample of individuals adopted as young children by UK families after periods in extremely depriving Romanian orphanages. METHODS: We estimated rates of ADHD at age 15 years and in young adulthood (ages 22-25 years) in individuals at low (LoDep; nondeprived UK adoptees and Romanian adoptees with less than 6-month institutional exposure) and high deprivation-related risk (HiDep; Romanian adoptees with more than 6-month exposure)...
October 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Liisa Klenberg, Laura Hokkanen, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Vesa Närhi
School-age children with difficulties in executive functions (EFs) are at risk for substantial academic impairment and poorer developmental outcome. Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is generally associated with weaknesses in EFs, a relatively minimal amount is known about school-related EF difficulties and differences between ADHD subtypes. The present study examined teacher ratings of EF behaviors in 7- to 15-year-old Finnish children with combined symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-C; n = 189), predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I; n = 25), and no ADHD (n = 691)...
May 13, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Alena Svatkova, Igor Nestrasil, Kyle Rudser, Jodene Goldenring Fine, Jesse Bledsoe, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) and combined (ADHD-C) presentations are likely distinct disorders that differ neuroanatomically, neurochemically, and neuropsychologically. However, to date, little is known about specific white matter (WM) regions differentiating ADHD presentations. This study examined differences in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 20 ADHD-PI, 18 ADHD-C, and 27 typically developed children. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI measurements in major fiber bundles was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)...
September 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Brian J Sherman, Eleni Vousoura, Priya Wickramaratne, Virginia Warner, Helen Verdeli
INTRODUCTION: The current study examined the relationships between parental depression, offspring depression, and offspring temperament among 203 offspring of parents with or without depression. The specific aim was to investigate how parental depression and offspring difficult temperament affect frequency, severity, and duration of offspring major depressive episodes (MDEs). METHODS: As part of an ongoing multigenerational study assessing familial transmission of depression, offspring were assessed over a 20-year study period...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Eyup Sabri Ercan, Serkan Suren, Ali Bacanlı, Kemal Utku Yazıcı, Cem Callı, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Duygu Aygunes, Buket Kosova, Onur Ozyurt, Cahide Aydın, Luis Augusto Rohde
This study aimed to provide novel insights into the white matter (WM) microstructural properties of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes by recruiting a relatively large sample of stimulant-naïve children and adolescents who had no comorbidity other than Oppositional Defiant Disorder and were homogenous according to the DAT1 gene polymorphism. A sample of 72 ADHD subjects and 24 controls aged 8-15 years were enrolled in the study. We applied tract-based spatial statistics to the DTI measures for obtaining fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial diffusivity (AD, RD) measures to explore ADHD type-related differences in WM for the whole brain...
April 14, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Samantha Johnson, Puja Kochhar, Enid Hennessy, Neil Marlow, Dieter Wolke, Chris Hollis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate antecedents of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children born extremely preterm (EP; <26-wk gestation). METHOD: The EPICure study recruited all babies born EP in the United Kingdom and Ireland in March-December 1995. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 2.5 (n = 283; 90%), 6 (n = 160; 78%), and 11 (n = 219; 71%) years of age. Parents and teachers completed the DuPaul Rating Scale IV to assess inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms at 11 years...
May 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Stephen P Becker, Tanya E Froehlich, Jeffery N Epstein
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of stimulant medication on the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and identify predictors of sleep problems as a side effect of taking stimulant medication. METHOD: One hundred sixty-three stimulant-naïve children (72% boys) aged 7 to 11 years diagnosed with ADHD (120 with ADHD predominantly inattentive type, 43 with ADHD combined type) participated in a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of once-daily (long-acting) methylphenidate (MPH)...
June 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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