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Maria Regina Torloni, Ana Pilar Betrán, José M Belizán
The Birth in Brazil study is the largest national hospital-based survey in Brazil regarding birth practices. Conducted in 2011-2012, it collected information from 266 public and private healthcare facilities and interviewed nearly 24,000 postpartum women. It is also the latest effort to map out how labor and delivery are managed in this county in the 21st century. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement including 10 articles presenting the results of a series of analyses using this valuable resource...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Seung Woo Park
Rapid progress of mobile information technologies such as wearable sensors, wireless communication, and world-wide use of smartphone cause digital health innovations. In the field of hypertension, wearable blood pressure (BP) monitoring and its wireless transfer to anywhere through smartphone, mobile smartphone apps, and cuffless blood pressure monitoring system are expected to change the way of diagnosis and management of hypertension. Home BP monitoring would be easier and wireless data transfer to health care providers would be common...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lucas Brien Chartier, Licinia Simoes, Meredith Kuipers, Barb McGovern
Over the last decade, patient volumes in the emergency department (ED) have grown disproportionately compared to the increase in staffing and resources at the Toronto Western Hospital, an academic tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. The resultant congestion has spilled over to the ED waiting room, where medically undifferentiated and potentially unstable patients must wait until a bed becomes available. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the 90th percentile of wait time between triage and bed assignment (time-to-bed) by half, from 120 to 60 minutes, for our highest acuity patients...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
B Dal Pupo, M Zanon, A W Tech, L V Cruz, M Cornelli, C do Valle Pereira, J Bertoglio, C Acosta, P Perusato, A J C Monteiro, G Marinho, A P S Souza, C D Garcia
BACKGROUND: Today, Brazil is the second country of the world in number of transplants. Nonetheless, waiting lists are getting longer. This lack of organs occurs mostly because of people's reduced knowledge about the donation process. With the aim of changing this scenario, in 2013 and 2014, "Organ Donation Week" events were held at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre. METHODS: During the 2 years, documentaries followed by a cycle of debates with experts in this area were exhibited...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Shabbir Muhammad, Masayoshi Nakano, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi, Yasutaka Kitagawa, Ahmad Irfan, Aijaz R Chaudhry, Ryohei Kishi, Soichi Ito, Kyohei Yoneda, Kotaro Fukuda
Carbon atoms have the potential to produce a variety of fascinating all-carbon structures with amazing electronic and mechanical properties. Over the last few decades, several efforts have been made using experimental and computational techniques to functionalize graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes for potential use in modern hi-tech electronic, medicinal, optical and nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Since photons replaced electrons as a carrier of information, the field of NLO material design has drawn immense interest in contemporary materials science...
September 30, 2016: Nanoscale
Gabriel Aldaz, Sunil Puria, Larry J Leifer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that hearing aid wearers can successfully self-train their instruments' gain-frequency response and compression parameters in everyday situations. Combining hearing aids with a smartphone introduces additional computing power, memory, and a graphical user interface that may enable greater setting personalization. To explore the benefits of self-training with a smartphone-based hearing system, a parameter space was chosen with four possible combinations of microphone mode (omnidirectional and directional) and noise reduction state (active and off)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Chien-Hui Syu, Po-Hsuan Chien, Chia-Chen Huang, Pei-Yu Jiang, Kai-Wei Juang, Dar-Yuan Lee
Limited information is available on the effects of gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on the growth of paddy rice. The Ga and In are emerging contaminants and widely used in high-tech industries nowadays. Understanding the toxicity and accumulation of Ga and In by rice plants is important for reducing the effect on rice production and exposure risk to human by rice consumption. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of Ga and In on the growth of rice seedlings and examines the accumulation and distribution of those elements in plant tissues...
September 24, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jun Zheng, Christoph Egger, Judit Lienert
Wastewater infrastructure management is increasingly important because of urbanization, environmental pollutants, aging infrastructures, and climate change. We propose a scenario-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to compare different infrastructure alternatives in terms of their sustainability. These range from the current centralized system to semi- and fully decentralized options. Various sources of uncertainty are considered, including external socio-economic uncertainty captured by future scenarios, uncertainty in predicting outcomes of alternatives, and incomplete preferences of stakeholders...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Seung Woo Park
Rapid progress of mobile information technologies such as wearable sensors, wireless communication, and world-wide use of smartphone cause digital health innovations. In the field of hypertension, wearable blood pressure (BP) monitoring and its wireless transfer to anywhere through smartphone, mobile smartphone apps, and cuffless blood pressure monitoring system are expected to change the way of diagnosis and management of hypertension. Home BP monitoring would be easier and wireless data transfer to health care providers would be common...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kelly R Ylitalo, M Renée Umstattd Meyer, Kahler Stone, Eva I Doyle, Ramona Curtis
Insufficient physical activity and unhealthy eating behaviors are major contributors to the obesity epidemic in the United States. Identifying health behaviors and disparities in underserved communities is needed to guide the development of targeted interventions. The Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) is a set of tools designed for public health emergencies, but the utility of CASPER in non-emergency settings has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use CASPER to obtain information on household-based behaviors of and barriers to fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity, and explore the utility of these methods for future health assessments...
December 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Francisca F Gouveia, Jesper P Rahbek, Asmus R Mortensen, Mette T Pedersen, Pedro M Felizardo, Rasmus Bro, Michael J Mealy
Significant improvements can be realized by converting conventional batch processes into continuous ones. The main drivers include reduction of cost and waste, increased safety, and simpler scale-up and tech transfer activities. Re-designing the process layout offers the opportunity to incorporate a set of process analytical technologies (PAT) embraced in the Quality-by-Design (QbD) framework. These tools are used for process state estimation, providing enhanced understanding of the underlying variability in the process impacting quality and yield...
August 11, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Pascal Demoly, Giovanni Passalacqua, Oliver Pfaar, Joaquin Sastre, Ulrich Wahn
Allergy immunotherapy (AIT) is acknowledged to produce beneficial mid- and long-term clinical and immunologic effects and increased quality of life in patients with allergic respiratory diseases (such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma). However, poor adherence to AIT (due to intentional and/or non-intentional factors) is still a barrier to achieving these benefits. There is an urgent need for patient support programs (PSPs) that encompass communication, educational and motivational components...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Ferhat D Zengul, Robert Weech-Maldonado, Bunyamin Ozaydin, Patricia A Patrician, Stephen J OʼConnor
BACKGROUND: U.S. hospitals have been investing in high-technology medical services as a strategy to improve financial performance. Despite the interest in high-tech medical services, there is not much information available about the impact of high-tech services on financial performance. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of high-tech medical services on financial performance of U.S. hospitals by using the resource-based view of the firm as a conceptual framework...
July 27, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Lawrence Sirovich
This paper reports on an investigation of disease discovery from genomic data, by methods which depart substantially from customary practices found in the investigation of genome-wide association studies. Such data in general are composed of the genomic content from two contrasting phenotypes, e.g., disease versus control populations, and the analysis proceeds under the hypothesis that populational dissimilarities might reveal disease risk alleles. The proposed suite of new methods is in part based on information theory (Shannon in Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423, 1948a; Bell Syst Tech J 27:623-656, 1948b; Jaynes in Phys Rev 106:620-630, 1957), and strong evidence will be given of the effectiveness of this new approach...
July 21, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Tshifhiwa V Ndou, Sonto M Maputle, Patrone R Risenga
BACKGROUND: Patients' experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) sites. AIM AND SETTING: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Jin Hwi Kim, Dong Hoon Lee, Yongsung Joo, Kyung Duk Zoh, Gwangpyo Ko, Joo-Hyon Kang
Although norovirus outbreaks are well-recognized to have strong winter seasonality relevant to low temperature and humidity, the role of artificial human-made features within geographical areas in norovirus outbreaks has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to assess the natural and human-made environmental factors favoring the occurrence of norovirus outbreaks using nationwide surveillance data. We used a geographic information system and binary response models to examine whether the norovirus outbreaks are spatially patterned and whether these patterns are associated with specific environmental variables including service levels of water supply and sanitation systems and land-use types...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Tatiana Tatusova, Michael DiCuccio, Azat Badretdin, Vyacheslav Chetvernin, Eric P Nawrocki, Leonid Zaslavsky, Alexandre Lomsadze, Kim D Pruitt, Mark Borodovsky, James Ostell
Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence...
August 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Katharine R Minker, Meredith L Biedrzycki, Abhishek Kolagunda, Stephen Rhein, Fabiano J Perina, Samuel S Jacobs, Michael Moore, Tiffany M Jamann, Qin Yang, Rebecca Nelson, Peter Balint-Kurti, Chandra Kambhamettu, Randall J Wisser, Jeffrey L Caplan
The study of phenotypic variation in plant pathogenesis provides fundamental information about the nature of disease resistance. Cellular mechanisms that alter pathogenesis can be elucidated with confocal microscopy; however, systematic phenotyping platforms-from sample processing to image analysis-to investigate this do not exist. We have developed a platform for 3D phenotyping of cellular features underlying variation in disease development by fluorescence-specific resolution of host and pathogen interactions across time (4D)...
June 25, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Wenhao Yin, Rong Huang, Ruijuan Qi, Chungang Duan
With the development of spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high angle annular dark filed (HAADF) imaging technique has been widely applied in the microstructure characterization of various advanced materials with atomic resolution. However, current qualitative interpretation of the HAADF image is not enough to extract all the useful information. Here a modified peaks finding method was proposed to quantify the HAADF-STEM image to extract structural and chemical information...
September 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Sigal Tepper, Yael Dabush, Danit R Shahar, Ronit Endevelt, Diklah Geva, Sofia Ish-Shalom
While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL) and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25-65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4)...
2016: Nutrients
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